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THE SOUND OF ONE HAND CLAPPING: THE POLITICS OF SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION CHANGE COLIN STEELE

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Title: THE SOUND OF ONE HAND CLAPPING: THE POLITICS OF SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION CHANGE COLIN STEELE


1
  • THE SOUND OF ONE HAND CLAPPING THE POLITICS OF
    SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION CHANGECOLIN STEELE

2
Welcome to the Caves of Steele
3
Swedish Background
  • Grateful for the invitation my first visit to
    Sweden but feel that I can empathise through
    Henning Mankells novels.
  • His titles in English perhaps resonate in the
    Scholarly Communication(SC) environment?
  • Who are the SC Faceless Killers?
  • Are Librarians continually Sidetracked, always
    One Step Behind the multinational publishers
    whose tollgates are a Firewall?

4
Nordic Timeframes
  • What has changed since the First Nordic
    Conference?
  • Open access policy statements and Institutional
    Repositories developments ( Lund and Nordic
    initiatives much appreciated)
  • The US dollar decline - the equivalent of a
    Scholarly Communication Pearl Harbour?
  • The US entered the periodical war late but we
    cant win without them?. 65of STM market in
    North America

5
The Serials Pricing Debate?
6
Policy Initiatives
  • Increased Governmental / Societal Attention
  • Berlin October 2003 Declaration
  • Mexico December 2003 Academies of Science
  • World Summit on Information Society December 2003
  • OECD Declaration January 2004
  • U.K. Science Technology Committee Enquiry into
    Scientific Publications 2004

7
Scholarly Knowledge Black Holes
  • Need to step back to remember the issue is the
    creation, distribution and access to scholarly
    knowledge in all forms
  • Not an insignificant issue here for
    universities and research institutions !
  • But big picture issues often neglected by Vice
    Chancellors/Provosts/Presidents
  • What are the required political steps to
    facilitate SC change?

8
Have We Seen a Flight Of Political Acumen?
9
Also Need to Expect the Unexpected
  • New information technologies emerge that are
    rarely forecast or assume unexpected dimensions
  • Worldchanging marvels to us, are only wallpaper
    to our children( Bruce Sterling)
  • Computers are the oxygen of the
    future-Cambridge-MIT Pervasive Computing
    Initiative
  • What will be the intended and unintended
    consequences of the Google Age?-

10
Berkley Data Analysis
  • UC Berkeley School of Information Management
    Systems.
  • New Stored Information Grew 30/Year Between 1999
    and 2002.
  • 92 Of New Information Is Stored On Magnetic
    Media
  • Hotmail Generates 400 Petabytes (1015) Of New
    Information Each Year
  • Lyman Librarians lost and Google won

11
Google / OCLC
NASA Quest Pregunte a un expero Schools Online
Project ScienceLine Scientific-American Ask the
Expert Ammdoc.com Buscamed Eclevelandclinic.com Ec
onsults.partners.org Enviar pregunta Expertdoc.net
Findcancerexperts.com Go Ask Alice Mdexpert.com P
hysician referral center Poser une
question Pregunte a RxExpress Ask Joan of
Art National Museum of Art Reference Desk Ask
Made iVillage AskLISA Laboratorio de estudos
urbanos
Abuzz Advice Trader Answers.com Ask An Expert
Sources.com AskERIC AskJeevesAskVRD.org Ask the
Old Buzzard CNNs Ask an Expert Page Consejos
practicos Google Answers Internet Public Library
Ask A Question Keen.com Pregunta a los
expertos Taxcafe Wondir Ask Auntie
Nolo AskBAR Experts.com Poser un
question Ask-A-Geologist As Ask Volcanologist Ask
Dr. Math Ask Dr. Universe Ask Shamu How Things
Work MAD Scientist Network
Social landscape
OCLC compiled from various sources (August 2003)
12
Impacts of the Mobile Phone Generation / OCLC
13
OCLC Top Ten
OCLC compiled from various sources (August
2003) http//search.yahoo.com/top2003
14
OCLC The High School Student
The technology I want most is a PDA device
that contains all the information I need to do my
work. High School Student
15
The SC Next Generation
  • Todays rules are often the answer to yesterdays
    problems- scholarly ossification in publishing?
  • Is the process of knowledge/information access
    going to be transformed and new paradigms imposed
    de facto?
  • Eg impact of continuous high speed access,
    electronic social networks, blogs, etc on
    scholarly communication patterns unwashed OA
    emerges?

16
NSF Knowledge Ladder/ Bordogna
17
NSF Report June 2003
  • NSF Report Knowledge Lost In Information (only
    issued February 2004)
  • Ubiquitous Knowledge Environment or the
    Information Ether
  • First decade of digital library research proves
    humanitys ability to generate and collect data
    exceeds our ability to organise, manage, and
    effectively use it

18
NSF 2
  • Broader access to information resources,
    particularly in e-Science and e-Learning will be
    a significant accelerator for developing nations
    moving into the digital age
  • Disciplines that currently have little knowledge
    of or interest in grid computing, cyber
    infrastructure or digital libraries will discover
    unforeseen opportunities

19
eResearch Infrastructure
20
Data Curation
  • Most scientific data never published and if
    publicly available relatively little
    interoperability
  • Mapping knowledge domains NAS April 2004-
    charting, mining, sorting, enabling, navigating
    and displaying information
  • How does E-Research, grid computing and data
    intensive science interact with traditional
    library communities? (Professor Tony Hey. Head UK
    E Science)

21
Kellers Cerebral Library 1931
22
Keller 1931 and Beyond
  • Readers assembled to read a book a day
  • After five years readers brains stored to provide
    instant access to accumulated knowledge!
  • Arthur C Clarkes neural chips not too far away
    nor current semantic web visions
  • Alan Turing / Bletchley. Not lose trackneed
    efficient librarian types to keep us in order

23
Is the Whole SC Order Distorted by Science?
  • Are we coming at all of this from the wrong end
    discipline wise? Avoid sciencefriction!
  • Two things often get confused / linked the
    science periodical pricing crisis and the
    institutional repository/open access movements
  • More pragmatic to tackle the non-science
    disciplines first ?

24
Keller Fiesole 2004 Casting Forward
  • It has become more obvious to me that
    preoccupation with the journal literature of STM,
    90 of which has a half-life of under 12 months,
    distracts us
  • We should turn to an article economy and
    just-in-time mentality rather than Big Deals
  • Anarchy of the information superhighway

25
Historical SC Settings
  • Guedon and Mabe -differing views of the history
    of scholarly communication
  • Public or commercial perspectives of history
  • Undoubted potential for change in the
    twenty-first century through Internet
    distribution but will authors change their
    historical rewards mould?
  • The definition of insanity is doing the same
    thing and expecting a different result Dilbert

26
Will it Be The Death of a Library or Publisher
Salesman? ( Arthur Miller)
27
Nature Debate, March 2004
  • Declan Butler, Nature Debate began 19 March
  • Submissions by various players including
    Elsevier, and Public Library of Science
  • Wrong to consider journals as a single
    homogenous entity, to which one universal
    publishing model can be applied.
  • Diversity is everywhere I would add books to
    the debate in terms of future formats/debates

28
The Sound of One Hand Clapping A Major Problem?
  • Open Access zealots talk to Open Access zealots?-
    eg CERN Feb ? LIBER June 2004
  • Multinational publishers only talk to their
    authors and report to their shareholders?
  • Academics rarely talk to anyone outside their
    discipline?!
  • Lack of engagement from the SC silos?- the Sound
    of One Hand Clapping?

29
Zen There Was You
  • What is the sound of one hand clapping? No
    contact, no sound, no reaction
  • Meditation through Zen Buddhism is apparently
    for one to face the questioner
  • Multinational publisher v open access enthusiast?
  • We then assume appropriate Buddhist posture and
    thrust one hand forward !

30
Zen There Was You 2
  • This process apparently opens the minds from the
    strictures of linear thinking and opens up new
    possibilities !
  • (The sound of one hand 281 zen koans. By Hau
    Hoo)
  • But how do we leave the caves of ignorance and
    attain to the SC peace in which the (OA) phoenix
    has left the golden net

31
Not Enough SC Research
  • Large amounts of money spent on purchasing
    material but very little on research analysis of
    the SC process
  • Eg, real costs of publication see debates on
    Lib License and American Scientist email lists
  • Reality checks of peer review/citation analysis
  • Costs if Library fiscal aggregator in OA

32
Insecure Foundations of Debate Sandcastles of
Dreams/biases?
33
Australian Research Study International
Comparators
  • Australian DEST Digital Research Practices Study
    October 2003
  • http//www.cfses.com/documents/Changing_Research_P
    ractices.pdf
  • Collaboration extensive in research process
  • Major gap between authorial process of creation
    and reader consumption of scholarly research
    material

34
DEST 2
  • Researchers moving into mode 2 disciplinary and
    collaborative activity BUT
  • Remain in conservative mode 1 frameworks in
    relation to scholarly communication
  • Who questions the underpinnings of the scholarly
    process in digital environment?
  • NSCF Conference Canberra June 1 2004. Sir Gareth
    Roberts keynote speaker RAEs essential to
    process of change

35
Research Assessment Issues
  • Use of publications in bibliometric analyses of
    individuals,departments universities
  • Dominance by ISI impact of Elsevier Scopus?
  • ISI citation awards impact SC publishing
    patterns
  • New metrics to provide alternative or
    supplementary models? Eg user recommendations,
    semantic proximity, user behaviour patterns, IR
    downloads etc

36
Thanks to Jan Velterop
37
JISC OAI Survey
  • Almost 2/3rds of respondents aware of OAI concept
    but only 25 aware of OAI by their institutions
  • Primary reason for choosing OA outlet was belief
    in principle of free access to research
    information
  • Publication fees to come from research grants and
    then institution or library
  • Much ignorance of eprint archives but
  • If publishing work in OA was condition of grant
    most would comply change the incentives!

38
Intellectual Commons Through Open Access
  • Zwolle Principles clearly need in SC reforms
    clearer allocation of rights that balance the
    interests of all stake holders-unbalanced now?
  • Authorial ignorance or intransigence
  • Work of Lessig and Creative Commons. Move to
    Science Commons to include legal areas (patents,
    data) and subject matter (biomedicine)

39
Lawrence Lessig Science Commons
40
Michael Mabe Fiesole 2003
  • Elsevier 2003 Survey What Do Authors Care About
    70 from university sector and 14 from research
    institutions
  • List of preferences in following order
    Reputation, refereeing and quality, refereeing
    speed, impact factor, production speed, role of
    editor editorial board, physical quality
    publishing services

41
Academic Author / Reader Dysfunctionality
  • Authors seek out top journals ie. importance of
    brand name but often dont know the name of
    publisher
  • Authors as readers rarely want the journal in
    its totality but rather the article and free
  • But none of this really matters to the financial
    bottom line of publishers as third party pays
  • Crucial issue to engage the author

42
Sally Morris / John Cox
  • But in the end the only thing that will drive
    change is author behaviour, Sally Morris, ALPSP,
    email to LibLicense 5 March 2004
  • Not quite but a very very important point
  • Link to incentives change necessary
  • The market is dysfunctional as price signals do
    not reach the real customer(John Cox)

43
Who Cuts Through the Tentacles of
Dysfunctionality?
44
Raym Crow Geneva
45
Raym Crow 2
46
A Road Map The Budapest Open Access Initiative
  • Self-Archiving Scholars should be able to
    deposit their refereed journal articles in open
    electronic archives which conform to OAI
    standards
  • Open-Access Journals Journals will not charge
    subscriptions or fees for online access - seek
    other sources to fund peer-review and publication

47
Open Access. A Bit Skeletal However in Contrast to
48
Publishing Science Financial Oysters
49
Open Access Issues
  • Is OA a scholarly mass movement or a sectarian
    enthusiasm by a small but vigorous theological
    interest Worlock (Fiesole 2004 )
  • Debate on funding OA models in universities.
    Difficult to move from library purchasing to
    author/library funding
  • Issues re library as fiscal aggregator costs
    debate eg Duke, UK Watkinson figures,etc
  • King at Southampton.OA cost 0.5 of US science
    budget

50
Friend, Southampton/Steele
  • Establish repositories in every university
  • Create structures to validate repositories, link
    them and harvest their content
  • Establish expectation or requirement that reports
    resulting from all publicly-funded research will
    be available on open access
  • Steele public funding, public knowledge, public
    access
  • Steele Major IR issues now cultural and
    political not technical

51
ANU E-Prints 2003
  • 2000 documents lodged without sustained campaign
    of advocacy-grey/guild literature
  • 219,306 pdf downloads but need to halve re
    spiders
  • Top countries without spiders Oz/USA 62. Top
    countries with spiders 80 USA/Oz
  • Asian studies,Social Science and Law
    predominate. Top article science - 1765
    downloads
  • Need for individual scholar advocacy in certain
    science disciplines

52
DSpace ANU
53
QUT E-Prints
54
QUT E-Print Repository Policy
  • Material which represents the total publicly
    available research and scholarly output of the
    university to be located in the E-Print
    repository-Academic Board policy
  • Common Australian theme- Collect and promote
    composite university output
  • Also contributes to the growing international
    corpus of OA material- federated searching
    mechanisms

55
Scholarly Communication Frameworks USA
  • Important that US universities keep up the SC
    momentum and the US dollar does not rise? Cf
    Australian experiences 1986 -2004
  • California, Cornell, Harvard, Research Triangle
    statements etc- Suber listing of initiatives
  • Proof of the pudding however will be in academic
    user reaction?
  • SPARC 2004 SC Priorities useful model

56
CIC Report
  • CIC summit on scholarly communication in the
    humanities and social sciences, Dec 2003
    www.cic.uiuc.edu
  • Each university should examine where its press
    stands in institutional structures (Stanley Fish)
  • While the group agreed the book retains its
    importance, relevant players may not be taking
    full advantage of new SC systems

57
Virtual Vaudeville NSF
58
3D Virtual Theatre Performance
59
New Monograph Trends
  • Books will be deconstructed in the digital age?
  • Books and chapters indexed and abstracted and
    full text searchable/linked etc
  • Aggregated monograph subscription packages
  • Impact re independent scholars and electronic
    ghettoes?
  • Debate re humanities assessments/Unsworth
  • Mickey Mouse and Milton- Blaise Cronin and
    Kathryn La Barre. Learned Publishing April 2004

60
Roy Tennant Publishing Model
61
California eScholarship
62
eScholarship Issues
  • Think wider than the epress to escholarship
    repositories. UCSD Center for US/Mexicam studies
    had 13,889 downloads by Feb 2004
  • 1000 increase in short period- impact on Guild
    literature
  • Libraries play important role - links ARL, AAUP
  • Free books on the net usually sell more hard
    copies! Lawrence Lessig Penguin book 2004

63
ANU E Press
64
ANU E Press 2
  • Funded by Vice Chancellor over three year period
    with primary aim to distribute research output in
    social sciences and humanities especially
    monographs
  • Return to original ? concept of University Press
    promoting only output of ANU (younger)
    researchers
  • Library inputs research material to the
    university for institutional public good
  • Press / IRs output research material for the
    university in similar pattern and have Library
    business model.

65
Cornell Internet-First University Press
66
Think Outside the Box?
  • Universities may find that a more honest way to
    track the cost of publications would be to fund
    them up front, publish them electronically and
    publish them free, W G Regier, Director
    University of Illinois Press, 10 September 2002
  • Library becomes the public scholarly commons
    for input and output?

67
The Way Forward?
  • Need to make researchers, administrators and
    policy makers aware of the SC issues and of
    potential alternate/supplementary models (Swedish
    Research Centre for Scientific Communication,
    Helsinki January 2004)
  • Need more holistic research analysis so we have
    better data for debates more international
    collaborative initiatives?
  • Probably end up in the short term with hybrid
    situation SC evolution not revolution!

68
Leadership Strategies
  • Need to stimulate institutional and
    Governmental policy makers
  • Introduce structured advocacy programs by
    discipline and by topic
  • Populate institutional repositories from the top
    eg link research output / offices to IR
    operations
  • Encourage recognition within reward systems of
    open access initiatives

69
Lets Get Political
  • LETS GET POLITICAL (sung to the tune of Olivia
    Newton Johns Physical !)
  • Im saying all the things that I know youll
    likeMaking good publicationI gotta handle you
    just rightI took you to an intimate
    repositoryThen to a suggestive archiveTheres
    nothing left to talk aboutUnless its
    horizontally

70
Lets Get Political 2
  • Lets get political, politicalI wanna get
    political, lets get into politicalLet me hear
    your publications talkYour publications talk,
    let me hear your publications talk.
  • and lets move the focus of debate and action
    forward
  • Pictorial futures follow ?

71
Cuddling up to Publishers
72
Nord by Nord West who flies the scholarly
communication plane?
73
Multinational Publisher Borg Futures
74
Male Librarians must Hold on to their
75
Lets Take the Long View. Crow
OAI
Herbert Von de Sompel Carl Lagoze
76
To Brighter SC Futures !
Thank you
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