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A DICTIONARY. Prescriptive vs. Descriptive ... The thir

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A DICTIONARY. Prescriptive vs. Descriptive ... The third edition of Webster's New International Dictionary (1961) caused a lot ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A DICTIONARY. Prescriptive vs. Descriptive ... The thir


1
Kinds of Dictionaries
  • Deny A. Kwary
  • www.kwary.net

2
A Dictionary is
  • a systematically arranged list of socialised
    linguistic forms compiled from the speech-habits
    of a given speech community and commented on by
    the author in such a way that qualified reader
    understands the meaning
  • (Zgusta 197117)

3
Typology of Dictionaries
  • (1) scholarly dictionaries of record
  • (2) practical dictionaries for everyday use
  • (3) pedagogical dictionaries
  • (4) dictionaries of linguistic phenomena
  • (5) special-subject dictionaries
  • (6) bilingual dictionaries
  • (7) onomasiological dictionaries.

4
(1) scholarly dictionaries of record
  • The 19th and 20th centuries saw an explosion of
    scholarly lexicographical activity.
  • Every language in the world that has an
    established literary tradition now has (or will
    soon have) a major dictionary.
  • Classic examples of great historical dictionaries
    are the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the
    Trésor de la langue française, and the Deutsches
    Wörterbuch.

5
(2) practical dictionaries for everyday use
  • The emphasis in practical dictionaries nowadays
    is often on presenting a wealth of complex facts
    about words in a way that is as accessible as
    possible for users.
  • Concise Oxford dictionary (1911) seems very dense
    and hard to use when compared with the 10th
    edition (1999), where a great deal of careful
    planning went into the page design and layout, as
    well as the selection of information.

6
(3) pedagogical dictionaries
  • the emphasis is either on helping the user to
    encode or decode the language.
  • A dictionary designed for encoding use typically
    has a smaller word list and many more examples of
    usage than one for decoding use.
  • Examples of pedagogical dictionaries
  • Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary
  • Collins Cobuild English Dictionary for Advanced
    Learners
  • Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
  • Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners

7
  • Some of the innovative design features of
    pedagogical dictionaries
  • The use of controlled/limited defining vocabulary
    in definitions
  • The use of corpus-driven contextual paraphrase as
    a defining technique
  • The extended use of authentic example sentences
  • The use of extensive (nonverbal) illustrations to
    support definitions

8
(4) dictionaries of linguistic phenomena
  • Typical examples of dictionaries of linguistic
    phenomena are Slang dictionaries.
  • English slang lexicography falls into three
    periods
  • The canting or criminal slang dictionaries of
    the 16th to the 18th centuries
  • The vulgar tongue works of the late 18th to the
    mid-19th centuries, and
  • The modern productions in the 20th and the 21st
    centuries.

9
  • 1. The canting or criminal slang dictionaries
    of the 16th to the 18th centuries
  • The hye way to the Spytell House, by Robert
    Copland (c. 1535). It describes the various
    categories of beggars and thieves, as well as
    their tricks and frauds.
  • A new dictionary of the terms ancient and modern
    of the canting crew, by the anonymous B.E.,
    Gent.leman (c. 1698),

10
  • 2. The vulgar tongue works of the late 18th to
    the mid-19th centuries
  • A classical dictionary of the vulgar tongue, by
    the antiquary and former militia officer Captain
    Francis Grose (1785).
  • Modern slang, cant and vulgar words, latterly The
    slang dictionary, by Camden Hotten who was a
    bookseller/publisher and a cultivator of the
    flower garden, books of flagellant pornography.

11
  • 3. In the modern productions in the 20th and
    the 21st centuries, American slang has taken over
    along with an explosion of US lexica. Examples
  • Vocabulary of criminal slang, by Jackson and
    Hellyer (1914).
  • American tramp and underworld slang, by Godfrey
    Irwin (1931).
  • Campus slang, by Connie Eble (1972).
  • The slang and jargon of drugs and drink, by
    Richard A. Spears (1986).

12
(5) special-subject dictionaries
  • Ranging from huge dictionaries of medicine and
    law to quite small dictionaries of particular
    sports or games.
  • Covering multifarious topics. Examples
  • A Dictionary of Color, by Ian Paterson London
    Thorogood Publishing, 2004 528 pages.
  • Dictionary of Militery Terms, by Richard Bowyer
    London AC Black, 2007 289 pages.
  • To be discussed further in Week 14.

13
(6) bilingual dictionaries
  • Bilingual dictionaries are typically practical
    tools for interlingual communication and
    learning, rather than scholarly studies.
  • Examples
  • Kamus Indonesia-Inggris, by John M. Echols and
    Hassan Shadily, 3rd Edition, 1992.
  • Kamus Lengkap Indonesia-Inggris, by Alan M.
    Stevens and A.Ed. Schmidgall-Tellings, 2nd
    Edition, 2008.
  • To be discussed further in Week 13.

14
(7) onomasiological dictionaries
  • an onomasiological dictionary is to help the user
    to find the appropriate word for a particular
    meaning or concept.
  • For example Rogets Thesaurus, in which words
    are arranged in hierarchies under more general
    terms.

15
Types of Dictionarys based on the Language(s)
used
  • Monolingual dictionaries For example, the entry
    words are in English and the definitions are also
    in English.
  • Bilingual dictionaries For example, the entry
    words are in English and the definitions (or
    equivalents) are in Indonesian.
  • Semibilingual (or bilingualized) dictionaries
    For example, the entry words are in English and
    they are provided with the definitions in English
    and the equivalents in Indonesian.
  • Multilingual (or pluralingual) dictionaries
    Containing more than two languages.

16
Thats All for Today Thank You
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