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Water Quality Management in India

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Title: Water Quality Management in India


1
Water Quality Management in India R.M.Bhard
waj Central Pollution Control Board(Ministry of
Environment Forests)Parivesh Bhawan', East
Arjun NagarDelhi 110 032 E-mail
scrmb.cpcb_at_nic.in, rmbdelhi_at_yahoo.co.in
2
India at a Glance Area 3.28 million sq km
(2 of worlds total ) Population(2001) 1020
million(16 of worlds total)
(2005) 1060 million Coordinates 80 4 and 3706
North latitudes 6807 and 97025 East
longitudes Climate Tropical (Tropic of cancer
divides India two halves) Land
Frontier 15,200 km Coastline 7,500 km No.of
States/UTs 28 States and 7 Union territories
including the National Capital Region
of Delhi.
3
Water is Precious and scarce Resource
  • India is one of the wettest country in the world,
    but rainfall is highly uneven with time and space
    (with extremely low in Rajasthan and high in
    North-East)
  • On an average there are only 40 rainy days (100
    hours)
  • Out of 4000 BCM rainfall received, about 600 BCM
    is put to use so far.
  • Water resources are over-exploited resulting in
    major WQ problems

4
Water use in India (Year 2000)
Sector Water use in BCM percent
Irrigation 541 85.33
Domestic 42 6.62
Industry 8 1.26
Energy 2 0.32
Other 41 6.47
Total 634 100.00
5
  • NATIONAL WATER QUALITY MONITORING PROGRAMME
  • Water quality monitoring in India started in 1978
    under GEMS Programme.
  • National programme of Monitoring of Indian
    National Aquatic Resources started in 1984 with a
    total of 120 stations in 10 River Basins.
  • Present network comprising of 870 stations
    extended to 26 states 5 Union Territories.
  • Monitoring done or Quarterly/Monthly/Half Yearly
    basis.
  • Monitoring network covers 189 Rivers, 53 Lakes, 4
    Tanks, 2 Ponds, 3 Creeks, 3 Canals, 9 Drains and
    218 wells.
  • Water samples are analysed for 9 Core Parameters
    (pH, Temperature, Conductivity, DO, BOD, Nitrite,
    Nitrate, Total Coliform and Faecal Coliform) for
    all monitoring. 19 General Parameters, 9 Toxic
    Metals and 15 Pesticides are also analysed once
    in a year.
  • Frequency of analysis for General Parameters
    reduced to once in a year in view of resources
    and to add more stations in non-represented
    water-bodies. Frequency and Parameters does not
    match the guidelines of GEMS. Base-line, Trend
    and Impact stations are maintained as per the
    guidelines of GEMS.

6
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7
Parameters for National Water Quality Monitoring
Core Parameters (9)
Field Observations (7)
Bio-Monitoring Parameters (3)
General Parameters (19)
Trace Metals (9)
Pesticide (7)
8
For rational planning of pollution control
strategies and their prioritisationTo assess
nature and extent of pollution control needed in
different water bodies or their partTo
evaluate effectiveness of pollution control
measures already in existence To evaluate
water quality trend over a period of timeTo
assess assimilative capacity of a water body
thereby reducing cost on pollution controlTo
understand the environmental fate of different
pollutants. To assess the fitness of water for
different uses.
Objective of Water Quality Monitoring
9
  • CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF MONITORING STATIONS
  • River/Stream
  • Water intake point - community water supply.
  • Large/medium polluting industries or cluster of
    SSI.
  • Religious bathing.
  • Source of river pristine quality.
  • Filling up long distance between existing
    stations.
  • D/S of large irrigated areas.
  • Low flow stretches.
  • D/S of big cities.
  • U/S and D/S of confluence of rivers.
  • Inter-state boundaries.
  • Lake/Reservior/Pond/Tank
  • Water abstraction point.
  • Organised bathing.
  • Vicinity of significant outfall.
  • Recreational purpose.
  • Canal
  • Irrigation offtake.
  • D/S of wastewater outfall.
  • Intake point drinking water.
  • Groundwater
  • Drinking water source located in insanitary
    condition sewage cesspool, septic tank, garbage
    dump, shallow aquifer.
  • Tube-wells, hand-pumps or dugwells in industrial
    area.

10
Water Quality Criteria
Designated best use Class Criteria
Drinking water source without conventional treatment but after disinfections A Total coliform organisms MPN/100ml shall be 50 or less.
Drinking water source without conventional treatment but after disinfections A pH between 6.5 and 8.5
Drinking water source without conventional treatment but after disinfections A Dissolved oxygen 6 mg/l or more
Drinking water source without conventional treatment but after disinfections A Biochemical oxygen demand 2 mg/l or Less
Outdoor bathing (organised) B Total coliform organisms MPN/100ml shall be 500 or less
Outdoor bathing (organised) B pH between 6.5 and 8.5
Outdoor bathing (organised) B Dissolved oxygen 5 mg/l or more
Outdoor bathing (organised) B Biochemical oxygen demand 3 mg/l or Less
Drinking water source with conventional treatment followed by disinfection C Total coliform organisms MPN/ 100ml shall be 5000 or less
Drinking water source with conventional treatment followed by disinfection C pH between 6 and 9
Drinking water source with conventional treatment followed by disinfection C Dissolved oxygen 4 mg/l or more
Drinking water source with conventional treatment followed by disinfection C Biochemical oxygen demand 3 mg/l or less
Propagation of wild life, fisheries D pH between 6.5 and 8.5
Propagation of wild life, fisheries D Dissolved oxygen 4 mg/l or more
Propagation of wild life, fisheries D Free ammonia (as N) 1.2 mg/l or less
Irrigation, industrial cooling, controlled waste disposal E pH between 6.0 and 8.5
Irrigation, industrial cooling, controlled waste disposal E Electrical conductivity less than 2250 micro mhos/cm
Irrigation, industrial cooling, controlled waste disposal E Sodium absorption ratio less than 26
Irrigation, industrial cooling, controlled waste disposal E Boron less than 2mg/l
11
Outcome of National Monitoring Programme
  • Every year a compendium of water quality
    statistics is published and circulated to various
    scientific institutes and processed data is put
    on the web site for easy access.
  • Basin sub basin Inventory of water pollution is
    prepared and published for all the major river
    basins in the country.
  • Water quality atlas is prepared to assess the
    fitness of river water for desired uses in the
    country.
  • Water quality data is used for Identification of
    Polluted Water Bodies based on violation of
    desired water quality criteria for designated
    uses.
  • Water quality data formed the basis for
    Formulation of River Action Plan and
    Identification of Pollution Sources in 157 cities
    for interception and diversion of municipal
    wastewater and stricter surveillance of
    industrial sources.
  • Water quality data is used for Query Response
    i.e. to reply Parliament Questions, VIP
    reference, Public Queries, Public Interest
    Litigation filed in Supreme Court and Various
    High Courts and to fulfill the requirement of Non
    Governmental Organisation, Students, and
    Researchers.
  • Providing data to GEMS Programme on Water on
    annual basis for 72 stations for global data base.

12
Constraints in Maintaining the Network
  • Sustainability of infrastructure and maintenance
    of instruments and equipments.
  • Financial as well as Manpower resources are
    inadequate and reducing due to policy shift.
  • Travel to long distances for monitoring and
    preservation of samples in warm weather
    conditions adversely affect the results.
  • Analysis results needs in-depth validation and
    repeated interaction with laboratories.
  • Improper reporting of units, variation in
    analysis methods and quality control of chemicals
    are cause of concern.
  • Lack of training for laboratory and field staff.
  • Lack of software to analyse the data for trend
    analyses and data validation.

13
Limitations of Monitoring Programme
  • Problems in data validation due to fluctuation in
    water quality.
  • Flow in many rivers dwindles due to short period
    of monsoon.
  • Environmental flows are not maintained, hence
    only urban wastewater flows in the rivers after
    major abstraction points.
  • Removal of outliers during validation of data may
    devoid valuable information related to flushing
    of Industrial effluents responsible for episodal
    pollution and fish kill.
  • Need of software for processing, validation/trend
    analyses and format data storage.
  • Priorities for water quality management varies
    widely from developed countries to developing
    countries.

14
Water body-wise Frequency-wise Distribution of
Water Quality Monitoring Stations
15
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16
RIVER BASIN WISE DISTRIBUTION OF WATER QUALITY
MONITORING STATIONS
Contd. On Next Page
17
Contd. From Pre-Page
18
Water Quality in Indian Rivers - 2002
River Name Length (km) No. of Stns. Observed Range of Water Quality Parameters Observed Range of Water Quality Parameters Observed Range of Water Quality Parameters Observed Range of Water Quality Parameters Observed Range of Water Quality Parameters Observed Range of Water Quality Parameters Observed Range of Water Quality Parameters Observed Range of Water Quality Parameters
River Name Length (km) No. of Stns. Temp. 0C pH Conductivity (?mhos/cm) DO (mg/l) BOD (mg/l) COD (mg/l) Total Coliform (MPN/100 ml) Faecal Coliform (MPN/100 ml)
Ganga 2525 34 3-34 6.4-9.0 19-2720 2.7-11.5 0.5 16.8 1-30 300-25x105 20-11x105
Yamuna 1376 23 3-34 6.7-9.8 56-1959 0.1-22.7 1.0 36 1-112 27-26.3x106 11-17.2x105
Sabarmati 371 8 12-32 2.9-8.6 269-13530 0.6-7.9 0.8 475 4-1794 210-28x105 28-28x105
Mahi 583 7 19-34 7.1-9.2 175-5720 0.2-8.5 0.1 3.0 9-163 3-2400 3-75
Tapi 724 10 20-40 7.4-9.0 76-700 4.8-8.8 0.6 10.0 8-40 40-2100 2-210
Narmada 1312 14 6.9-9.3 102-1341 5.8-9.8 0.1 3.8 6-47 9-2400 2-64
Godavari 1465 11 22-35 7.0-9.0 118-1400 3.1-10.9 0.5 78.0 3-96 8-5260 2-3640
Krishna 1401 17 18-33 6.8-9.5 28-11050 2.9-10.9 0.2 10.0 3-88 17-33300 3-10000
Cauvery 800 20 21-37 2.0-9.2 31-53100 0.1-12.6 0.1 26.6 30 39-160000 2-28000
Mahanadi 851 16 18-38 7.3-8.9 114-15940 1.3-10.4 1.0 7.6 7-39 15-30000 50-17000
Brahmani 799 11 20-38 7.0-8.4 81-376 5.2-9.8 1.5 6.0 8-13 80-90000 40-60000
Baitarni 5 24-36 7.3-8.3 54-78400 6.8-9.3 2.0 6.8 7 900-22000 700-11000
Subarnrekha 395 6 18-36 6.5-8.0 113-355 5.2-8.5 0.2 12.0 4-96 150-1800 70-540
Brahmaputra 916 6 15-32 6.5-9.0 104-684 1.1-10.5 0.1 3.9 6-11 360-240000 300-24000
Pennar 597 4 - 7.5-8.7 364-978 6.0-9.3 1.0 2.9 14-16 - -
Satluj 1078 20 9-32 6.8-8.8 131-819 3.8-11.4 0.1 45.0 1-80 8-35000 2-3500
Beas 460 19 3-32 7.1-8.7 53-517 5.2-11.5 0.3 5.0 1-13 2-2400 2-1600
19
WATER QUALTIY STATUS TREND FROM 1994 TO 2004
20
WATER QUALITY STATUS Analysis of 11 years data
with respect to BOD values as indicator of
organic pollution
S.No Level of Pollution Pollution Criteria Riverine length, Km. Riverine length percentage
01. Severely polluted BOD more than 6 mg/l 6086 15
02. Moderately polluted BOD 3-6 mg/l 8691 19
03. Relatively clean BOD less than 3 mg/l 30242 66
21
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22
State-wise Riverine length (in Km) under
different level of pollution
23
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24
River basin-wise Riverine length(in Km.)under
different level of pollution
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27
IDENTIFICATION OF POLLUTED WATER BODIES
  • CPCB identified 10 polluted stretches for
    prioritising pollution control efforts in
    1988-89.
  • The Number of Stretches increased to 37 during
    1992-93.
  • The list is now revised to 86 polluted stretches.
  • The concerned State Pollution Control Boards were
    asked to take adequate measures to restore the
    desired level.

28
RIVER ACTION PLAN
  • CPCB identified polluted water bodies, which
    leads to formulation of action plan for
    restoration of the water body.
  • Based on CPCBs Recommendations, Ganga Action
    Plan was launched in 1986 to restore the WQ of
    the Ganga by interception, diversion and
    treatment of wastewater from 27 cities/towns
    located along the river.
  • Based on the experience gained during
    implementation of the Ganga Action Plan, Govt of
    India extends river cleaning programme to other
    rivers and lakes.

29
NATIONAL RIVER ACTION PLAN
River No. of Towns River No. of Towns
Ganga 74 Brahmini 3
Yamuna 22 Chambal 3
Damodar 12 Gomti 3
Godavari 6 Krishna 2
Cauvery 9 Sabarmati 1
Tungabhadra 4 Khan 1
Satluj 4 Kshipra 1
Subarnrekha 3 Tapi 1
Betwa 3 Narmada 1
Wainganga 3 Mahanadi 1
Grand Total 157 Grand Total 157 Grand Total 157 Grand Total 157
30
T H A N K Y O U
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