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PYRENOMYCETES%20II

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Title: PYRENOMYCETES%20II


1
PYRENOMYCETES II
  • IB 371
  • LECTURE 23
  • November 13, 2003

2
http//botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/xmas.html
3
HYPOCREALES
  • Ascomata perithecial, some cleistothecial
  • Wall soft, fleshy, membranous, white or brightly
    colored.
  • Ostiolar canal periphysate.
  • Asci unitunicate, clavate to cylindrical,
    persistent.

4
HYPOCREALES
  • Apical paraphyses present in early stages of
    ascomatal development.
  • True paraphyses absent.
  • Ascospores diverse in shape color 0, 1, 2, or
    more septate.
  • Stroma, when present, soft to fleshy, bright
    colored.
  • Conidial states are phialidic.

5
HYPOCREALES
  • Hypocreaceae - Hypocrea, Hypomyces
  • Nectriaceae - Gibberella, Nectria
  • Bionectriaceae
  • Niessliaceae

6
HYPOCREACEAE
  • Stromatic or ascomata in a hyphal subiculum.
  • Paraphyses originate in innermost centrum layers
    but grow downwards as apical paraphyses.

7
HYPOCREACEAE
  • Asci cylindric or clavate with an apical
    thickening perforated by a narrow canal.
  • Ascospores one or two celled.
  • Anamorphs are phialidic.

8
HYPOCREA
  • Cushion shaped stromata found on decaying wood,
    bark or leaves.
  • Ascospores are one septate and break into part
    spores.
  • Anamorphs include Trichoderma and Gliocladium.

9
www.hiddenforest.co.nz/fu3FCC1
10
HYPOMYCES
  • Parasitic on mushrooms.
  • Cottony hyphae covers the mushroom.
  • Problem in the mushroom growing industry.

11
HYPOMYCES
12
Hypomyces lactiflorum
From R. Hanlin, 1990
13
NECTRIACEAE
  • Ascomata pale to brightly colored (pink, red,
    blue, dark purple, rarely brown).
  • Stromatic or not stromatic.
  • Peridium of large pseudoparenchymatous cells.
  • Asci cylindrical, oblong or inflated.
  • Asci formed in a basal hymenium.

14
NECTRIACEAE
  • Ascospores hyaline, two celled.
  • Conidial states phialidic, eg., Fusarium,
    Cylindrocarpon.

15
NECTRIACEAE
  • Nectria galligena - apple pear canker
  • Nectria cinnabarina - coral spot
  • Gibberella zea - red ear rotof corn
  • Gibberella fujkuroi - foolish disease of rice (GA)

16
NECTRIA GALLIGENA
  • http//www.forestpests.org/southern/Diseases/nectr
    ia.htm
  • http//www.inra.fr/Internet/Produits/HYP3/pathogen
    e/6necgal.htm

17
NECTRIA CINNABARINA
18
From R. Hanlin, 1990
19
From R. Hanlin, 1990
20
Gibberella zeae
21
Gibberella zeae
22
CLAVACIPITALES
  • One family - Clavacipitaceae.
  • Bright or darkly pigmented stromata.
  • Narrowly cylindrical asci with thickened domelike
    caps perforated by long pores.
  • Paraphyses formed on the lateral walls of
    ascomata.
  • Ascospores are thread-like, long and septate.
  • Anamorphs are phialidic, eg., Hirsutella,
    Acremonium.

23
Claviceps purpurea - Ergot of Rye
24
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25
Ergot Stroma with Perithecia
26
Claviceps purpurea life cycle
  • Sclerotia fall to ground in fall and overwinter.
  • Sclerotia germinate in spring to produce stromata
    with perithecia.
  • Thread-like ascospores are wind-disseminated.
  • Ascospores that land on susceptible flower
    germinate and grow into the ovary.
  • Sphacelia anamorph develops in honey dew formed
    on infected florets.
  • Conidia are dispersed to uninfected flowers by
    rain or insects.

27
Claviceps purpurea
  • Causes ergot of rye and other grasses
  • Sclerotia formed in grass ovary composed of
    pseudoparenchymatous fungal tissue
  • May contain high levels of 3 types of alkaloids
  • Secoergolenes
  • Ergolines
  • Lysergic acid derivatives

28
Ergotism
  • Ergotism is a disease in animals (including
    humans)
  • Vascular constriction that may lead to gangrene
  • Hallucinations
  • Ergotism involved in/responsible for
  • St. Anthonys Fire (Middle Ages)
  • Salem Witch Trials (1692)
  • Modern outbreaks in France, Ethiopia, India

29
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30
Cordyceps
  • Infects insect larvae (e.g., caterpillars) or
    underground fungal fruiting bodies
  • Club-like stromata emerge from host, perithecia
    embedded in apical region
  • Threadlike ascospores break apart while in ascus
  • Cordyceps militaris has medicinal properties and
    has a long history of use in Asia

31
Cordyceps
32
Cordyceps ophioglossoides
33
Cordyceps
34
Cordyceps
35
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36
Commercial Products
37
Cordycepsthe claims
  • Cordyceps is a top quality Chinese energy tonic.
    It increases endurance and prevents allergies,
    depression, and colds and flu by enhancing
    adrenal and lung energy. Cordyceps is recommended
    for people who feel short of breath, achy, or
    depressed from overwork, pollution, and bad
    dietary habits.
  • http//shop.store.yahoo.com/winghopfung/corcap.htm
    l

38
Balansia and Epichloë
  • Grass and sedge endophytes
  • Endophytes are fungi that cause symptomless
    infections in plant hosts
  • Anamorph Neotyphodium grows intercellularly in
    plant host
  • Seed transmitted (vertical transmission) if
    flowers are produced by infected plants
  • Horizontally transmitted in species inhibiting
    flower production
  • Beneficial to plant
  • Secondary metabolites (alkaloids) produced by
    endophyte protects plants from herbivores
    (Ryegrass Staggers)
  • May confer drought resistance to infected plants

39
(No Transcript)
40
OPHIOSTOMATALES
  • Ascomata usually perithecial.
  • Paraphyses and periphyses absent.
  • Globose to ovoid, evanescent asci.
  • Asci formed at base or at base and along sides.
  • Asci released into ascomal cavity.
  • Sporothrix and Leptographium anamorphs.

41
OPHIOSTOMATALES
  • Mostly saprobic wood.
  • Associated with bark beetles.

42
Ophiostoma ulmi
  • O. ulmi - 1920-30.
  • O. novo-ulmi - 1940-present.
  • Dutch elm disease - fungus produces a wilt toxin
    (cerato-ulmin)
  • Introduced pathogen.

43
  • http//www.gov.mb.ca/natres/forestry/dutchelm/docu
    ment.html
  • http//www.sdeda.ca/

44
DIAPORTHALES
  • Perithecial, often with long beaks.
  • Clavate or clylindrical asci with apical
    apparatus and pore.
  • Asci may separate from hymenium and lie free in
    perithecial cavity.
  • Paraphyses periphyses present.
  • Ascospores hyaline to brown, one to several
    septate.
  • Numerous plant pathogenic species.

45
CHESTNUT BLIGHT
  • Cryphonectria parasitica
  • http//botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/may98.html

46
American chestnut trees at Poplar Cove, Joyce
Kilmer Memorial Forest, NC Photo S.V. Streeter
, January 15, 1910
47
American chestnut tree 23 inches dbh, 83 feet
tall Scotland, Connecticut, 1905
48
Chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica Murr.
Barr) on American chestnut tree (Castanea dent
ata Marsh Borkh.)
Fungus probably entered at broken branch stub on
left of trunk orange stromata have broken thr
ough the lenticels to the surface concentric
ridges of callose are tree's defense, which fa
ils.
49
Chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica Murr.
Barr) on American chestnut tree (Castanea den
tata Marsh Borkh.)
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