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Opportunities and Constraints in adopting Technologies for Improving Jute production


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Title: Opportunities and Constraints in adopting Technologies for Improving Jute production

Opportunities and Constraints in adopting
Technologies for Improving Jute production
M.A. SobhanResearch Consultant, UBINIG (Policy
Research for Development Alternative) and
Scientific Officer, Bangladesh Jute Research
1. Introduction
  • Jute constitutes a major world crop. Jute
    encompasses four bast fiber species including
    tossa jute, white jute, kenaf and mesta /
    roselle. These crops are mainly grown in
    Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Nepal and

Corchorus olitorius
Corchorus capsularis
Hibiscus cannabinus
Hibiscus sabdariffa
Jute production Production (thousand tons) of
jute in 2003
1.1 Area coverage in countries
  • Bangladesh 10 white jute, 80 tossa jute and
    10 kenaf and mesta.China 90 kenaf and 10
    white juteIndia 75 jute, 13 H.s. mesta and
    12 H.c. mestaIndonesia 80 kenaf, 15 roselle
    and 5 white juteNepal 63 tossa jute and 37
    white juteThailand 80 roselle/ mesta, 10
    kenaf and 10 tossa jute.

1.2 Origin of jute
  • White jute (Corchorus capsularis) occurs wild in
    South China from where it was introduced into
    Bangladesh and India.
  • Toss jute (C. olitorius) occurs wild in Africa
    from where it migrated via Egypt and Syria into
    India, Bangladesh, China and elsewhere. Kenaf
    (Hibiscus cannabinus) and mesta / roselle
    (H.sabdariffa) have a tropical and sub-tropical
    distribution and Africa appears to be a major
    centre of distribution.

2. Jute in Bangladesh
  • The climate of Bangladesh is favorable for jute
    production. About 80 of land is used for rice
    production. The continuous cultivation of rice
    apparently tends to deplete the soil. Moreover
    continuous cultivation of rice leads to formation
    of a hard pan just below the root zone. Jute
    having tap roots break the pan.

2.1 Seasonal suitability of jute in Bangladesh
  • Jute production nicely matches with ecology.
    There is pre-monsoon shower in March-April.
    Optimum condition prevails for land preparation
    and sowing of seeds. There are moderate and
    intermittent rain and shower in May-June
    providing enough moisture in the soil needed for
    good growth of jute plants. Heavier rains follow
    in July and August. Ditches, ponds and fields are
    filled with water and used for jute retting.

2.2 Synergy of jute and rice in Bangladesh
  • Increasing rice production must take into account
    the equally important need to maintain jute
    production. Jute is directly competitive with aus
    rice and indirectly with boro and amon. At
    present prices, jute production is far from being
    competitive with rice. Yet it is essential to
    maintain jute production because jute provides
    one of the main sources of the countrys export
    earnings. Without these export earnings, the
    country can not pay, for the imported fertilizers
    which the HYV rice needs. HYV rice production
    must harmonize with jute production and export.

2.3 Area, production and yield of jute in
Bangladesh during 1904-2004
2.4 Economy
  • Jute ranks next to rice, pulses, oil seeds and
    wheat in Bangladesh. It occupies 2.86 of
    cultivable area (BBS, 2005). It provides about
    10 of employment and about 25 million people of
    the country are dependent on jute sector. In
    addition to farm to factory, jute products
    enliven transport, service, banks, insurance and
    the agro-industrial sectors.

2.5 Agro-ecology
  • Jute is friendly to environment. The lush green
    canopy of jute spread over the country for half
    of the year is maintaining the ecological
    balance. Crop rotation practice with jute helps
    improving the soil, controls soil borne
    pathogens, insects and weeds.

2.6 Varieties
  • A total of 32 varieties have been released so far
    from the Bangladesh Jute Research Institute. Out
    of these 6 varieties of deshi jute (D-154, CVl-1,
    CVE-3, CC- 45, BJC-7370, BJC 83), four
    varieties of tossa jute (O - 4, O 9897, OM 1,
    O 72), two varieties of kenaf (Hc-2 and Hc
    95) and one variety of mesta (Hs-24) are in
    commercial cultivation. Yield potential of the
    deshi jute varieties range between 4.51 5.46
    mt/ha and those of tossa jute between 4.52 4.82
    mt/ha. On the contrary the national average is
    1.86 mt/ha (BBS. 2006).

CVL - 1
O - 72
OM - 1
2.7 Method of sowing
  • Line sowing takes 30 cm 6-7 cm. Seeding rate
    5.5 7.5 kg/ha for white jute, 3.50 5.00 kg/ha
    of tossa jute. Mesta/kenaf seeding rate
    11-12kg/ha. Line sowing ensures easy
    inter-culture, uniform growth, development and
    yield. But limited for lack of seed drill.

2.8 Fertilizers
  • 5000 kg/ha of cow dung,
  • 27 kg/ha urea before sowing and
  • 83 kg/ha of urea are applied after 45 days of
  • Without cow dung 83kg urea, 25kg TSP, 30 kg MP,
    45 kg gypsum and 11 kg zinc sulphate/ha before
    sowing. A second dose of urea 83 kg/ha applied
    after 45 days of sowing.

2.9 Competition of jute with rice and maize
  • Boro rice cultivation with irrigation has pushed
    out many traditional rabi crops including pulses
    and oil seeds. Consequently cropping patterns
    have been changed. Previously jute would be a
    follow up crop after lentil, grass pea, chickpea,
    mungbean, blackgram, melon, water melon, sweet
    potato, potato, onion, garlic and winter
    vegetables. Most of these crops have been
    replaced with boro rice. The harvest of boro rice
    overlaps the optimum time of sowing jute in March
    April. The meager space still left for sowing
    jute in March-April, is again exposed to
    competition with aus rice and maize.

2.10 Inadequate supply of quality jute seeds
  • In recent years the farmers have become dependent
    on external supply of seeds. There is an annual
    need of about 4000 tons of jute seeds. The
    farmers produce roughly about 1000 tons. BADC
    supplies about 500 tons. The rest of the quantity
    is imported through authorized dealers or
    unauthorized agents from outside the country.

2.11 Poor price support for jute fiber
  • There is no stable price policy for jute.
    Although fiber procurement prices are announced,
    farmers almost never receive these prices. The
    traders and middlemen deceive the farmers. The
    price differential between good quality fiber and
    inferior quality is almost non-existent at the
    local market. So, the recommendations for quality
    improvement do not have much impact.

2.12 Competition of jute with synthetics
  • For about the last four decades synthetics have
    moved into most of the areas hitherto regarded
    exclusive to jute. The global production of
    synthetics is about 300 million tons per annum
    against, about 3 million tons of jute and allied
    fiber. Of which Bangladesh produces only about
    one million tons of raw jute.

2.13 Physical problems
  • There have been some unpredictable problems
    constraining jute production. Global warming due
    to green house affect has further intensified
    these problems including drought, cyclones,
    hailstorms, water logging, and shortage of
    retting water.

2.14 Drought
  • In some jute growing areas prolonged drought
    during March-May hamper crop establishment and
    damage of young plants. Due to delay on set of
    rains, sowing of jute seed is also delayed.
    Consequently the planned cropping patterns are

2.15 Cyclones\hail storms
  • The occurrence of cyclones and hail storms causes
    damage to tender shoots and leaves. Cyclones
    affect the fast growing plant populations by
    lodging and falling on the ground.

2.16 Water logging\flooding
  • Jute crops in many areas are waterlogged due to
    heavy monsoon rain and flooding. In such lowland
    areas crops are partially or totally damaged.
    Even if the crops can withstand the water
    logging, the amount of cutting are increased
    which impairs the fiber quality.

2.17 Shortage of retting water
  • There is a major problem of retting water in many
    jute growing areas. This is particularly a common
    problem in the northern districts.

2.18 Ribbon retting
  • In order to averting retting problem, improved
    methods of retting through ribboning and ribbon
    retting have been evolved. Manual ribboners such
    as BJRI-Bamboo-hook ribboner, IJO-FAO single
    roller ribboner, IJO-FAO double roller ribboners
    have been produced. Ribbon retting requires much
    less water and half the time of whole plant
    retting. The fiber quality is also improved.
  • But due to the reduced economic return for the
    quality jute produced through ribbon retting, it
    has not become popular among the farmers.

2.19 Agricultural Extension
  • In order to attain the goal for effective
    diffusion of production technologies some
    relevant aspects need consideration
  • Farmer associations should be set up for group
    discussion and farmer exchange program will be
    implemented for mutual sharing of experiences on
    a regular program.
  • Video film on jute production technologies will
    be prepared and arranged for demonstration.
  • Production, procurement, processing and
    distribution of certified seed is required to be
  • A special program on strengthening of
    Agricultural Extension for organic manuring
    should be implemented.

2.20 Jute Extension in non-conventional areas in
coastal belt of Bangladesh
Stages of Jute production at Pakhimara, Patuakhali
2.21 Price Support
  • Farmers need price support for jute fiber. The
    procurement price of fiber must tally the cost of
    input and be remunerative to investment. The
    procurement price should also be based on grades
    in the primary market. Farmers become helpless
    when they are bound to sale their fiber according
    to the sweet will of the middlemen and farias.
    Proper protection should be offered to farmers so
    that jute production becomes a profitable

3. China
  • China has a long history of jute cultivation
    since 1061 A.D. Kenaf was first introduced into
    mainland China from Taiwan, originally brought
    from India. Since the early 1920s kenaf has been
    extended to 20 provinces.
  • There are six varieties in cultivation including
  • Kenaf (1) Quinpi No. 3, (2) 722
  • White jute (1) Yue Yuan No.5
  • Tossa jute (1) Kuan ye
  • Current concerns Kenaf / jute textile, Kenaf
    pulp industry
  • Therefore (1) Fiber yield and stalk yield are
  • (2) Raw material for local industry
  • (3) Export fiber and finished products

4. India
  • About 4 million farm families in the eastern part
    of India are engaged in jute production. About
    half a million families are employed in jute
    processing industries. About half million traders
    are engaged in fiber business.
  • There are 23 varieties under cultivation
  • White jute (C. capsularis) JRC 321, JRC 212,
    JRC-7447, JRC-4444, UPC-94, Hybrid c, Kc 1,
  • Tossa jute (C.olitorius) JRO-632, JRO-878,
    JRO-7835, JRO 524, TJ 40, JRO 3690, KOM
  • Kenaf (H.cannabinus) Hc-583, AMC-108
  • Mesta (H.sabdariffa) Hs 4288, Hs 791, AMV
    1, AMV 2, AMV 3, AMV 4
  • Jute faces strong competition from pre-kharif
    paddy, vegetables and sesame. Kenaf faces strong
    competition from ground nut in the Andhrapradesh.
    Market uncertainty and shortage of retting water
    are common problems

5. Indonesia
  • Jute, kenaf and roselle are cultivated in Java,
    Lumpung and South Kalimantan provinces. About 80
    of the fiber crops are grown in Java. The demand
    for land for food crops production is increasing.
    Thus fiber crops are being replaced by food
    crops, mainly by rice and corn.
  • Five varieties are grown commercially including
  • White jute (C. capsulais) (1) Cc-15, (2) Cc-22
  • Kenaf (H. cannabinus) (1) Hc-48, (2) Hc-G 45
  • Roselle (H. sabdaiffa) (1) Hs 40
  • The need for fiber for packaging and paper pulp
    is increasing. Research for establishing fiber
    crops in poor soils and stressed climatic
    condition of South Kalimantan and South Sumatra

6. Nepal
  • Out of 75 districts, jute is cultivated in 7
    Terrai districts. Of these, 3 districts namely
    Jhapa, Morang and Sunsari account for most of the
    jute area.
  • There are five varieties of jute grown
    commercially including
  • White jute (C. capsulais) (1) JRC 321, (2)
  • Tossa jute (C. olitorius) (1) JRO 632, (2) JRO
    524, (3) JRO 7835
  • There has been declining trend of jute production
    in the recent past. There is urgent need for
    variety improvement to address the major
    production constraints.

7. Thailand
  • Major producing area of roselle is in the
    North-Eastern and Central part of the country.
    There are some limited areas where kenaf and jute
    can be grown. The fiber crop is the third most
    important economic crop in this region after
    sugarcane and cassava.
  • There has been a declining trend of fiber crop
    production in the recent past. The reasons for
    declining trend among others were low yields of
    the available varieties, competition with other
    remunerative crops like sugarcane and cassava,
    biotic and a biotic stresses. There are six
  • Roselle (H.sabdaiffa) (1) Non Soong 2, (2) Ton
  • Kenaf (H. cannabinus) (1) Kk 60, (2) 977044
  • Tossa jute (C. olitorius) (1) Non Soong 1, (2)
    Khon Kaen -1.
  • High yielding varieties of Roselle, Tossa Jute
    and Kenaf needed.

8. Conclusion
  • Environmental awareness across the globe has
    created a better prospect for natural fiber like
    jute. Many traditional products of jute and
    recent innovation like geo-jute and paper pulp
    may have intensified demand. But in that regard
    jute is desired to be cent per cent organic and
    environment friendly.
  • Organic farming of jute through the use of
    appropriate varieties, organic manures, compost,
    cultural practices, crop rotation, mixed
    cropping, integrated pest management and
    integrated crop management is urged. Ribbon
    retting needs extension in place of traditional
    stem retting.

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