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Title: ... increasingly important role of air pollution that i


1
Air Quality Planning in Maryland Where have we
been and where are we going?
  • Tad Aburn
  • Program Manager, Air Quality Planning and
    Monitoring Division

2
Topics Covered
  • The Basics of Marylands Air Quality
  • The new air quality standards
  • Recent Good News
  • Challenges of meeting the new standards
  • Reducing emissions in Maryland
  • The increasingly important role of air pollution
    that is transported into Maryland

3
Marylands Air Quality
  • We have problems with long term ozone exposure
  • Fine particulate levels are generally very close
    to the federal standard
  • Regional Haze issues
  • Air pollution contributes significantly to Bay
    pollution

4
Nitrogen Deposition to the Chesapeake Bay
5
The New Air Quality Standards A Transition Period
  • New air quality standards for ozone and fine
    particulate became effective in 2004
  • Requires plans in 2007/2008 and attainment by
    2010
  • The recently revoked 1hr Ozone Standard June
    15th, 2005
  • 2005 will be a period of transition
  • Wrapping up the work on the old standards and
    initiating new work to meet the new challenges

6
Meeting the New Standards A Significant Challenge
  • New 8-hour ozone and fine particulate standards
    both present major challenges
  • Both are regional pollutants Transport is
    very significant
  • Nonattainment areas and contributing sources are
    similar

Note Design Values are not official until
approved by EPA
7
A Quick Primer on How Ground Level Ozone is
Formed
8
How Might Ozone Affect My Health?
  • Ozone can irritate the respiratory system.
  • Ozone can reduce lung function.
  • Ozone can aggravate asthma.
  • Ozone may aggravate chronic lung diseases, such
    as emphysema and bronchitis.
  • Ozone may reduce the immune system's ability to
    fight off bacterial infections in the respiratory
    system.
  • Differences between short and long term exposure
    1hr vs. 8hr standard

9
Marylands 1-Hour Ozone NAAs
Baltimore Region Cecil County (Part of Phil.
NAA) Kent and Queen Annes County
Region Washington DC Region
10
Marylands 8-Hour Ozone NAAs
Baltimore Region Washington County EAC Cecil
County (Part of Phil. NAA) Kent and Queen Annes
County Region Washington DC Region
11
What is Fine Particulate Matter?
  • Particulate matter, or PM, is the term for
    particles found in the air, including dust, dirt,
    soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. 
  • These small particles can be suspended in the air
    for long periods of time. 
  • Some particles are large or dark enough to be
    seen as soot or smoke.  Others are so small that
    individually they can only be detected with an
    electron microscope.

12
Health Effects From Particulate Mater
  • Many scientific studies have linked breathing PM
    to a series of significant health problems,
    including
  • aggravated asthma
  • increases in respiratory symptoms like coughing
    and difficult or painful breathing
  • chronic bronchitis
  • decreased lung function
  • premature death

13
Other Effects From Particles
  • Visibility Impairment
  • PM is the major cause of reduced visibility
    (haze) in parts of the United States, including
    many of our national parks. 
  • Aesthetic Damage
  • Soot, a type of PM, stains and damages stone and
    other materials, including objects such as
    monuments and statues.
  • Plant Damage
  • PM can form a film on plant leaves interfering
    with photosynthesis and plant growth

14
Why is PM2.5 different from ozone?
Source EPA
15
What do our PM2.5 nonattainment areas look like?
Baltimore Region Washington Region Washington
County Nonattainment Area
16
Good News Ozone Levels
  • Ground Level Ozone
  • Monitored levels are lower than they have ever
    been
  • Reasonable chance to monitor attainment for the
    old 1-hour ozone standard in 2005
  • Kent and Queen Annes County has been
    redesignated to attainment for the old 1-hour
    ozone standard
  • Maryland areas designated Moderate under new
    standard
  • Not Severe as they were under 1-hour standard

17
Progress Towards 1Hr Attainment
  • In 1990, the CAA required us to meet the 1hr
    ozone standard (now revoked) in 15years. This
    (2005) is our attainment year and so far, based
    on the last three years of air quality data, we
    look to make it!!

18
Good News Local Reductions
  • Maryland has implemented one of the countrys
    most aggressive set of air pollution control
    regulations
  • Power plants to hair spray and perfume
  • Over 100 different regulations since 1990
  • Emissions in Maryland have been cut by about 40
    since 1990
  • National average is about 20
  • Recent settlement will result in about a 70
    reduction in NOx emissions from Mirants Maryland
    power plants

19
Good News Mobile Source Reductions
  • Maryland programs like the VEIP combined with
    Federal requirements have reduced mobile source
    emissions in Maryland by about 50 since 1990.
  • Significant additional reductions are phased in
    in 2004 and 2007
  • By 2030 mobile source emissions are projected to
    be 11 of what they were in 1990.
  • These reductions include significant projected
    growth in Vehicle Miles Traveled (about 40)

20
Good News Power Plant Reductions
  • Significant reductions from regional power plants
    between 2002 and 2005
  • Billions of dollars being invested in Selective
    Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology to reduce
    power plant NOx emissions

SCR By State
Over 50 of the coal-fired capacity in key
upwind states will be controlled with SCR by 2005
1 to 25 26 to 49 50 or greater
21
What are we doing to clean the air?
  • Currently
  • Implementation of existing local regulations
    (from the 1hr ozone standard)
  • Never-ending search for cost effective/ efficient
    local control programs (new 8hr ozone standard
    and PM2.5 standard)
  • Power Plant Controls (The Federal NOx SIP Call)
  • More on the way
  • Federal Rules (Clean Air Interstate Rule)
  • OTC Regional Multi-Pollutant Position
  • Mirant Settlement

22
What have we done lately?
  • MDs Latest Additions
  • OTC AIM
  • OTC Consumer Products
  • OTC Gas Cans
  • Solvent Cleaning Regulation
  • Mobile Equipment Refinishing Regulation
  • Regional Controls still require local
    implementation and enforcement
  • These control programs to the right are still
    producing additional benefits along the way

23
Are Emissions Higher in Maryland?
States
Source U.S. EPA - 1999 data
tons per year
24
What is transported and where does it come from?
  • Air pollution floating in from other states
    (called transport) is a significant contributor
    to Marylands air pollution problems
  • Marylands transport problem is amongst the worst
    in the United States
  • All states are affected by air pollution
    transport to some degree
  • LEARN MORE.Breakout Session 1

25
The Role of Pollution Transport
  • New science now confirms that a large mass of
    ozone covers our region and float in mass from
    one state to the next over large parts of the
    East
  • MDE/University of Maryland airplanes routinely
    measure the incoming ozone cloud at 100 to 110
    parts per billion (ppb)
  • New standard 85 ppb
  • On any given day, well over half of MDs ozone
    originates in upwind states.
  • On some days the upwind contribution may be 70
    or more

26
Addressing Transport Multi-Pollutant Power Plant
Controls
  • Maryland supports the Ozone Transport Commission
    (OTC) position on power plant controls
  • Calls for deeper and quicker reductions from
    power plants than those in EPAs the Clean Air
    Interstate Rules (CAIR)
  • The OTC plan is achievable and very cost
    effective
  • Benefits outweigh costs by more than a factor of
    10
  • OTC states planning to implement tougher CAIR
    Plus program

27
Another Major Transport Theme Leveling the
Playing Field
  • Pollution controls in Maryland and other
    Northeast states are very tough
  • Science tells us that the pollution control
    playing field needs to be leveled over much
    larger areas

CURRENT PLAYING FIELD
GENERALLY WHERE THE PLAYING FIELD SHOULD
BE LEVELED
MD
28
Improving the Science
  • MDE Initiatives
  • Western MD Monitoring Site (gateway to
    transport)
  • The Blackout Study continuing partnership with
    UM
  • Low Level Jet Work
  • Leveling the Playing Field Concept
  • Ozone Balloon Study Elevated reservoir of
    ozone

29
Upcoming Sessions
  • Session 1 Air Quality 101 Randy Mosier
  • Session 1 The Basic Science of Air Pollution
    Transport - Brian Hug
  • Working Lunch - (Lunch will be provided) -
    Pollution Prevention Services and Recognition
    for Maryland Businesses - Laura Armstrong
  • Session 2 Mobile Sources Strategies for All
    Fronts Diane Franks (and Panel)
  • Session 2 Basics of the Clean Air Interstate
    Rule and the Clean Air Mercury Rule - Brian Hug
  • The State Implementation Plan Process our next
    steps - Tad Aburn, Diane Franks, Brian Hug

30
Thanks.. Tad Aburn Program Manager, Air
Quality Planning and Monitoring
Program 410-537-3245 gaburn_at_mde.state.md.us
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