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Myth, Maxims, and Moxie

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Title: Myth, Maxims, and Moxie


1
Myth, Maxims, and Moxie
Practical Applications of Research for Urban
Music Educators
  • Music in Urban Schools Conference
  • New Jersey Music Educators Association
  • February 23, 2006

Dr. Carol Frierson-Campbell, William Paterson
University http//euphrates.wpunj.edu/faculty/fri
ersoncampbellc
2
MYTH
  • Wikipedia
  • . . . a myth is a sacred story concerning the
    origins of the world or how the world and the
    creatures in it came to have their present form.
    In saying that a myth is a sacred narrative, what
    is meant is that a myth is believed to be true by
    people who attach . . . significance to it. Use
    of the term by scholars does not imply that the
    narrative is either true or false.

3
MAXIM
  • Oxford Concise Dictionary
  • noun a short statement expressing a general
    truth or rule of conduct.
  • ORIGIN from Latin propositio maxima most
    important proposition.
  • http//www.askoxford.com/concise_oed

4
MOXIE
  • Britanica.com
  • Main Entry moxie Pronunciation
    'mäk-sE Function noun Etymology from Moxie, a
    trademark for a soft drink 1 ENERGY, PEP 2
    COURAGE, DETERMINATION 3 KNOW-HOW, EXPERTISE
  • http//www.m-w.com/dictionary/moxie

5
MYTH 1
  • Theres no one way to teach music

6
MAXIMS FOR MYTH 1
  • Modeling (demonstrating)
  • Using recorded models
  • Cooperative Learning
  • Sight-reading
  • Accompaniment
  • Movement

7
Modeling (Demonstrating)
  • Nonverbal teacher modeling is effective in
    promoting musical skills across a wide age
    distribution. The better the model, the better
    students perform.
  • Dickey, M. R. (1992). A Review of Research on
    Modeling in Music Teaching and Learning. Bulletin
    of the CRME, 113, 27-40.
  • Henley, P. T. (2001). Effects of Modeling and
    Tempo Patterns as Practice Techniques on the
    Performance of High School Instrumentalists.
    JRME, 49 (2), 169-80.
  • Sang, R. C. (1987). A Study of the Relationship
    Between Instrumental Music Teachers' Modeling
    Skills and Pupil Performance Behaviors. Bulletin
    of the CRME, 91, 155-59.

8
Recorded Models
  • Directors of middle and and two high school bands
    systematically included professional recordings
    as part of their preparation of selected pieces
    for 5 weeks.
  • No difference in achievement between model and
    no-model pieces on performance recordings.
  • Other student responses with model pieces and
    non-model pieces differed by age level.
  • Morrison, S. J. Montemayor, M. Wiltshire, E. S.
    (2004). The Effect of a Recorded Model on Band
    Students' Performance Self-Evaluations,
    Achievement, and Attitude. JRME, v. 52 no. 2
    (Summer 2004) p. 116-29.

9
Sight Reading
  • Overall sight-reading accuracy of high school
    singers was significantly higher with 30-second
    preparation time. Less accurate singers, however,
    did not benefit from practice time.
  • High scorers tonicized (vocally established the
    key), used hand signs, sang out loud during
    practice, physically kept the beat, and sang the
    melody significantly more frequently than did low
    scorers during practice.
  • Sight-singing system used made no significant
    difference.
  • Killian, J. N. Henry, M. L. (2005). A Comparison
    of Successful and Unsuccessful Strategies in
    Individual Sight-Singing Preparation and
    Performance. JRME, 53 (1), p. 51-65.

10
Cooperative Learning
  • In a 1995 study, cooperative learning techniques
    (student/student interaction) were related to
    higher achievement in an urban secondary piano
    class.
  • The data revealed a decrease in absenteeism,
    classroom behavior, tardiness, and cutting class.
  • Goliger, J. M. (1995). Implementation of a
    program of cooperative learning in an urban
    secondary piano laboratory. Doctoral-dissertation,
    Teachers College, Columbia University.

11
Accompaniment for Young Singers
  • Harmonic accompaniment (defined as a root melody
    accompaniment) had no significant effect on the
    tonal achievement of children in K and 1
    however, children who received song instruction
    with root melody accompaniment improvised
    melodies w/ better intonation.
  • Guilbault, D. M. (2004). The Effect of Harmonic
    Accompaniment on the Tonal Achievement and Tonal
    Improvisations of Children in Kindergarten and
    First Grade. JRME, 52 (1) (Spring 2004) p. 64-76.

12
Movement in Music Class
  • .Movement . . . assists children in developing
    schematic templates for the unfolding ideas
    presented in music.
  • . . . the continued use of movement in the music
    classroom should strongly be encouraged. . . .
  • Having ample classroom space is an important
    practical consideration, as is sufficient
    preservice and in-service teacher training for
    increased comfort in planning appropriate
    movement activities with children. (p. 30)
  • Ferguson, L. (2005). The Role of Movement in
    Elementary Music Education A Literature Review.
    Update Applications of Research in Music
    Education (Online), 23 (2), 23-33.

13
MOXIE for MYTH 1
  • Remember ENERGY, PEP, COURAGE,
    DETERMINATION, KNOW-HOW, EXPERTISE
  • Use research-based practice to improve students
    musical achievement.

14
MYTH 2
  • Children are children wherever you go.

15
MAXIMS for MYTH 2
  • How People Learn Brain, Mind, Experience, and
    School http//books.nap.edu/html/howpeople1/
  • FIVE THEMES THAT CHANGED CONCEPTIONS OF
    LEARNING     
  • Memory and structure of knowledge
  • Analysis of problem solving and reasoning
  • Early foundations
  • Metacognitive processes and self-regulatory
    capabilities
  • Cultural experience and community participation

16
Memory and structure of knowledge
  • Knowing how learners develop coherent structures
    of information is useful in understanding how
    different learners organize the knowledge that
    underlies effective comprehension and thinking.

17
Problem solving and reasoning
  • There is a clear difference between the ways
    novice learners solve problems and the
    specialized expertise of individuals who have
    proficiency in particular subjects.

18
Early foundations
  • There is a strong relationship between children's
    learning predispositions and how they learn to
    organize and coordinate information, make
    inferences, and discover strategies for problem
    solving.

19
Metacognition and self-regulation
  • Individuals can be taught to regulate their
    behaviors, and these activities enable
    self-monitoring and executive control of one's
    performance.

20
Cultural experience
  • Learning is promoted by social norms that value
    the search for understanding.
  • Learning involves becoming attuned to the
    constraints and resources, the limits and
    possibilities, that are involved in the practices
    of the community.

21
MOXIE for MYTH 2
  • Learn to recognize stages of development among
    students
  • Teach self-regulation along with skills and
    knowledge
  • Familiarize yourself with the social norms your
    students are immersed in

22
MYTH 3
  • Good teachers are born, not taught.

23
MAXIMS for MYTH 3
  • Music teacher learning
  • Music teacher development

24
Music Teacher Learning
  • Three indicators of effectiveness--teacher
    knowledge, teacher comfort, and frequency of
    teacher use--can be significantly improved in a
    1-week technology workshop setting.
  • Music educator participants were tested before,
    immediately after, and 10 months after the
    workshop.
  • Moderate correlation between participants'
    frequency of technological use and the degree to
    which they reported their access to technological
    resources.
  • Bauer, W. I. Reese, S. McAllister, P. A.
    (2003). Transforming Music Teaching via
    Technology The Role of Professional Development.
    JRME, 51 (4), 289-301.

25
Music Teacher Development
  • Emerging as a Teacher What Gets Easier?
  • Security and self-confidence, Classroom
    management, Administrative organization
    (preparing a budget, and so forth), Lesson
    planning Finding materials and resources for
    lessons, Community relations/parent interactions.

26
Music Teacher Development
  • Emerging as a Teacher Career-long Challenges
  • Time management, Advocacy, Isolation (left out of
    decision making), Curriculum concerns (choosing
    literature and classroom activities), Scheduling,
    Keeping up with educational trends, Finding time
    for one's own musical growth.
  • Conway, C. M. Hibbard, S Albert, D. Hourigan,
    R. (2005). Professional Development for Arts
    Teachers. Arts Education Policy Review, 107 (1),
    3-9.

27
MOXIE for MYTH 3
  • Professional development Find university courses
    that help you target areas of need.
  • Make a point of developing a relationship with a
    more experienced teacher.
  • Take responsibility for your own learning.

28
MYTH 4
  • Good teachers are color-blind

29
MAXIMS for MYTH 4
  • Ethnic Diversity
  • Cultural Differences
  • Cultural Consciousness
  • Perspectives of Normal

30
Ethnic Diversity
  • The demographic breakdown in the 100 largest
    school districts in the United States includes
    Latinos at 31.7 and African Americans at 29.4
    furthermore, in the 500 largest school districts
    in the country, Latinos and African Americans
    account for 52 of the students population
    (Young, 2002). By the year 2050, the average
    U.S. resident will trace his or her descent to
    Africa, Asia, the Hispanic world, the Pacific
    Islands, the Middle East almost anywhere but
    white Europe (Taylor, 1990, p. 1) and the U.S.
    will mirror the rest of the present world
    populace as a majority non-White nation (Davis,
    1996).

31
Cultural Differences
  • In urban schools children of color are the
    majority. These children are and will continue to
    be, well into the future, served by teachers and
    other school authority figures of whom 88-90 are
    of a middle-class White European background. The
    gulf between music educators, 94 of whom are
    White, and urban students is even wider (U.S.
    Bureau of the Census, 1999). It is clear that
    U.S. teachers and many of their students lie in
    geographically, ethnically, linguistically and
    socioeconomically different worlds.

32
Cultural Consciousness
  • In Teaching Other Peoples Children, Delpit
    (1995) reminds us that people are experts on
    their own lives. Young children in particular
    know how to behave in their community and at
    home, but they experience frustration in settings
    that do not share the same norm (Hobgood, 2001,
    p. 1).
  • Many children of color experience this
    frustration, this discontinuity when they attend
    school and find that their home culture does not
    fit with the school culture. These children may
    become alienated and disengaged, and are clearly
    at a disadvantage in the learning process
    (Sheets, 1999 Irvine, 2001 Delpit, 1995
    Ladson-Billings, 1998).

33
Perspectives of Normal
  • Research has indicated that many well-meaning
    teachers who have difficulty accepting
    differences may be assuming that normal
    students are …White, middle class, heterosexual,
    and at least outwardly well adjusted to school -
    the presumed majority .
  • Darling-Hammond, French Garcia-Lopez, 2002, p.
    9

34
MOXIE for MYTH 4
  • AVOID political correctness
  • Risk conversations
  • Use culturally responsive teaching
  • Develop a knowledge base about cultural diversity
  • Include ethnic and culturally diverse content in
    the curriculum
  • Demonstrate caring in the learning community
  • Develop cross-cultural communications
  • Use cultural congruity in classroom instruction
  • Geneva Gay (2000). Culturally Responsive
    Teaching Theory, Research, and Practice.

35
MYTH 5
  • Good teachers can teach anywhere

36
MAXIMS for MYTH 5
  • School facilities impact teaching
  • Urban teachers face more stresses with less
    reinforcement
  • Information about the Small Schools Initiative

37
School facilities impact teaching
  • Teachers in Chicago and Washington, DC who rated
    their working conditions and perceived those
    conditions affected their job performance and
    teaching effectiveness. Teachers evaluated their
    surroundings (e.g., degree of overcrowding,
    availability and adequacy of specialized
    facilities, and physiological factors). They
    noted the inadequacy or lack science, music, and
    art classrooms. Over 40 percent of teachers
    considered their classrooms the wrong size for
    the type of education they delivered.

38
School facilities impact teaching
  • (continued) Over 25 percent had taught in
    non-classroom spaces. About one-third of teachers
    had little or no teacher workspace. Most teachers
    reported fair or poor indoor air quality.
    Significant numbers noted poor thermal comfort,
    poor lighting, dirty and inoperable windows, and
    dirty restrooms. Many teachers . . . believed
    that school conditions affected their career
    decisions.
  • Schneider, Mark. (2003). Linking School Facility
    Conditions to Teacher Satisfaction and Success.
    ED480552. Web site http//www.edfacilities.org/pu
    bs

39
Urban teachers face more stress
  • The factors that most impact music teachers are
    time, student apathy, and inadequate salary.
  • Urban teachers reported significantly greater
    differences in discipline and motivation issues
    as well as with the lack of professional
    improvement opportunities. Additionally,
    inadequate preparation, insufficient program
    budgets and facilities . . . and lack of
    collegial and administrative support were
    reported to be large sources of stress.
  • Gordon, D. G. (1997). An investigation and
    analysis of environmental stress factors
    experienced by k-12 music teachers (stress). DAI,
    58, no. 11A, (1997) 4171.

40
MOXIE for MYTH 5
  • Document everything
  • Get involved with your union
  • Work to make the whole school environment better
  • Consider a new placement
  • Know the law

41
The Small Schools Initiative
  • Bill McDevitt, Vineland Schools
  • More student contact with an individual teacher.
  • By 2008 at high school level in Abbott Districts
    there will be no more general classes.
    Everything will have to be on a college level.
  • Schools will be broken down into smaller
    components.
  • Implications for music If music teachers do not
    know, it will be imposed rather than
    negotiated.
  • Arts are seen as a place to send students while
    other teachers have common planning time.

42
MYTH 6
  • Administrators and non-music educators do not
    care about music in school.

43
MAXIMS for MYTH 6
  • Grade-level teachers perceptions
  • Instruction
  • Interdisciplinary integration
  • Music Teacher Leadership
  • Social Capital

44
Grade-level teachers perceptions
  • Instruction
  • Elementary teachers in Illinois were surveyed
    about the value they placed on arts instruction
    in their classes.
  • Participants ranked the fine arts last in
    importance when compared to other areas of
    development, and rarely used them in their
    classes.
  • Kriehbiel, H. J. (1990). Illinois fine arts
    Elementary classroom teachers perceptions of
    music instruction. DAI, 51 (3a), 778.
  • BUT . . .

45
Grade-level teachers perceptions
  • Interdisciplinary integration
  • A study in central Florida indicated that
    grade-level teachers DO believe that music
    integration is beneficial to students.
  • Key findings indicate that awareness and
    training were the 2 most important issues
    affecting music integration.
  • Shuck, C. M. (2005). Music integration
    Educators perceptions of implementation and
    student achievement in public school elementary
    education. DAI, 66 (03a), 901.

46
Arts Teacher Leadership
  • An urban high school in Toronto made a decision
    to support the arts and arts participation by all
    students.
  • As a result, the arts were credited with turning
    the school climate from failure to success.
  • Individual arts teachers had a significant impact
    on the strength of the programs and of the school
    itself, but those teachers gave themselves little
    credit for the change. They did not view
    themselves as leaders.
  • Zederayko, M. W. (2000). The impact of
    administrator and teacher leadership on the
    development of an exemplary arts program and its
    role in school reform A case study. DAI, 61, 04A.

47
Social Capital
  • Sociologists who studied teachers in several
    urban schools in Chicago noted that teachers
    constructed other teachers as leaders on the
    basis not only of cultural capital, but of human
    and social capital (p. 2).
  • Ordinary (i.e., grade-level) teachers did not
    see specialist teachers as leaders that is, as
    people who had the capacity to help them learn
    about and change their teaching practices (p.
    11).
  • The lack of social capital (networks of
    reciprocity) between specialist teachers gave
    them lower status in the school.
  • Spillane, J. P., Hallett, T. Diamond, J. B.
    (2003). Forms of capital and the construction of
    leadership Instructional leadership in urban
    elementary schools. Sociology of Education, (76),
    1-17.

48
MOXIE for MYTH 6
  • Work with non-music colleagues to provide
    resources.
  • See yourself as a school leader and act
    accordingly.
  • Cultivate Social Capital in your building

49
MYTH 7
  • Music makes you smarter

50
MAXIMS for MYTH 7
  • Arts-related non-arts outcomes
  • Visual arts
  • Music
  • Multi-Arts
  • Cautions
  • Missing Links

51
Arts-Related Academic and Social Outcomes
  • James Catterall, "The Arts and the Transfer of
    Learning," in Critical Links Learning in the
    Arts and Student Academic and Social Development.
  • Critical Links http//www.aep-arts.org/PDF20File
    s/CriticalLinks.pdf
  • Chart http//www.michigan.gov/documents/CLTransfe
    rChart2_103474_7.pdf

52
Visual Arts Critical Links
  • Drawing Content and organization of writing
  • Visualization training Sophisticated reading
    skills/interpretation of text.
  • Reasoning about art Reasoning about scientific
    images.
  • Instruction in visual art Reading readiness

53
Music Critical Links
  • Early childhood music training Cognitive
    development
  • Music listening Spatial reasoning, Spatial
    temporal reasoning, Quality of writing, Prolixity
    of writing.
  • Piano/keyboard learning Mathematics
    proficiency. Spatial reasoning.
  • Piano and voice Long-term spatial temporal
    reasoning.
  • Music performance Self-efficacy. Self-concept.
  • Instrument training Reading. SAT verbal scores.
  • Music with language learning English skills for
    ESL learners.

54
Multi-arts Programs Critical Links
  • Integrated arts/academics Reading, verbal and
    mathematics skills.
  • Creative thinking Achievement motivation.
    Cognitive engagement, Instructional practice in
    the school, Professional culture of the school,
    School climate. Community engagement and
    identity.
  • Intensive arts experience Self-confidence.
    Risk-taking. Paying attention. Persevering.
    Empathy for others. Self-initiating. Task
    persistence. Ownership of learning. Collaboration
    skills. Leadership. Reduced dropout rates.
    Educational aspirations. Higher-order thinking
    skills.
  • Arts-rich school environment Creativity.
    Engagement/attendance. Range of personal and
    social developments. Higher-order thinking skills.

55
Cautions Missing Links
  • The Arts and Academic Achievement What the
    Evidence Shows http//www.pz.harvard.edu/Research/
    Reap/REAPExecSum.htm
  • Cautions that research linking arts and academic
    achievement may not meet rigor of scientific
    proof.
  • Ellen Winner and Lois Hetland, Harvard Project
    Zero

56
Cautions Missing Links
  • Three Areas Where Reliable Causal Links Were
    Found
  • Listening to Music and Spatial-Temporal Reasoning
  • Learning to Play Music and Spatial Reasoning
  • Classroom Drama and Verbal Skills

57
Cautions Missing Links
  • Seven Areas Where No Reliable Causal Links Were
    Found
  • Arts-Rich Education and Verbal and Mathematics
    Scores/Grades
  • Arts-Rich Education and Creative Thinking
  • Learning to Play Music and Mathematics
  • Learning to Play Music and Reading
  • Visual Arts and Reading
  • Dance and Reading
  • Dance and Nonverbal Reasoning

58
MOXIE for MYTH 7
  • Share the wealth
  • Consider taking a course
  • Find out whats happening in your school and
    district
  • Get involved with action research

59
Myth, Maxims, and Moxie
  • Whats most important?
  • For students Learn students developmental needs
    and understand their cultural mores.
  • For teachers Find ways to make connections
    w/music and non-music colleagues integrate
    yourselves into your buildings.

60
Myth, Maxims, and Moxie
  • Whats most important?
  • For administrators Be sure music teachers have
    the same opportunities for professional growth
    and development as non-music teachers.

61
Myth, Maxims, and Moxie
  • So what?
  • Music teachers who are knowledegable about
    research and practice
  • Are better teachers
  • Are seen by peers as leaders
  • Have a greater chance of making a difference for
    students
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