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Environmental Assessment

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Title: Environmental Assessment


1
Environmental Assessment
  • University of Illinois
  • Office for Planning and BudgetingDecember 2006

2
Environmental Assessment Purpose and Process
  • The purpose of an environmental assessment is to
    support and inform the strategic planning
    process. A good environmental assessment will
    help an organization understand and respond
    effectively to changes in their environments.1
  • This environmental assessment provides
    information on demographics, higher education,
    economic and budgetary matters, research,
    technology, and economic development, the
    political landscape, and the related
    implications, opportunities, and challenges for
    the University of Illinois.
  • This version of the University of Illinois
    environmental assessment has been updated and
    expanded from the analysis that was initially
    developed in March 2005 to set a context for the
    Universitys strategic planning framework. In
    addition to updating source data for many of the
    charts and graphs originally included,
    information has also been added on the topics of
    global competitiveness in higher education
    participation, completion, and attainment,
    energy, online education, and the impacts of the
    aging population.
  • Because the external environment in which the
    University of Illinois operates is continually
    changing, the environmental assessment will be
    updated and refined periodically to reflect the
    most recent available information on key
    opportunities and challenges facing the
    University.
  • Feedback on the usefulness of the environmental
    assessment and suggestions for improvement are
    welcome and encouraged. Please direct any
    comments or questions to the University Office
    for Planning and Budgeting (UOPB) via e-mail to
    envscan_at_uillinois.edu.

1 Bryson, John M. Strategic Planning for Public
and Nonprofit Organizations. 2004.
Page 2
3
Key Highlights Opportunities
  • Creatively addressing the educational, health
    care, and other needs of an increasingly diverse
    Illinois population
  • Developing a niche within the rapidly developing
    market for online education both nationally and
    globally
  • Responding to the growing global demand for
    individuals with training in the sciences and
    engineering
  • Enhancing capacity in energy research and
    development (both traditional and renewable
    sources)
  • Developing new and enhanced University revenue
    sources from the growing demand for higher
    education and RD activities
  • Effectively responding to the increased interest
    of state and federal policymakers in the public
    accountability of colleges and universities

Page 3
4
Key Highlights Challenges
  • Maintaining and enhancing access to the
    University for minority, low income, and
    first-generation students
  • Recruiting and retaining high quality faculty and
    staff given increasing competition and looming
    retirements
  • Ensuring the highest level of academic quality in
    the face of state and federal funding constraints
  • Maintaining the Universitys physical environment
    absent new infusions of state capital funding
  • Expanding the Universitys RD capacity given
    federal funding constraints
  • Balancing interest in enhancing higher
    educations public accountability with legitimate
    privacy concerns within the University community
    (students, faculty, and staff)

Page 4
5
Table of Contents
  • Demographics.
    7
  • U.S. Population Projections, 2000-2020 8
  • Illinois Population Ages 18-24 Race/Ethnicity 9
  • University of Illinois Statewide Presence 10
  • Undergraduate and Graduate/Professional
    Enrollments by Race/Ethnic Higher Education 11
  • Minority Enrollment Data by Campus 12
  • University of Illinois Full-Time Faculty by
    Race/Ethnicity 13
  • University of Illinois Full-Time Faculty by
    Gender 14
  • University of Illinois Full-Time Staff by
    Race/Ethnicity 15
  • University of Illinois Full-Time Staff by
    Gender 16
  • University of Illinois SURS Participants,
    Tenure-System Faculty Age Distribution 17
  • University of Illinois SURS Participants,
    Non-Tenure Faculty and Staff by Age
    Distribution 18
  • Health Care and Aging 19
  • Implications for the University of Illinois 20
  • Higher Education
    . 21
  • International Comparisons Higher Education
    Attainment 22
  • International Comparisons Higher Education
    Participation and Completion 23
  • Projected Percentage Change in Number of
    High-School Graduates from 2002 to 2009 24
  • University of Illinois Degrees Conferred 25

Page 5
6
Table of Contents
  • Economy and Budget
    ... 33
  • Economic Value of Higher Education 34
  • U.S. Economic Indicators 35-36
  • State of Illinois Economic and Fiscal
    Indicators 37
  • State of Illinois General Fund Appropriations by
    Sector FY 2007 38
  • State of Illinois Financial Liabilities 39
  • Illinois Projected Employment Growth,
    2002-2012 40
  • University of Illinois Share of State Tax
    Appropriations FY 1980 to FY 2007 41
  • University of Illinois Budget by Source of
    Funds 42
  • University of Illinois All Sources of Duns FY
    1990 FY 2007 43
  • The Center The Top American Research
    Universities 44
  • Big Ten University and Foundation Endowments 45
  • Public Higher Education Capital Appropriation
    History FY 1999 to FY 2007 46
  • Implications for the University of Illinois 47
  • Research, Technology, and Economic
    Development. 48
  • Trends in Federal RD Funding 49
  • Total RD Expenditures of Carnegie Research I
    Institutions, FY 2004 50
  • University of Illinois Rank among AAU
    Institutions on Selected Quality Indicators 51
  • International Comparison Production of
    Undergraduate Degrees in Natural Sciences
    Engineering 52

Page 6
7
Demographics
Page 7
8
U.S. Population Projections, 2000-2020
Projected Total Number of High-School Graduates
Page 8
9
Illinois Population Ages 18-24 Race/Ethnicity
N 1.358M
N 1.200M
Page 9
10
University of Illinois Statewide Presence
On-Campus Headcount Enrollment by County, Fall
2005
University of Illinois Campus Locations
  • Additional Facilities
  • Regional Medical Colleges
  • Rockford
  • Peoria
  • Urbana-Champaign
  • Illinois has 102 Counties
  • U of I Extension serves all 102 Counties
  • Police Training Institute FY 2005 students from
    81 Illinois Counties
  • Fire Service InstituteFY 2005 students from 99
    Illinois Counties
  • FY 2005 State-wide Programming Course Locations
    in 16 Illinois Counties
  • Online Instruction accessible from all 102
    Illinois Counties
  • Regional Agricultural Stations
  • 4-H Camps

Page 10
11
Undergraduate Enrollments by Race/Ethnicity Fall
2006
UIC
UIUC
UIS
Graduate/Professional Enrollments by
Race/Ethnicity Fall 2006
UIC
UIS
UIUC
Page 11
12
Minority Enrollment Data Fall 1996 through Fall
2006
UIC
UIS
UIUC
Page 12
13
University of Illinois Full-Time Faculty by
Race/EthnicityFall 2005 All Fund Sources
Page 13
14
University of Illinois Full-Time Faculty by
GenderFall 2005 All Fund Sources
Page 14
15
University of Illinois Full-Time Staff by Race
and EthnicityFall 2005 All Fund Sources
Page 15
16
University of Illinois Full-Time Staff by
GenderFall 2005 All Fund Sources
Page 16
17
University of Illinois SURS Participants,
Tenure-System Faculty Age Distribution October
10, 2005
Page 17
18
University of Illinois SURS Participants,
Non-Tenure Faculty and Staff Age
Distribution October 10, 2005
Page 18
19
Health Care Spending of GDP in the USA1975 -
2020
Health Care Spending of GDP2003
Total Spending on Health Care Per Person2003
Number of Americans Over 60 by Decade
Page 19
20
DemographicsImplications for the University of
Illinois
  • Illinois will experience slight population growth
    in coming years.
  • As with the rest of the U.S., Illinois
    population will become more diverse and the
    Hispanic population will grow faster than any
    other segment.
  • The proportion of African-American students at
    UIC and UIUC grew slightly after a period of
    decline, while the proportion of Hispanic
    students has generally grown at all three
    campuses in recent years. Pressure from
    University stakeholders to enhance diversity
    among students, staff, and faculty will continue.
  • The over 50 population will grow rapidly. This
    aging population will put increasing pressure on
    social services and health care and may view
    higher education as less of a priority in the
    future.
  • A significant proportion of the Universitys
    tenure/tenure-track faculty are age 55 or over
    creating the potential for large numbers of
    retirements in the near future.

Page 20
21
Higher Education
Page 21
22
International Comparison Higher Education
Attainment
Page 22
Source Organisation of Economic Co-operation
and Development (OECD). Data represent the
percentage of adults with an associates degree
or higher in 2003.
23
International Comparison Higher Education
Participation and Completion
Page 23
Source Organisation of Economic Co-operation
and Development (OECD). Data are for 2003.
24
Projected Percentage Change in Numberof
High-School Graduates from 2002 to 2009
University of Illinois On-Campus
HeadcountEnrollment by State Fall 2005
Page 24
25
University of Illinois Degrees Conferred FY 2005
UIS Bachelors Degrees Conferred by
Race/Ethnicity FY 2005
UIUC Bachelors Degrees Conferred by
Race/Ethnicity FY 2005
UIC Bachelors Degrees Conferred by
Race/Ethnicity FY 2005
Page 25
26
Percentage of Bachelors Degrees Awarded by Gender
Page 26
27
Mean Income by Quintile in Illinois 1982 to 2004
Increase in Median Income for Families by
Quintile 1982 to 2004
Percent of Undergraduates Who Receive MAP Awards
by RaceFY 2005
Page 27
28
Faculty Salary Comparisons, IBHE Peers
Full-time Instructional Faculty Salary Rank, Fall
2005UIC
Full-time Instructional Faculty Salary Rank, Fall
2005UIUC
Full-time Instructional Faculty Salary Rank, Fall
2005UIS
Research I Universities Full-Time Instructional
Faculty Average Salaries FY 1982 to FY 2006
Page 28
29
University of Illinois Faculty and Enrollments
FTE On-Campus Enrollment per FTE Tenure-System
Faculty Fall 1983 to Fall 2005 UIC
FTE On-Campus Enrollment per FTE Tenure-System
Faculty Fall 1983 to Fall 2005 UIS
FTE On Campus Enrollment per FTE Tenure
System Faculty Fall 1983 to Fall 2005
FTE On-Campus Enrollment per FTE Tenure-System
Faculty Fall 1983 to Fall 2005 UIUC
Page 29
30
Enrollment in Online Courses
National EnrollmentsFall 2002 to Fall 2005
At the University of Illinois Fall 1999 to Fall
2005
At Illinois Colleges and Universities Fall 1999
to Fall 2005
Illinois vs. University of Illinois FY 2005
Page 30
31
Prominent Online Educators
UI Online Course Enrollments 1998-2005
  • 5 billion in total revenue generated by U.S.
    online education in 2004
  • 3 million online enrollment compared to 17
    million on-ground enrollment in 2004
  • Average annual growth rate in online education
    was 23 from 2002 2005

Enrollment by College (Univ. of Phoenix)
  • University of Phoenix - 130,000 degree seeking
    online students (50 total enrollment), 30/year
    online growth rate
  • Walden University - 23,000 degree seeking online
    students, 6,500 in doctoral programs, 90/year
    online growth rate during past 4 years
  • Arizona Universities Network - 15,000 headcount
    students, growth rate constrained by traditional
    campus-based delivery model
  • U MD University College - 48,000 online students
    (54 total enrollment), 30/year online growth

Page 31
32
Higher EducationImplications for the University
of Illinois
  • U.S. competitiveness in higher education
    participation, completion, and attainment, while
    still strong, is slipping relative to other
    developed and developing nations.
  • The college age population will grow nationwide,
    but this growth will vary greatly among regions.
    The West, Southwest, and Southeast will
    experience growth that will exceed capacity in
    public higher education, although in general the
    Midwest will not.
  • A larger percentage of women are attending higher
    education than men and the gap is increasing.
  • Competition from proprietary institutions and
    other non-traditional educational providers in
    the marketplace for students (both nationally and
    internationally) has greatly increased in recent
    years.
  • Growth in faculty compensation at private
    institutions has surpassed public universities,
    and the intense competition for faculty will
    continue.
  • Relatively flat incomes at the lower income
    brackets in recent years will have implications
    for tuition and financial aid policies
    particularly with regard to promoting access for
    low income and first-generation students.
  • Rapid technological innovation has led to a need
    for lifelong learning that will allow individuals
    to continuously adapt and update skills. On-line
    instruction has grown rapidly in the last 10
    years as it has gained mainstream acceptance due
    to increasing internet access and innovations in
    instructional technologies.

Page 32
33
Economy and Budget
Page 33
34
Value of Higher Education
The Lifetime Expected Value of a Bachelors
Degreeis Rising Compared to a High School
Diploma
Median Income by Educational Achievement(Males)
CUMULATIVE LIFETIME EXPECTED EARNINGS (Dollars in
Millions)
Males
Females
Page 34
35
U.S. Economic Indicators
Cumulative Inflation Increases
Gross Domestic Product Annual Change
Target Federal Funds Rate
Page 35
36
U.S. Economic Indicators
Relative Labor Costs Among Major Auto-Producing
Nations (in dollars per hour)
Increase in U.S. Health Insurance Premiums
Compared to Other Indicators 1988 - 2005
Page 36
37
State of Illinois Economic Fiscal Indicators
State of IllinoisState-Supported Principal
OutstandingEnd-of-Year FY 1996-2006(Dollars in
Billions)
Cumulative Growth FY 1990 FY 2007
University of Illinois Flash Index Data
State of IllinoisGeneral Obligation Debt
ServicePrincipal and Interest
Page 37
38
State of IllinoisGeneral Fund Appropriations by
Sector FY 2007
State Tax AppropriationsChanges by Agency
State Tax AppropriationsHigher Education vs.
Elementary/Secondary Education
Sources of GRF
Page 38
39
State of Illinois Financial Liabilities
The 5 State Pension Systems
Medicaid Liability 15
Current Unfunded Liability 35.1 billion
  • Teachers Retirement (not Chicago) 17.9B
  • State Employees Retirement 11.2B
  • State Universities Retirement 5.3B
  • Judges Retirement 0.6B
  • General Assembly Retirement 0.1B

House Demographic Analysis FY 2006 Adjusted
Pension Funding 2005 - 2045
  • Taxpayers will contribute 286.6 billion to the 5
    pension systems.
  • 40 will cover benefits paid and
  • 60 will make payments on past years unfunded
    liability

Page 39
40
Illinois Projected Employment Growth, 2002-2012
Page 40
41
Average Compounded Annual IncreasesFY 1990 FY
2007
University of Illinois Share of State Tax
Appropriations FY 1980 to FY 2007
University of IllinoisPayments on Behalf
State of IllinoisGeneral Fund Appropriation FY
2007
Page 41
42
University of Illinois Budget by Source of
FundsFY 1980, FY 2007 and Projected FY 2017
FY 1980
Projected FY 2017
FY 2007
641.7 Million
7,048.5 Million
3,683.8 Million
Based on FY 1996-2007 Trends.
Excludes AFMFA.
Page 42
43
University of IllinoisAll Source of Funds FY
1990 FY 2007(Dollars in Millions)
University of IllinoisAll Source of Funds as a
of Total BudgetFY 1990 FY 2007
University of IllinoisCumulative GrowthFY 1990
FY 2007
State Tuition Pay for Instructional
Function Expenditures by Function FY 2005
Page 43
44
Total Endowment-Equivalent Adjusted for Student
FTE EnrollmentUniversities with More Than 20
Million in Federal Research in Rank Order
The Center The Top American Research
Universities(August 2002)
2004 Adjusted Total Endowment-EquivalentBased on
The Centers MethodologyUIUC Peer Institutions
(in billions)
2004 Adjusted Total Endowment-EquivalentBased on
The Centers MethodologyUIC IBHE Peer
Institutions (in billions)
Page 44
45
Big Ten University and Foundation
Endowments (Dollars in Billions)
Percentage Growth from 1995-2005
FY 2005
Big Ten University and Foundation Endowments
Annual Change in Endowment Spending
Page 45
46
Public Higher Education Capital Appropriation
History FY 1999 to FY 2007(Dollars in Thousands)
U of I Capital AppropriationsFY 1995 to FY
2007(Dollars in Millions)
Total Debt by Type
Total Debt by Campus
Page 46
47
Economy and BudgetImplications for the
University of Illinois
  • The economic value of higher education to the
    individual especially those with
    post-baccalaureate degrees continues to grow.
  • The U.S. economy will continue to grow, but at a
    slower rate. Health care costs continue to grow
    at a more rapid rate than general inflation and
    earnings which has an impact on both the national
    economy and governmental spending at all levels.
  • The states fiscal situation, while somewhat
    improved, faces continued challenges in the
    coming years. Health care and pension obligation
    costs are expected to continue rising rapidly and
    will likely outpace any state revenue growth
    realized resulting in continued constraints on
    discretionary spending in the state budget
    (e.g., higher education).
  • The state has greatly increased its debt burden
    in the last four years creating a reluctance
    among state policymakers to fund additional
    capital improvements. At the same time, the
    University must increasingly rely on internal
    sources for funding capital projects which in
    turn has contributed to increased debt service
    levels.
  • The University has become more reliant on
    multiple revenue streams and state policymakers
    may interpret this trend as meaning the
    University can more easily absorb reductions or
    at least flat funding in the general
    appropriation.

Page 47
48
Research, Technology, and Economic Development
Page 48
49
Trends in Federal RD Funding
Federal Outlays for RDAll Agencies Annual
Percentage Change
Federal Outlays for RDNational Institute of
Health Annual Percentage Change
Federal RD Budget Proposal (Dollars in Millions)
Federal Outlays for RDNational Science
Foundation Annual Percentage Change
Page 49
50
Total Research and Development Expenditures of
Carnegie Research I Institutions, FY 2004
Page 50
51
University of Illinois Rank Among AAU
Institutions on Selected Quality Indicators
Sources National Science FoundationUSDA
Obligations, State/Local and Federal R D
spending, No. Post doctorates IPEDSNo.
Doctorates Thomson ISINo. Faculty Citations.
Page 51
52
International Comparison Production of
Undergraduate Degrees in Natural Sciences and
Engineering
Note Natural sciences include physical,
biological, earth, atmospheric, ocean,
agricultural, and computer sciences, and
mathematics. Data include terminal
undergraduate degrees only (e.g., bachelors
degrees). Source National Science Foundation
(NSF), Science and Engineering Indicators 2006.
Page 52
53
International Comparison Doctoral Degrees
Granted in Natural Sciences and Engineering
(1993 2003)
Notes Natural sciences include physical,
biological, earth, atmospheric, ocean,
agricultural, and computer sciences, and
mathematics. Data for China ends in
2001. Data for all countries include degrees
granted to both native and foreign national
students. Source National Science Foundation
(NSF), Science and Engineering Indicators 2006.
Page 53
54
University of Illinois Technology TransferU.S.
Patents
Applications Filed FY 1999 FY 2005
Technology Disclosures FY 1999 FY 2005
Issued FY 1999 FY 2005
Licenses Options Executed FY 1999 FY 2005
Page 54
55
University Technology Transfer and
Commercialization Performance Index 2000 - 2004
  • Rank Institution Name
  • Massachusetts Inst. Of Technology (MIT)
  • University of California System
  • California Institute of Technology
  • Stanford University
  • University of Florida
  • University of Minnesota
  • Brigham Young University
  • University of British Columbia
  • University of Michigan
  • New York University
  • Georgia Institute of Technology
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • University of Illinois, Chicago, Urbana-Champaign
  • University of Utah
  • University of Southern California
  • Cornell Research Fdn., Inc.
  • University of Virginia Patent Fndtn.
  • Harvard University
  • Overall Score
  • 100.00
  • 96.59
  • 92.94
  • 92.65
  • 86.11
  • 85.55
  • 85.41
  • 84.23
  • 82.54
  • 81.63
  • 80.95
  • 80.83
  • 80.35
  • 79.40
  • 79.28
  • 78.69
  • 78.52
  • 77.68

Brief Methodology Description The purpose of this
index is to show performance in the overall
commercialization pipeline, including all
research fields. The four criteria (outcome
measures) that factor into the overall score are
Patents Issued, Licenses Executed, Licensing
Income, and Startups. A weighted average of the
scores in these areas was computed. The
Licensing Income and Startups scores received the
highest weights since they are the most direct
outcome measures. The overall scores have been
re-benchmarked to 100 in order to form an index.
SOURCE Milken Institute. Mind to Market A
Global Analysis of University Biotechnology
Transfer and Commercialization. September 2006.
56
Energy Use Projections
Energy CostsCumulative Increases
Page 56
57
Renewable Energys Role in U.S. Supply
Illinois Renewable Energy Presence
  • Wind is the worlds fastest growing energy
    technology.
  • Illinois currently has 6 ethanol plants in
    operation and 1 under construction.
  • Illinois corn is used to produce 40 of the
    ethanol consumed in the U.S.
  • Investment by the ethanol industry in Illinois
    exceeds 1 billion, generating  800 jobs in plant
    operations and 4,000 jobs in the industry-related
    service  sector.
  • ADM is the largest producer of fuel ethanol in
    the U.S.
  • UIs Renewable Energy Efforts
  • UIUC will build 3 wind turbines on the South
    Farms to provide electricity and serve as a
    demonstration to farmers (2007).
  • UIUCs new business building will be its first
    sustainable building, utilizing solar panels and
    other clean technologies.

OECD Renewable Energy Growth
Illinois Nuclear Presence
  • Illinois has 6 nuclear power plants, the largest
    family of nuclear facilities in the Nation.
  • Over half of Illinois power is derived from
    nuclear.
  • Illinois nuclear generation capacity is greater
    than any other state and all but seven world
    nations.
  • Illinois is also home to the Department of
    Energys Argonne National Laboratory and Fermi
    National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab).
  • Argonne has a long history of research and
    development in nuclear reactor technology.
  • Fermilab conducts research on the frontier of
    high energy physics and related disciplines.
  • University of Illinois faculty have a history of
    collaboration with researchers at both facilities.

Page 57
58
Research, Technology, Economic
DevelopmentImplications for the University of
Illinois
  • Federal RD spending has slowed significantly in
    recent years and this pattern is likely to
    continue in the near term due to the slowing
    economy and other significant pressures on the
    federal budget (e.g., defense, homeland
    security).
  • The bedrock of economic development through
    research and technology commercialization are top
    quality science and engineering faculty and
    students. Intense competition for science and
    faculty and students nationally and
    internationally coupled with stagnant state and
    federal funding will create serious challenges
    for major research institutions such at the
    University of Illinois as they attempt to
    maintain and enhance the quality and
    competitiveness of their research programs and
    technology commercialization endeavors.
  • Land grant and other major research universities
    are increasingly expected to have technology
    transfer as a key part of their overall economic
    development mission. The Universitys efforts in
    this area have grown considerably in recent years
    although many technical and competitive
    opportunities (and challenges) remain.
  • Global interest in renewable energy sources will
    continue to grow in the future due to the overall
    increase in demand and continued concerns about
    the cost and supply of fossil fuels and other
    traditional energy sources. The University has
    an opportunity to take a leadership role in
    energy research and development given its
    proximity to traditional (e.g., coal, nuclear)
    and renewable (e.g., biomass, wind) energy
    sources and its fundamental strengths in science
    and engineering disciplines.

Page 58
59
Political Landscape
Page 59
60
Page 60
61
Page 61
62
Political LandscapeImplications for the
University of Illinois
  • Higher education issues have traditionally been
    state concerns, but Congress also has become much
    more interested in issues related to higher
    educations affordability and public
    accountability.
  • Growing public concern over affordability and
    recent legislation (e.g., Truth in Tuition)
    will make major increases in tuition challenging
    to achieve.
  • Congress is also interested in an array of issues
    concerned with Homeland Security, which will have
    implications for privacy and student issues.
  • The P-16 education continuum has been truncated
    in the minds of many state policymakers and no
    longer includes higher education there is,
    however, a significant focus on issues related to
    K-12 education and its financing.
  • While the University enjoys a broad base of
    support within the General Assembly, the
    dominance of other issues facing the state
    legislature (e.g., health care, pensions, K-12
    education) make it difficult to advance the
    Universitys (or higher educations) interests.
  • There is growing interest at both the state and
    national levels in creating complex data systems
    that would provide policy makers and the general
    public with detailed information on student
    progress through the P-16 educational pipeline
    and beyond to the work place.

Page 62
63
Sources
  • External Sources
  • U.S. Bureau of the Census
  • WICHE Enrollment Projections 2005
  • U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
  • Post Secondary Education Opportunity Newsletter
  • National Science Foundation Science and
    Engineering Indicators 2006
  • National Center for Public Policy and Higher
    Education
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
    Development (OECD)
  • U.S. Office of Trade and Economic Analysis
  • U.S. Office of Management and Budget
  • TIAA-CREF Institute Quarterly
  • Illinois Economic and Fiscal Commission
  • Milken Institute
  • Governors State Budget Recommendations for FY
    2007
  • House Democratic Budget Summit Document FY 2007
  • Northern Illinois University 2006 Illinois Policy
    Survey
  • U of I Reports
  • Profile of Students, Faculty and Staff by
    Race/Ethnic Group, Gender and Disability

Page 63
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