Making Maps With GIS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Making Maps With GIS PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 2a114-MjJiN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Making Maps With GIS

Description:

The Parts of a Map: Map Elements. The United States of America. Alaska ... Cartographers have designed hundreds of map types: methods of cartographic representation. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:67
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 26
Provided by: keith248
Learn more at: http://geosun.sjsu.edu
Category:
Tags: gis | making | map | maps | states | united

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Making Maps With GIS


1
Making Maps With GIS
  • Getting Started with GIS
  • Chapter 7

2
Making Maps With GIS
  • The Parts of a Map
  • Choosing a Map Type
  • Designing the Map

3
What is a map?
  • A graphic depiction of all or part of a
    geographic realm in which the real-world features
    have been replaced by symbols in their correct
    spatial location at a reduced scale.

power line
4
The Parts of a Map Map Elements
Border
Title
Neat line
The United States of America
Figure
Legend
Scale
Ground
Washington,D.C.
National Capital
Alaska
0
4
1
2
3
Hawaii
hundreds of
kilometers
0
Lambert Conformal Conic Projection
4
0
4
Source U.S. Dept. of State
Credits
Place name
Inset
North Arrow
5
Cartographic Elements
  • North arrow
  • Figure
  • Point/Line/Area symbols (cartographic entities)
  • Text
  • Place Names
  • Title
  • Reference Information
  • Scale
  • Projection(s)
  • Sources
  • Credits
  • Legend
  • Medium
  • Figure
  • Ground
  • Reference information
  • Border
  • Neatline
  • Insets
  • Scale up
  • Scale down
  • Metadata, e.g. index
  • Off-map references
  • Page coordinates
  • Graticule/Grid

6
Map impact
  • Distribution of Employment by State 1996
  • USA Employment Distribution 1996
  • U.S. Employment 1996 Distribution
  • America at Work
  • Where the Jobs are Today

7
Text Selection and Placement
6
6

e
t
u
o
R

S
d
U
u
M
New York
e
k
2
a

L
BM 232
CA
NV
LINE
AREA
POINT
Fig. 7.2
Some cartographic label placement conventions.
Points right and above preferred with no overlap.
Lines Following the direction of the line,
curved if a river. Text should read up on the
left of the map and
down on the right. Areas On a gently curved line
following the shape of the figure and upright.
8
Choosing a Map Type
  • Cartographers have designed hundreds of map
    types methods of cartographic representation.
  • Not all GISs allow all types.
  • Most have a set of basic types
  • Depends heavily on the dimension of the data to
    be shown in the map figure.

9
Map Types Point Data
  • Dot
  • Picture Symbol
  • Graduated Symbol

10
Map Types Line Data
  • Network
  • Flow
  • Isopleth

11
Map Types Area Data
  • Choropleth
  • Stepped surface
  • Hypsometric

12
Map Types Volume Data
  • Isopleth, Stepped Surface, Hypsometric
  • Gridded fishnet
  • Realistic perspective
  • Hill-shaded
  • Draped image map

13
Map Types Time
  • Multiple views
  • Animation
  • Moving map
  • Fly thru
  • Fly by

14
The Need for Design
  • To appear professional and avoid errors, GIS maps
    should reflect cartographic knowledge about map
    design.
  • A map has a visual grammar or structure that must
    be understood and used if the best map design is
    desired.
  • Cartographic convention (e.g. forests should be
    green).

15
Map Design
  • A GIS map is designed in a process called the
    design loop.
  • Good map design requires that map elements be
    placed in a balanced arrangement within the neat
    line.

16
The Design Loop
  • Create map layout
  • Draw on screen (proof plot)
  • Examine
  • Edit
  • Repeat until happy
  • Make final plot

17
Graphic Editors
18
Graphic Editor Software
  • Vector
  • Adobe Illustrator
  • CorelDraw
  • Freehand
  • Raster
  • Photoshop
  • CorelPaint
  • Fractal Paint

19
Map Design (2)
  • Visual balance is affected by
  • the "weight" of the symbols
  • the visual hierarchy of the symbols and elements
  • the location of the elements with respect to each
    other and the visual center of the map.

20
Visual center
5 of height
5 of height
Portrait
Landscape
21
Visual Layout
Eye expects balance and alignment
22
Symbol weight
23
Color and Map Design
  • Color is a complex visual variable and in a GIS
    is specified by RGB (red, green, blue) or HSI
    values.

HUE
INTENSITY
SATURATION
24
Color Primaries
Subtractive color
Additive color
25
Map Design and GIS
  • When a GIS map is the result of a complex
    analytical or modeling process, good design is
    essential for understanding.
  • The map is what distinguishes GIS as a different
    approach to the management of information, so
    extra care should be taken to improve the final
    maps that a GIS generates in a GIS task.
About PowerShow.com