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The seven sensory systems

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Title: The seven sensory systems


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  • Reading, Writing and Regulation
  • When the Alphabet Isnt Enough
  • Trina Westerlund, Founder Director
  • Cathy DeLeon, Director of Clinical Services
  • Childrens Institute for Learning Difference

3
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Learning Objectives
  • Participants of this session will
  • Identify the role of significant adults in
    helping a child develop self regulation
  • Describe accommodations and modifications to
    enhance sensory processing
  • Delineate elements of a learning environment that
    help children acquire the skills of self
    regulation

5
The session
  • Part I
  • What impacts the development of self regulation
  • Part II
  • How sensory processing supports or interferes
    with self regulation
  • Part III
  • The impact of entering school without self
    regulation skills and ability to self regulate

6
Guiding Principles
  • Children will do well if they can
  • Behavior is the clue, not the problem
  • CHILD
  • Your explanation guides your intervention
  • All adults in the relationship with a child have
    an impact on the degree of self regulation
    capacity

7
Part I
  • What impacts the development
  • of self regulation

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Self Regulation
  • The ability to
  • achieve, maintain and alter ones state to match a
    given task, situation or environment
  • initiate and cease activities in relation to task
    and situational demands
  • Its exhausting regulating a child who does not
    self regulate!

10
Self Regulation, cont
  • A dynamic process ever changing and on going
  • Often addressed via sensory and cognitive
    strategies

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Role of the caregiver
12
Role of the child
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Behavior is the clue, .not the problem!
  • Studies have shown poor self-regulation is
    related to disruptive and aggressive behaviors,
    poor attention and lower scores on cognitive
    measures
  • Children with poor self regulation disrupt their
    own and others ability to learn and interact
  • Self-regulation involves the capacity to modulate
    mood, self-calm, delay gratification and tolerate
    transitions in activities.
  • Calkins, S Dedmon, S. J. of Abnormal Child
    Psychology, 78, 34-46

14
Behavior is the clue, cont
  • Disorders of self regulation impact development
    of
  • social and participation skills
  • adaptive responses
  • motor skills
  • self confidence
  • What is that impact on each of the areas?

15
Behavior is the clue, cont
  • Self regulatory difficulties - central features
    in
  • autism spectrum disorders
  • ADHD
  • behavioral disorders
  • Degree of attention and nurturing children with
    poorly developed self regulation need is often
    beyond the capacity of a typical classroom setting

16
Behavior is the clue, cont
  • Children with difficulty self regulating may be
  • fearful and over cautious
  • withdrawn and self absorbed
  • defiant and negative
  • motorically disorganized
  • impulsive

17
Part II
  • How sensory processing supports or interferes
    with self regulation

18
Seven sensory systems
  • Vestibular
  • Auditory
  • Visual
  • Oral
  • Olfactory
  • Tactile
  • Proprioceptive

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The Vestibular Sensory System
  • Hold on
  • were in for a WILD ride!

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Vestibular Sensory Input
  • Receptors located in inner ear vestibular
    apparatus adjacent to inner ear
  • Provides information - position of head
  • Responds to pull of gravity
  • Referred often as great integrator
  • vast neural interconnections affecting
  • Muscle tone ? Timing / Sequencing
  • Balance ? Attention
  • Eye control ? Language
  • Coordination ? Emotional state and regulation

21
Auditory Sensory System
  • Now Hear this!

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Auditory Sense
  • Receptor is ear
  • Purpose - protective and discriminatory
  • Provides information - environment
  • alert to danger
  • discriminates giving precise mapping
    information
  • informs the what and where and when around us
  • Is transient input

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Visual Sensory System
  • I can see clearly now!

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Visual Sense
  • Receptor - eyes
  • Function - protective and discriminatory
  • Provides information - environment
  • Transient (an action) or long-lasting
  • Works in tandem with vestibular system
  • Sensory and motor component (eye movements)
  • Guidance system eye-hand, eye-foot coordination,
    etc

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Olfactory Sensory System
  • Mmmmm-
  • Whats that smell???

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Olfactory Sense
  • Receptor - nose and olfactory bulb
  • Function - protective and discriminatory
  • Evokes memories information
  • Direct path to the brain

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Olfactory Sensitivity Over-responsive
  • Acutely aware of scent and odor
  • May be accompanied by physiological reactions
  • May be precise or picky - food choices
  • May use sense of smell to identify objects or
    know people
  • May have difficult time in community eating
    places

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Oral Sensory System
  • Tastes great to me!

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Oral Sense (within the mouth)
  • Receptors are in the lips, tongue, palate, inner
    cheeks
  • Provides multiple types of information including
    taste, texture, feel, temperature
  • Function is both protective and discriminatory
  • One of the most sensitive (sensory rich)
  • areas of the body

30
Oral Sensory Sensitivity
  • Picky eater few food choices
  • May have long history - food refusals
  • May gag (nausea) at thought of foods
  • May be drawn to crispy foods that break up easily
    in teeth (munch/crunch)
  • Food choices/demands may lead to problems with
    nutrition

31
Tactile Sensory System
  • Lovin the
  • skin Im in!

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Tactile Sense (sense of touch)
  • Receptors - within the skin
  • Areas extremely sensory rich
  • face, mouth, hands, feet
  • Provides input - pressure, texture, temperature
  • Highly discriminatory and precise
  • Protective function danger alerts
  • bug on my arm bit of eggshell

34
Proprioceptive Sensation
  • I got the power!

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Proprioceptive
  • Receptors - muscles, tendons, joints and
    sheaths around bones
  • Provides information
  • awareness location and state of body parts
  • position of body and limbs
  • force and pressure
  • Function - modulation and discrimination
  • input needed to adjust all actions gross and
    fine motor
  • often involved in mediating physical pain or
    discomfort

36
Part III
  • The impact of entering school without self
    regulation skills and ability to self regulate

37
Arousal State
  • The ability to maintain and transition between
    different sleep and wake states
  • Quiet/calm alert state is often associated with
    prime learning state
  • States
  • sleepy ? hyper-focused
  • calm/alert ? active/alert
  • distressed ? meltdown
  • shutdown ? and more

38
Arousal State, cont
  • Highly influenced by ability to register and
    adapt to sensory input
  • Persons with sensory threshold differences
  • Easily affected by (the 4 As)
  • ? Arousal state
  • ? Attention
  • ? Affect
  • ? Action

39
Arousal State
  • Ability to filter sensory input is a sub-cortical
    process (below-thinking) that profoundly
    affects arousal state

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Input Output
  • (three circle diagram
  • Thermometer visual?????)

41
Shutdown meltdown
  • Without self regulation, children do not have
    skills needed for success
  • Two choices
  • MELTDOWN
  • SHUTDOWN

42
Elements learning environment
  • Empathy
  • Flexibility

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Summary
  • The role of significant caregiver is significant
  • Understand that self regulation is a skill and
    often NOT present therefore must distinguish
  • Understand that when you have the capacity to
    self regulate, all is fine and you will
  • If we stop at the shoulds, then we sell the
    child short
  • Understanding guides are interventions

44
Learning Objectives - review
  • Participants in this session will
  • Identify the role of significant adults in
    helping a child develop self regulation
  • Describe accommodations and modifications to
    enhance sensory processing
  • Delineate elements of a learning environment that
    help children acquire the skills of self
    regulation

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Thank you!!Childrens Institute for Learning
Differences206.232.9690Trina_at_ChildrensInstitute
.comCathyD_at_ChildrensInstitute.comwww.ChildrensI
nstitute.com
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