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Toshiba IP Video and Surveillance Basic Concepts in Networking CEU Course 061627


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Title: Toshiba IP Video and Surveillance Basic Concepts in Networking CEU Course 061627

Toshiba IP Video and Surveillance Basic
Concepts in Networking CEU Course 06-1627
IP Video Training Series
  • Part 1 Introduction to IP Video
  • Part 2 IP Video Components and Network Primer
  • Part 3 Designing an IP Video System

  • Defining Network Components
  • Servers and Protocols
  • Network Categories
  • Physical Media
  • IP Addressing Intro
  • Wireless

Basic Network
  • Collection of stand-alone computers that can
    communicate with one another
  • Allow users to share resources and communicate
  • Files
  • Printers
  • Databases
  • E-mails

  • Network Interface Card
  • Physically connects a device to a network
  • Transmits information in packet data
  • In an IP camera, NIC is built in
  • All NICs have a MAC (Media Access Control)
  • Assigned by the manufacturer of NIC
  • Contains 12 hexadecimal (base 16) digits
  • First 6 hex digits are manufacturers ID, last 6
    are devices serial number
  • Manufacturer of NIC reserves these serial numbers
    from a governing body
  • 00-AD-34-50-0B-80

  • Data, on Ethernet networks, is called a packet
  • Contains source and destination related
  • Packet is divided in parts
  • Preamble A preliminary signal transmitted over
    a LAN to control signal detection and clock
  • Header Information in a packet that precedes
    the actual data
  • Destination Address Address describing where
    data is going
  • Source Address Address describing where data is
    originating from
  • Data Actual payload
  • Trailer Error control information to check the
    quality of data

Hub and Switches
Used to connect multiple cameras to a network or
  • Hub vs. Switch
  • Both are used to connect network segments
  • Hub broadcasts data to all ports
  • When a packet arrives at one port it is copied to
    the ports, so all the network segments can see
    all packets
  • Leads to bottlenecks in the network
  • Serves as a conduit for passing data
  • Switch
  • Reads the destination of each packet and forwards
    it to the appropriate port
  • Maintains a table of each address and its port
  • Increases network speed
  • Switches are the best choice

Network Devices
  • Router
  • A device that forwards packets between networks
  • Connects at least two networks
  • These could be two LANs or LAN to the Internet
  • Is usually the first unit in a network
  • Perform other functions such as firewall, IP
    addressing, DHCP, and more
  • Uses packet headers and forwarding tables to
    determine the best path between the networks
  • Uses routing protocols to communicate with each
  • ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol Routing
  • A table built by a router that keeps track of all
    the addresses

A router can connect an IP camera network to
another network
  • Control incoming and outgoing data between a LAN
    and the Internet
  • Blocks IP addresses within the private network
  • Limit and control application ports
  • Many times it is built in the router
  • Specific applications use specific ports
  • E.g. HTTP uses port 80
  • Firewall needs to be configured to open ports for
  • A firewall can protect an IP camera network from
    unauthorized access

  • What do servers serve?
  • Domain Server
  • Computer that holds all the relevant information
    about a particular domain and answers quires
    about them
  • Provide user authorization and authentication
  • E-mail Server
  • System that manages e-mail traffic
  • Application Server
  • Network server dedicated to running particular
  • Database server
  • AutoCAD server
  • Storage server
  • FTP File Transfer Protocol server

Protocols and Servers
  • DHCP
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
  • Automates the assignment of IP addresses to
    devices on a network
  • Assigns subnet mask, default router, DNS server
  • Advantageous when deploying large number of
  • Automated process makes moving devices easy and
  • IP address is leased to a client for a certain
    amount of time
  • DHCP servers are used to assign IP addresses to
    large number of clients, E.g. multiple IP camera

DHCP Server
Devices automatically obtain IP addresses from
the DHCP server
IP addresses are private and internal to the LAN
Protocols and Servers
  • DNS
  • Domain Name Server
  • Resolves IP addresses to URL
  • E.g.
  • Can be used in a LAN for naming cameras
  • Subdomains can be used to organize domains
  • DDNS
  • Dynamic Domain Name Server
  • Allows users with a dynamic IP to have an
    Internet address
  • Users registers a host name with a DDNS service
  • When users IP changes, service provider updates
    DNS servers all over the world
  • Solution for small business or home users who
    dont have a static IP

DNS Server
DNS server finds is
and forwards information to the user
User types into browser
Protocols and Servers
  • SMTP
  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
  • E-mail standard for transmission over the
  • IP Cameras dont send mail themselves but send it
    through the SMTP server
  • Example
  • IP camera detects motion
  • IP camera sends image via SMTP server to recipient

SMTP Server
Alarm event triggers IP Camera. Camera sends an
image via the SMTP server
Email is sent from the SMTP server to the
Protocols and Servers
  • FTP
  • File Transfer Protocol
  • Used specifically to transfer files between
  • IP camera can FTP images to an FTP server to time
    lapse images on a web page

FTP and Web Server
Alarm event triggers IP Camera. Camera sends an
image to the FTP server. Web server grabs images
from the FTP server.
User browses to web site hosted by the web server.
Protocols and Servers
  • NAT
  • Network Address Translation
  • Also known as Port Forwarding
  • Gives your internal IP address an external
  • Maps a port on your external IP address to your
    internal address
  • E.g. ?
  • Example IP camera needs to be viewed but access
    to PCs on the LAN needs to be restricted

Each device has a different port number on the
external address
Internal Address External
Network Categories
  • LAN Local Area Network
  • Usually confined to relatively small geographic
  • Building
  • Office
  • Department
  • Number of computers range from two to thousands
  • MAN Metro Area Network
  • Connecting distant entities
  • Buildings
  • Campus
  • Offices in geographically separate areas
  • Ranges from 1 to 30 miles radius

Network Categories
  • WAN Wide Area Network
  • Connects geographically disbursed areas
  • Office branches
  • Access to LAN by remote employee
  • Large scale network connecting LANs via public
  • Used when LANs are too far apart to use
    traditional cabling
  • WAN medium could different
  • PSTN (Plain Old Telephone Network)
  • Fiber

A computer called by any other name …
  • Roles of computers in a network
  • Server
  • Network device that shares its resources with
    others on a network
  • Client
  • Personal computer or a work station in
    Client/Server environment
  • Client requests resources from a server
  • Host
  • Computer that does all the processing for a user
    on a network
  • Terminal
  • CPU-less computer used to send input (via
    keyboard etc) and to display output (via screen)
  • Peer (to Peer)
  • Computer that acts as a both client and server
  • Peer-to-Peer network is when two computers are
    connected directly to each other

Examples …
Client/Server Model
Host/Terminal Model
Network Computing …
  • Centralized Computing
  • Also known as host-based network
  • Hosts do much of processing
  • Highest performance
  • Cost and complexity increase
  • Client/Server
  • Built around domain structure
  • Server provides services
  • Client provides processing
  • Server is also called back-end

  • A part of the network that has common
    characteristics and connections
  • Segment is bounded by routers, bridges or
  • One of the most common practice to increase
    available bandwidth
  • If segmented correctly, most of the traffic from
    a segment will stay within the segment
  • Switches, Routers or Bridges are used to connect
    segment to the rest of the network
  • Segmenting the network simply means dividing it
    into smaller parts
  • Segment refers to the physical part (or chunk) of
    the network

Network Connectivity Physical Media
  • Most commonly used cable types
  • Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
  • Uses pairs of wires (conductors) twisted around
    each other
  • Combination of differential signal and the twists
    provide UTP with good noise rejection with
    maximum distance of 100 meters
  • Category 1 (Cat 1) used for Telephones (analog)
  • Cat 2 used for Telephone (digital)
  • Cat 3 10 Mb networks
  • Cat 4 16 Mb networks
  • Cat 5 100 Mb networks Most Commonly Used in
    10/100 Mb
  • Cat 5 Enhanced (Cat 5e) 1000 Mb networks
    (Gigabit networks)
  • Recommended for all new installations
  • Cat 6 1000 Mb networks (Gigabit networks)
  • Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
  • Uses same mechanism as UTP, but has a shield to
    provide better noise rejection with maximum
    distance of 90 meters

Cat 5e Patch Cable
  • Maximum length of Ethernet is 100m per segment
  • Has four pairs of twisted copper wire and is
    terminated by RJ-45 connector
  • Supports frequencies up to 100 MHz and speeds up
    to 1000 Mb/s
  • Can be used for Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM),
    Token Ring, 1000Base-T (1000Mb), 100Base-T
    (100Mb) or 10Base-T (10Mb) networks

Cross-Over Cat 5e Cable
  • Has four pairs of twisted copper wire and is
    terminated by RJ-45 connector
  • Supports frequencies up to 100 MHz and speeds up
    to 1000 Mb/s
  • Can be used to connect two devices in a peer to
    peer mode
  • Can be used for Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM),
    Token Ring, 1000Base-T (1000Mb), 100Base-T
    (100Mb) or 10Base-T (10Mb) networks

Network Addressing
  • In a network each device (node) is assigned a
    unique address like an address to a building
  • Data flows between nodes is identified with a
    source and a destination node like a letter in
    the mail
  • Network/Node structure is very similar to postal
  • Each network has an identifier that is unique to
    an organization
  • Each node within its home network also has a
    unique identifier

Private IP Address
  • IP addresses are controlled to ensure there are
    no duplicates worldwide
  • Organizations and ISPs lease addresses for their
  • ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names
    and Numbers manages this task
  • Access methods are developed so that
    organizations can also use non-controlled IP
    address to use internally for their networks
  • Private IP addressing schemes are designed for
    such purpose
  • Private IPs are non-routable on internet
  • Private IPs have to be converted to
    Internet-routable addresses
  • Private non-routable IP ranges are managed by
    local LAN administrators
  • to
  • to
  • to
  • to

IP Addressing Guidelines
  • Each device connected to the network must have a
    unique IP address for each of its interfaces
  • No duplicate address are allowed IP Address
    conflict may occur
  • All devices on a subnet must share the same
    network ID
  • Each subnets must have different ID then each
  • Each device on a subnet must have a unique ID
  • Device or node address can not be all 0s
  • IP address is used for testing only and
    should not be assigned to a device

Subnet (Sub-Network)
  • A process of dividing a network into smaller
    manageable parts
  • Subnet refers to the logical part of the network
  • A subnet is to a network what a network is to the

Subnet Mask
  • IP address contains two pieces of information
  • Network ID and Device ID
  • Subnet mask is used to separate the two from each
  • This is necessary to determine local address from
    the remote address
  • Rules for subnet mask
  • All devices on the single subnet have the same
    subnet mask
  • Zeros (0) must start at bit 1
  • Ones (1) must start at bit 32
  • Ones (1) must be contiguous, no Zeros in between

Wireless Networking
  • 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g comparison

Wireless Networking
  • 802.11n
  • 2.4GHz
  • Max Data Rate 540Mbps
  • Up to 100x faster than 802.11b and 10x faster
    than 802.11a and 802.11g
  • Adds MIMO (multiple input multiple output)
  • Multiple transmitter and receiver antennas to
    achieve higher data rate
  • Scheduled for release April 2008

Wireless Networking
  • WiMAX
  • IEEE 802.16 standard being developed
  • Max Data Rate 70Mbps
  • Coverage up to 31 miles
  • 2 to 11 GHz band
  • Non line of sight

Wireless Networking
  • Security
  • WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy)
  • 64-bit, 128-bit and 256-bit
  • Hex or ASCII keys
  • Security weakness in WEP
  • WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access)
  • More secure than WEP
  • Uses Pre-shared Key (PSK) based on passphrase
  • WPA2 being developed
  • Will eventually be replaced by 802.11i

Tools for Further Learning
  • This was an attempt to provide very brief
    overview of basic networking
  • Great number of resources are available on the
    Internet to further education
  • Thank You