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Health Psychology

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Health Psychology. Aspinwall and Duran. Health Psychology Definition. Health Psychology - Addresses questions ... Areas of Research in Health Psychology ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Health Psychology


1
Health Psychology
  • Aspinwall and Duran

2
Health Psychology Definition
  • Health Psychology - Addresses questions related
    to health
  • An example What is the best way to promote
    health and prevent disease? And What effects
    does personality have on health?

3
Old Health Perspectives
  • Biomedical
  • This model assumes illness is the consequence of
    biological pathogenesis
  • Health the absence of disease
  • Health is restored by mechanical means

4
Old Health Perspectives Cont
  • In treating health the biomedical way the major
    diseases of the time declined
  • Polio, Cholera, Influenza

5
New Health Perspectives
  • The major diseases of today are heart disease,
    cancer, and lung disease
  • Preventable through modifications in behavior
  • Also clear now that psychological attitudes and
    social factors maintain unhealthy behaviors

6
Biomedical Model Replaced
  • Biopsychosocial Model
  • Health and Illness are products of biological,
    psychological, and social factors

7
Areas of Research in Health Psychology
  • Psychological adjustment to serious mental
    illness or negative life events
  • Health beliefs and influences on behaviors to
    prevent or detect illness
  • Mind-body connections in the cause and treatment
    of serious mental illness

8
Areas of Research in Health Psychology
  • Psychosocial factors related to health and
    illness
  • Measurements of the quality of life

9
Adjustment to Serious Illness and Negative Life
Events
  • Adjustment of emotional reactions (habituate or
    adapt to a new comparison standard)
  • Adjust unrealistic beliefs of unrealistic good
    world to less benevolence
  • A search for meaning helps change attitudes and
    priorities

10
Research on adjustment to Serious Illness and
Negative Life Events
  • Regain a sense of mastery over ones health
  • Enhance sense of self worth (selective evaluation
    downward social comparisons)
  • Individual differences

11
Research on what causes people to engage in
health behaviors
  • Beliefs involving perceived barriers to taking
    action
  • Beliefs involving perceived susceptibility to
    illness
  • Beliefs involving perceived severity of illness

12
Also responsible for reducing or maintaining
unhealthy behaviors
  • Self-efficacy
  • Response efficacy
  • Social Norms

13
Research on Mind-Body Connections in the Causes
and Treatments of Illness
  • 1/3 of hospitalized medical patients with chronic
    conditions suffer from psychological disorders
  • Compared to 2-4 of the general population
  • Health psychologists train doctors in rapport
    to deal with this issue

14
Research on Psychosocial Factors Related to
Health and Illness
  • Hardiness Committed to important goals, believe
    they can control events in their lives, appraise
    problems as challenges
  • Research shows hardiness is related to self
    reports of good physical and mental health

15
Research on Psychosocial Factors Related to
Health and Illness
  • Explanatory style the tendency to explain
    beliefs in certain ways
  • Pessimistic vs. Optimistic
  • Pessimism equals unhealthy habits
  • Dispositional optimism an overall optimistic
    state in which generally expects the future to be
    good

16
Research on Psychosocial Factors Related to
Health and Illness
  • Optimism is related to better reports of physical
    health and quicker recovery from illness
  • Psychological Inhibition Concealing problems
    and negative emotions (bad for psychological and
    physical health)
  • Social Support may be particularly beneficial
    in highly stressful situations

17
Research on Quality of Life Measures
  • Use to measure the impact of illness and
    treatments on patients
  • Compare effectiveness of different treatments for
    same illnesses
  • Decide among different treatments when funds are
    limited
  • To date there are no widely accepted definitions
    of quality of life

18
Research on Challenges to Adopting and
Maintaining Specific Health Behaviors
  • Health Psychologists
  • James Prochaska and Carlo DiClemente
  • Created the five stages of change involved in
    stopping high risk behaviors or adopting healthy
    behaviors

19
5 stages of change
  • Precontemplation- not thought about
  • Contemplation intend to change in 6 months
  • Preparation plan to change within 30 days and
    making some attempts
  • Action have changed for up to 6 mos
  • Maintenance continued change for more than 6
    months
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