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Wireless DAS Update

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Wireless Infrastructure consist of antenna systems and the infrastructure needed ... Specification created in 1999 jointly by Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia, and Toshiba ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Wireless DAS Update


1
Wireless DAS Update
  • AGENDA
  • Wireless Infrastructure
  • Distributed Antenna Systems
  • Backhaul Antenna Systems
  • Summary
  • QA

Tony Whaley, RCDD/NTS/WD/CWP, CTS RTKL
Associates, Baltimore, Maryland
2
Wireless Infrastructure
  • Wireless Infrastructure consist of antenna
    systems and the infrastructure needed to support
    them.
  • During this session we will discuss the types of
    wireless infrastructures
  • The Distributed Antenna System.
  • Backhaul Antenna Systems.
  • These wireless infrastructures are vastly used
    today and are critical to the deployment of
    wireless services.

3
Distributed Antenna Systems
  • Overview
  • Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) are the
    deployment of various antenna configurations used
    to extend the coverage of wireless or mobile
    signals inside and outside of structures where RF
    signals do not reach and traffic density is often
    very irregular.
  • Most people think of a DAS as an indoor antenna
    systems and most of our focus will be on indoor
    DAS applications, we will review campus and wide
    area DAS applications in minor detail.
  • The size of the systems typically varies from a
    small repeater or enhancer system covering 2 or 3
    floors of a small office block to large-scale
    systems using a Base Transceiver Station (BTS) to
    cover many floors or areas of a building complex
    or campus environment.

4
Distributed Antenna Systems Cont
  • The two technologies that Distributed Antenna
    Systems will support are
  • Data Networks such as 802.11 Networks, WiMax
    Networks, and Blue Tooth Networks.
  • Telecommunications Networks such as PCS, GSM,
    GPRS, iDEN, UMTS (3G).
  • The following is a brief overview of these
    networks.

5
802.11
  • What is an 802.11?
  • IEEE standard that specifies medium-access and
    physical-layer specifications for 1Mbps and 2Mbps
    wireless connectivity between fixed, portable,
    and moving stations within a local area.
  • 802.11a transmits radio signals in the 5 GHz
    range at a bandwidth of 54 Mbps .
  • 802.11 b transmits radio signals in the 2.4 GHz
    range at a bandwidth of 11 Mbps.
  • 802.11 g transmits radio signals in the 2.4 GHz
    range at a bandwidth of 54 Mbps.
  • 802.11n transmits radio signals in the 2.4 and 5
    GHz range at a bandwidth of 245 Mbps.
  • 802.11y transmits radio signals in the 3.7 GHz
    range at a bandwidth of 54 Mbps.

6
WiMax
  • What is WiMax?
  • 802.16 (WiMax) is a group of broadband wireless
    communications standards for metropolitan area
    networks (MANS).
  • The original 802.16 standard, published in
    December 2001, specified fixed point-to-multipoint
    broadband wireless systems operating in the
    10-66 GHz licensed spectrum.
  • An amendment, 802.16a, approved in January 2003,
    specified non-line-of-sight extensions in the
    2-11 GHz spectrum, delivering up to 70 Mbps at
    distances up to 31 miles.

7
IEEE 802.15 (Bluetooth?)
  • What is Bluetooth?
  • Bluetooth is the name for a short-range radio
    frequency (RF) technology that operates at 2.4
    GHz and is capable of transmitting voice and
    data.
  • The effective range of Bluetooth devices is 32
    feet (10 meters). Bluetooth transfers data at the
    rate of 1 Mbps, which is from three to eight
    times the average speed of parallel and serial
    ports, respectively.
  • Specification created in 1999 jointly by
    Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia, and Toshiba

8
IEEE 802.15 (Bluetooth?)
  • Named after 10th century Danish Viking King
    Harald Bluetooth Blaatand
  • This is a technology that enables wireless
    communication between Bluetooth-compatible
    devices. It is used for short-range connections
    between desktop and laptop computers, PDAs (like
    the Palm Pilot or Handspring Visor), digital
    cameras, scanners, cellular phones, and
    printers.

9
Telecommunications Networks
  • Mobile Wireless or Cellular Networking is a
    frequency re-use strategy used by all of the
    mobile telephone systems (and some PBX/LANs)
  • Below are some of the more common Mobile Wireless
    Networks being deployed today
  • 800Mhz Cellular
  • PCS
  • GSM
  • ESMR
  • UMTS(G4)
  • DAS will support these systems in an indoor
    environment and Wireless Backhaul Antenna Systems
    are used to support them in an outdoor
    environment.

10
Distributed Antenna Systems
Campus Distribution
In Building Services
Cellular Back Haul
11
DAS Components
  • Antennas
  • Antenna Mounting Components
  • Cabling Distribution
  • Active Distribution Equipment
  • Passive Distribution Equipment

12
Antennas
  • Purpose and characteristics of Antennas
  • An Antenna is a device to transmit and/or receive
    electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic waves are
    often referred to as radio waves.
  • Most Antennas are resonant devices, which operate
    efficiently over a relatively narrow frequency
    band.
  • An Antenna must be tuned (matched) to the same
    frequency band as the radio system to which it is
    connected otherwise reception and/or transmission
    will be impaired.

13
Antenna Types
  • Primary Antenna types in DAS configurations are
  • Omni Directional
  • Broadcasts in all directions
  • Examples are whip, helical and dipole
  • Directional
  • Broadcast in a single direction
  • Examples are Yagi, and parabolic
  • Leaky Coax
  • Broadcasts along path of the coaxial cable
  • Coaxial cable with the closely spaced slots in
    the outer conductor allowing signals to penetrate
    to the core

14
Antennae Types
  • Omni Directional
  • Broadcasts in all directions
  • Examples are whip, helical and dipole

15
Antennae Types
  • Directional
  • Broadcast in a single direction
  • Examples are Yagi, Panels, and parabolic antennas

16
Antennae Types
  • Leaky Coax
  • Broadcasts along path of the coaxial cable
  • Coaxial cable with the closely spaced slots in
    the outer conductor allowing signals to penetrate
    to the core

17
Main Antenna Systems
  • Overview
  • The main antenna system acts as the DEMARC for
    the DAS. It consist of either a line-of-site or
    non line-of-site antenna configuration which are
    used to extend the coverage of wireless or mobile
    signals outside of structures
  • The main antenna system will capture, regenerate
    and broadcast the service provider signal to the
    Headend of the DAS.

18
Main Antenna System Components
  • Lighting Protection
  • Cabling
  • Cabling Distribution
  • Building or Tower Mounts
  • Antennas

19
In Building-DAS Infrastructure
  • In Building-Das Infrastructure is compose of
    three major components
  • Antenna Systems.
  • Omni Directional
  • Directional
  • Leaky Coax
  • Active Distribution Equipment
  • Head End
  • Back End
  • Passive Distribution Equipment.
  • Directional Couplers
  • Bias Tees
  • Hybrid Couplers
  • Power Splitters

20
Antenna Placement
  • In-building DAS design typically uses omni or
    directional antennas to provide RF coverage for
    indoor areas.
  • The directional antennas provide high gain and
    allow the designer to control the signal coverage
    area.
  • The omni antennas are used in the center of
    large areas to provide 360-degree coverage
    patterns.
  • Some parameters to consider when selecting the
    type of Antennae are
  • Antenna placement
  • Operating distance and transmitter power
  • Desired qualities like e.g. small size, good
    gain characteristics, omni-directional or
    directional radiation pattern. (consider also
    aesthetics)

21
Active Distribution Equipment
  • Active Distribution Equipment
  • Active distribution equipment consists of the
    electronics associated with DAS which require
    separate input power, usually 110 V AC or 220 V
    AC. This equipment commonly consists of
  • Transceivers
  • Power Supply Units
  • Amplifiers
  • Note These will be manufacturer specific

22
Active Distribution Equipment
  • Head-End Equipment
  • The primary device is the common control unit.
    The common control unit consists of several
    subsystems that have specialized functions within
    the Distributed Antennae System architecture.
  • The subsystems typically will include inputs for
    the signals that will be retransmitted through
    the Distributed Antennae System, the amplifiers
    for signal balancing, the output links to the
    back end devices consisting of either for fiber
    optic or coaxial cables, and the power supplies
    for delivering power to the transmission
    equipment.

23
Active Distribution Equipment
  • Back-End Equipment
  • Back end equipment is typically consists of
    active components that transmit and receive
    signals from the head end equipment and the
    Antennaes within the Distributed Antennae System.
    Back end equipment is most commonly of the same
    make and manufacturer of the Head end equipment,
    as open standards do not exist which will support
    integration of multiple manufactures.

24
BackEnd Equipment (Continued)
  • Back end equipment is interconnected to head end
    equipment via a backbone cable consisting of
    fiber optic or coaxial cabling. Cabling types
    will be determined specific to each manufacturer
    of Distributed Antennae System equipment.
  • Back end equipment is interconnected to the
    antennaes within the Distributed Antennae Systems
    via coaxial cabling or unshielded twisted pair
    (UTP) as in the case of traditional wireless
    access points (AP).
  • Back end equipment typically has a set number of
    devices and /or antennas it will serve. Sizing
    requirements will vary per manufacturer and are
    unique to each system.

25
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26
Passive Distribution Equipment
  • Passive distribution equipment does not
    require external power input. These components
    can be used in conjunction to an active DAS, or
    as a completely passive system
  • Directional Couplers
  • A directional coupler is a linear device which
    couples part of the transmission power by a known
    amount out through another port, often by using
    two transmission lines set close enough together
    such that energy passing through one is coupled
    to the other.
  • Bias Tees
  • Typically in combination with a Power Supply,
    Bias Tees can be used for remote powering of RF
    repeaters, tower-mounted amplifiers, relays or
    other bi-directional amplifiers in a wide
    frequency band while not disrupting the RF or AC
    signal.

27
Passive Distribution Equipment
  • Hybrid Couplers
  • The Hybrid Couplers have been designed to meet
    the special needs of the wireless market. They
    are most commonly used to combine two wireless
    bands to a single antenna feed or distribution
    cable.
  • Power Splitters
  • A power splitter is a passive device, which
    accepts an input signal and delivers multiple
    output signals with specific phase and amplitude
    characteristics. The output signals theoretically
    possess the following characteristics
  • Equal amplitude
  • 0 phase relationship between any two output
    signals
  • High isolation between each output signal
  • Unequal Splitters
  • Unlike capacitive couplers, the unequal splitters
    maintain DC continuity both to the main and
    coupled ports.

28
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29
Media Needs Indoors
  • Cable distribution, three types of cable are
    commonly recognized.
  • Single-mode fiber optic cable.
  • Single-mode fiber optic cable is primarily used
    for outdoor applications, interconnecting remote
    transceivers, up to 5 Km, back to the BTS.
  • Multi-mode fiber optic cable is primarily used
    for indoor applications, interconnecting remote
    transceivers, up to 500 m, back to the BTS.
  • Unshielded Twisted Pair cable.
  • Used for connectivity of Wireless LAN Access
    Points to the Backend or Network equipment.
  • Coaxial cable.
  • Used for indoor and outdoor applications,
    interconnecting Antennas to remote transceivers
    or repeaters in smaller applications, back to the
    BTS. In the case of LCX Leaky Coax the cable
    plant is the bi-directional Antennae system.

30
Design Considerations
  • There are two potential problems with using a DAS
    to support mobile communications in buildings and
    spaces that commonly require coverage by the
    retransmission of RF signals
  • The availability and usability of RF signals in
    the intended coverage areas (coverage)
  • The ability to support the demands of the
    system users and recipients (capacity)

31
Design Considerations
  • The implementation of a well-designed and
    configured DAS should address either or both of
    these areas.
  • Design requirements begin with a needs analysis
    and follow with the evaluation process for
    determining the specific configuration of the
    DAS.
  • This is conducted in a minimum of three phases
    pre-installation (Needs Analysis/Site Survey),
    installation, acceptance, and implementation.

32
Campus and Wide Area-Antenna Systems
  • There may be antenna systems that need to provide
    outdoor coverage for Campuses, parks, or cities.
    Usually the service being extended it the clients
    LAN of a WIFI Hotspot.
  • These systems will need and antenna distribution
    system that will support coverage in these
    locations. The Campus and Wide Area-Das
    (Outdoor) environments.
  • The major components are the antennas themselves
    and the mounting systems that will be used. In a
    campus or wide area environment and combination
    of buildings and towers may be used to place the
    antenna systems for area coverage.
  • The active and passive distribution equipment
    remains the same. The antenna system extends the
    service coverage.

33
Outdoors-DAS Infrastructure
  • Outdoors-Das Infrastructure is compose of several
    components
  • Antenna Systems.
  • Omni Directional
  • Directional
  • Towers and Mounts
  • Self Supporting
  • Monopoles
  • Guys
  • On buildings and other structures
  • Cabling Systems.
  • Coax
  • Single-mode Fiber
  • Amplifiers and Couplers
  • Directional Couplers
  • Bias Tees
  • Hybrid Couplers
  • Power Splitters

34
Antennae Placement
  • Outdoor DAS design typically uses omni or
    directional antennas to provide RF coverage.
  • The used of towers and building will needed to
    support the antenna systems.
  • Some parameters to consider when selecting the
    type of Antennae and mounting location are
  • The size of the area needing coverage.
  • The environment of the area needing coverage
    (buildings, trees, etc.).
  • Operating distance and transmitter power
  • Desired qualities like e.g. small size, good
    gain characteristics, omni-directional or
    directional radiation pattern.

35
Design Considerations
  • Design Considerations
  • Design requirements begin with
  • Needs Analysis/Site Survey
  • Evaluation Process for determining the specific
    configuration of Distributed Antennae Systems.
  • This process is conducted in a minimum of three
    phases Pre-construction, construction, and
    acceptance/implementation.

36
Back Haul Antenna Systems
  • Overview
  • Back Haul Antenna Systems are the deployment of
    various line-of-site and non line-of-site antenna
    configurations which are used to extend the
    coverage of wireless or mobile signals outside of
    structures
  • These systems provide point to point and point to
    multipoint communications over long distances in
    support of Cellular, PCS, SMR, Commercial
    Carriers, Unlicensed, and Licensed Wireless.
  • The size of the systems typically varies with the
    type of system being deployed.

37
A Cellular Telephone System
Local Office
Land-Based Subscriber
Toll Office
To Other Offices (toll and local)
A
Local Office Bell Operating Company
Separate Subsidiary
A
Mobile Telecommunications Switching Office
Legend Trunks to Radios (not shown to all
cell sites) Control Paths
38
System Components
  • Radios and Radio Repeaters
  • Amplifiers and Filters
  • Cabling
  • Cabling Distribution
  • Towers and Mounts
  • Antennas

39
Tower Types
  • Self Supporting
  • Monopoles
  • Guys

40
Building Mounts
  • On buildings or other structures

41
Antennae Placement
  • Backhaul antenna design typically uses omni or
    directional antennas to provide RF coverage for
    point-to point and point-to-multipoint systems.
  • The directional antennas provide high gain and
    allow the designer to control the signal coverage
    area.
  • The omni antennas are used in the center of
    large areas to provide 360-degree coverage
    patterns.
  • Some parameters to consider when selecting the
    type of Antennae are
  • Distance between points
  • Transmitter power
  • Antenna Gain
  • Mounting Requirements

42
Wireless Issues
  • Interference
  • Security
  • Redundancy
  • Right of way
  • Permits Zoning
  • Mobility
  • Cost
  • Speed
  • Reliability
  • Time to deploy
  • Re-use of investment
  • Hard to wire areas
  • License vs. un-licensed

43
Network Topologies
  • Point-to-Point
  • Single node to single node connection
  • Well suited for long distances, backhauls and
    dedicated service extension and where narrow beam
    antennas are used
  • Point-to-Multipoint
  • Allows multiple facilities to share a connection
    back to a common source node
  • Highly flexible with minimal or no changes
    required to install connections to additional
    facilities
  • Range is more limited due to a wider distributed
    power area
  • Mesh (also referred to peer-to-peer or
    multipoint-to-multipoint)
  • Highly flexible and provides for easy network
    expansion
  • Provides self-healing architecture
  • Reduces implementation and operating cost
  • Facilitates mobile operations

44
Topologies
  • Point-to-Point

45
Topologies
  • Point-to-Multipoint

46
Topologies
  • Mesh

47
Design Considerations
  • Design requirements begin with
  • Needs Analysis/Site Survey
  • Evaluation Process for determining the specific
    configuration of Distributed Antennae Systems.
  • This process is conducted in a minimum of three
    phases Pre-construction, construction, and
    acceptance/implementation.

48
Wireless Outside Survey
  • In performing an RF survey in a outside
    environment we will focus on the following area
  • Site Location
  • Location Type (Building or Tower)
  • Location Infrastructure
  • Path Analysis
  • Survey Documentation

49
Onsite Survey Tools
  • GPS for recording actual coordinates
  • Range finder for determining obstruction height
  • Balloon Float for obtaining LOS
  • Tape Measure
  • 802.11B Card and Laptop for Live Survey
  • Spectrum Analyzer
  • Lighting Beacons, Flares and Spotlights

50
Summary
  • Wireless Infrastructure is critical in the
    support of our everyday needs.
  • The Distributed Antenna system enables efficient
    use of available frequency spectrum and allows
    for effortless frequency planning. Furthermore,
    the total cost of ownership is relatively
    inexpensive. A well design system should be
    easily expandable to encompass additional
    operators or frequency bands or provide
    additional coverage.
  • The Backhaul Antenna systems supports data, voice
    and video services in may environments and across
    vast distances.

51
Wireless DAS Update
Thank You
Tony Whaley, RCDD/NTS/WD/CWP, CTS RTKL
Associates, Baltimore, Maryland twhaley_at_rtkl.com
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