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FTT 308 Introduction to Broadcast Journalism

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Title: FTT 308 Introduction to Broadcast Journalism


1
FTT 308 Introduction to Broadcast Journalism
  • Gary Sieber

2
Introduction
  • What is News?

3
Introduction
  • What is News?
  • Dictionary says
  • 1) New information about anything.
  • 2) Recent happenings.
  • 3) Reports of such events, collectively.
  • 4) A newspaper or broadcast news program.

4
What Is News?
  • 8 determinants of newsworthiness
  • Importance (to the greatest of viewers)

5
What Is News?
  • 8 determinants of newsworthiness
  • Importance (to the greatest of viewers)
  • Interest (regardless of importance)

6
What Is News?
  • 8 determinants of newsworthiness
  • Importance (to the greatest of viewers)
  • Interest (regardless of importance)
  • Controversy

7
What Is News?
  • 8 determinants of newsworthiness
  • Importance (to the greatest of viewers)
  • Interest (regardless of importance)
  • Controversy
  • The Unusual (Man bites dog!)

8
What Is News?
  • 8 determinants of newsworthiness
  • Importance (to the greatest of viewers)
  • Interest (regardless of importance)
  • Controversy
  • The Unusual (Man bites dog!)
  • Timeliness

9
What Is News?
  • 8 determinants of newsworthiness
  • Importance (to the greatest of viewers)
  • Interest (regardless of importance)
  • Controversy
  • The Unusual (Man bites dog!)
  • Timeliness
  • Proximity

10
What Is News?
  • 8 determinants of newsworthiness
  • Importance (to the greatest of viewers)
  • Interest (regardless of importance)
  • Controversy
  • The Unusual (Man bites dog!)
  • Timeliness
  • Proximity
  • Celebrity

11
What Is News?
  • 8 determinants of newsworthiness
  • Importance (to the greatest of viewers)
  • Interest (regardless of importance)
  • Controversy
  • The Unusual (Man bites dog!)
  • Timeliness
  • Proximity
  • Celebrity
  • Caught on Tape!

12
Introduction
  • What is News?
  • Some alternative notions
  • News is what people talk about during coffee
    breaks.

13
Introduction
  • What is News?
  • Some alternative notions
  • News is what people talk about during coffee
    breaks.
  • News means carrying on and amplifying the
    conversation of people themselves.
  • James Carey, Columbia University.

14
Introduction
  • What is News?
  • Some alternative notions
  • News is what people talk about during coffee
    breaks.
  • News means carrying on and amplifying the
    conversation of people themselves.
  • James Carey, Columbia University.
  • News is more than a mere collection of facts --
    News means telling stories.

15
Fiscal Year of Revenue
  • NewsCenter 16 45.9
  • Prime 17.5
  • Access 8.8
  • Late Fringe 6.6
  • Daytime (9a-4p) 5.5
  • Today Show 4.6
  • Olympics 4.6
  • Early Fringe (4-5pm) 3.0
  • Sports 2.2
  • Infomercials 1.4
  • TOTAL 100

16
News Revenue By Program
  • NewsCenter 16 _at_10/11pm(M-F) 24.4
  • NewsCenter 16 Morning Show(M-F) 22.3
  • NewsCenter 16 _at_ 6pm(M-F) 20.2
  • NewsCenter 16 _at_ 5pm (M-F) 11.9
  • NewsCenter 16 Saturday Morning 6.5
  • NewsCenter 16 _at_ 10/11pm (Sat/Sun) 4.6
  • NewsCenter 16 _at_ 530pm (M-F, Win.) 4.0
  • NewsCenter 16 _at_ Noon (M-F) 2.5
  • NewsCenter 16 Sunday Morning 1.8
  • NewsCenter 16 _at_ 6pm (Sat/Sun) 1.7

17
Introduction
  • Differences among the Media (plural, not singular)

18
Introduction
  • Differences among the Media (plural, not
    singular)
  • W. Phillips Davison -- Columbia University
    sociologist
  • Radio The alerting medium. Radios
    effectiveness comes from the immediacy of
    electronic communication.

19
Introduction
  • Differences among the Media (plural, not
    singular)
  • W. Phillips Davison -- Columbia University
    sociologist
  • Print (incl. Newspapers) The informing
    medium. Print has the unique ability to handle
    complexity and detail that the electronic media
    cannot. It also has the luxury of time to
    assemble coherent and meaningful analyses of
    events.

20
Introduction
  • Differences among the Media (plural, not
    singular)
  • W. Phillips Davison -- Columbia University
    sociologist
  • Television The involving medium. Television
    engages the emotions of viewers in a way that no
    other medium can. It combines the effects of
    pictures, sound, narrative, and electronic
    immediacy.

21
Newsroom Organization and Structure
22
Newsroom Organization and Structure
23
Newsroom Organization and Structure
24
Newsroom Organization and Structure
25
Newsroom Organization and Structure
26
Newsroom Organization and Structure
27
Newsroom Organization and Structure
28
Typical TV Station Departments
  • Production
  • Promotion
  • Engineering
  • Sales
  • Programming
  • Accounting
  • Management

29
16 mm Film
  • Portability
  • Ease of maintenance
  • Softer feel
  • Splice-and-tape editing
  • Difficulty with archive re-edits
  • Audio popping
  • Non-reusable medium
  • No electronic output

30
Function of Producer
  • No satellite coordination
  • No IFB communication
  • No concern about suitability of live material
  • Mostly stacking and timing
  • Not generally considered a management track
    position.

31
Emergence of ENG and videotape
  • Originally very bulky - not very portable
  • Electronic output for liveshots
  • Ease of editing (electronic, not splicing)
  • Harder feel - sharper edges, clarity
  • CCD led to improved low-light images
  • No processing required
  • Reusable medium

32
Electronic News Gathering (ENG)
Microwave signal line of sight
33
Electronic News Gathering (ENG)
34
Satellite News Gathering (SNG)
Speed of light 186,000 mi./sec. 1/4 sec.
delay between sender receiver
22,300 miles (each way)
35
Satellite News Gathering (SNG)
  • Geosynchronous Orbit

S
D
S
D
x
Earth
36
Satellite News Gathering (SNG)
  • Transponder transmitter / responder
  • multiple units on satellites that each receive,
    amplify, retransmit telecommunications
  • Window slot of transponder time reserved for
    use by purchaser
  • Uplink / Downlink
  • C-Band Ku-Band
  • Bird Satellite (K2, Westar 3, etc.)

37
Being Told vs. Being There
Viet Nam War
2-3 Days Elapsed
Event
Message
  • Many Gatekeepers
  • Importance of Anchors
  • Time for Analysis News Judgment
  • Loss of Immediacy

Photog/Rept.
L.A.- Developer Producer Editor Ex. Prod.
N.Y. - News Dir. Producer Ex. Prod. Anchor Editor
38
Being Told vs. Being There
Iraq War
Real Time - No Delay
Event
Message
  • No Gatekeepers / Filters
  • Anticipation of News - Not News Itself
  • Increased Importance of Correspondents
  • Participants Rather Than Observers
  • Immediate Engaging, But Not Necessarily
    Informing.

Photog/Rept.
39
Writing for Broadcast
Not as easy as it looks . . . Or sounds.
40
Lets Write a Haiku
  • Traditional Japanese poetry
  • 17 syllables total 5-7-5
  • Doesnt have to rhyme
  • Usually has some reference to one of the seasons
    of the year (but doesnt have to for our
    exercise).

41
Haiku
  • All that remains of those brave warriors'
    courage- these summer grasses
  • Basho
  • Haiku Master

42
Why Haiku?
  • It is similar to writing broadcast news copy
  • Written on short deadline.
  • Can say a lot in a very short span of time.
  • Demands an economy of words (17 syllables!).
  • Leaves room for only the most important ideas.
  • Requires precision and accuracy.
  • Effectiveness depends on the sound of the words
    as well as the meaning.
  • Must be read out loud..

43
Writing Broadcast vs. Print
  • Print Broadcast

44
Writing Broadcast vs. Print
  • Print Broadcast
  • Information processed Information processed by
    the eye by the ear

45
Writing Broadcast vs. Print
  • Print Broadcast
  • Information processed Information processed by
    the eye by the ear
  • Limited space Limited time

46
Writing Broadcast vs. Print
  • Print Broadcast
  • Information processed Information processed by
    the eye by the ear
  • Limited space Limited time
  • Unlimited review One-pass-through medium

47
Writing Broadcast vs. Print
  • Print Broadcast
  • Information processed Information processed by
    the eye by the ear
  • Limited space Limited time
  • Unlimited review One-pass-through medium
  • Detailed/Formal Conversational

48
Inverted Pyramid
Most Important
Lead sentence
Who, What, When, Where, Why, How
5 Ws H
Least Important
49
Writing for Broadcast
  • Economy of Words
  • Straight-line Meaning
  • Sounds Good
  • Passes the So What? Test
  • Familiar Terms
  • (Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis)

Do Not Write Down to Your Audience!
50
How Not to Write for Broadcast
The Elkhart County Parks Board today has a
better idea what needs to be done to shore up the
Goshen Dam. An engineers report recommends
covering the rock-filled mesh gabions with a
grout. The study also calls for working on
the earthen bank between the dam and the mill
race to retard erosion...
51
How Not to Write for Broadcast
The county is also waiting for a department
of natural resources report to find out what work
will be needed on the spillway itself. Parks
officials anticipate the D-N-R will recommend
redoing the face of the dam… pressure grouting
inside the structure… and installing a permanent
stilling basin to fight erosion downstream...
52
How Not to Write for Broadcast
Theres no estimate at this time how much the
work will cost… or when the D-N-R report will be
complete.
53
Or How About a Health News Story?...
In health news today… Stem cell research is
pointing scientists in a new direction concerning
cardiovascular disease. Researchers from Emory
University and the National Heart, Lung, and
Blood Institute compared levels of endothelial
progenitor
54
Or How About a Health News Story?...
cells in forty-five men and found the lowest
levels had the highest risk for developing the
disease. The two worst common forms of
cardiovascular disease are heart attack and
stroke. The study can be found in the New
England Journal of Medicine.
55
Take Two Aspirin
And in related health news… Emory researchers
have also established a link between two classes
of AIDS drugs and cardiovascular disease
risk. The study finds two forms of
anti-retroviral therapy may alter the way the
body metabolizes triglycerides, or blood fats.
56
Take Two Aspirin…
Researchers studied men and women who took
either protease inhibitors or drugs called
N-N-R-T-I-S and compared levels of a
triglyceride marker to volunteers not on the
therapy. They found all patients on the drugs
had elevated levels of the triglyceride marker.
57
Take Two Aspirin…
Experts say further study is needed to confirm
these results, but this finding could mean
anti-retroviral therapy elevates the risk of
cardiovascular disease. This study is being
presented today at the 10th conference on
retroviruses and opportunistic infections in
Boston.
58
Peanuts Anyone?...
A new study is yielding good news for parents of
children with peanut allergies… research suggests
some patients may eventually outgrow the
allergy. The study of 80 children with
established peanut allergies found that more than
half had no reaction when exposed to the nuts.
59
Peanuts Anyone?...
But two of those 64 had suspicious reactions
after eating peanuts again. Experts say the
findings suggest that in some patients, the
allergy may come and go.. And recommend kids
diagnosed with peanut allergy be re-tested every
year or two.
60
Peanuts Anyone?...
This study was conducted at Johns Hopkins
childrens center and is published in this
months issue of the Journal of Allergy and
Clinical Immunology.
61
President Who?...
President Bush is making the last stop in his
five-nation African tour in as many days, with a
visit to Nigeria this morning. President Bush
arrived in the Nigerian capital Saturday morning
to a ceremonious welcome. Bush was greeted by
Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo, who
62
President Who?...
has been at the forefront of resolving regional
disputes in Africa. The two heads of state are
expected to discuss the situation in Liberia and
the possibility of the United States contributing
peacekeeping troops to help bolster a
multi-national African force already in the
war-torn West African nation.
63
7 Parts of Speech
  • V
  • A
  • N
  • C
  • A
  • P
  • P

64
7 Parts of Speech
  • Verbs
  • A
  • N
  • C
  • A
  • P
  • P

65
7 Parts of Speech
  • Verbs (A journalists mortar)
  • A
  • N
  • C
  • A
  • P
  • P

66
7 Parts of Speech
  • Verbs (A journalists mortar)
  • Adjectives
  • N
  • C
  • A
  • P
  • P

67
7 Parts of Speech
  • Verbs (A journalists mortar)
  • Adjectives (Careful! - Objectivity)
  • N
  • C
  • A
  • P
  • P

68
7 Parts of Speech
  • Verbs (A journalists mortar)
  • Adjectives (Careful! - Objectivity)
  • Nouns
  • C
  • A
  • P
  • P

69
7 Parts of Speech
  • Verbs (A journalists mortar)
  • Adjectives (Careful! - Objectivity)
  • Nouns (A journalists bricks)
  • C
  • A
  • P
  • P

70
7 Parts of Speech
  • Verbs (A journalists mortar)
  • Adjectives (Careful! - Objectivity)
  • Nouns (A journalists bricks)
  • Conjunctions
  • A
  • P
  • P

71
7 Parts of Speech
  • Verbs (A journalists mortar)
  • Adjectives (Careful! - Objectivity)
  • Nouns (A journalists bricks)
  • Conjunctions (Careful! - Lengthy)
  • A
  • P
  • P

72
7 Parts of Speech
  • Verbs (A journalists mortar)
  • Adjectives (Careful! - Objectivity)
  • Nouns (A journalists bricks)
  • Conjunctions (Careful! - Lengthy)
  • Adverbs
  • P
  • P

73
7 Parts of Speech
  • Verbs (A journalists mortar)
  • Adjectives (Careful! - Objectivity)
  • Nouns (A journalists bricks)
  • Conjunctions (Careful! - Lengthy)
  • Adverbs (Careful! - Objectivity)
  • P
  • P

74
7 Parts of Speech
  • Verbs (A journalists mortar)
  • Adjectives (Careful! - Objectivity)
  • Nouns (A journalists bricks)
  • Conjunctions (Careful! - Lengthy)
  • Adverbs (Careful! - Objectivity)
  • Pronouns
  • P

75
7 Parts of Speech
  • Verbs (A journalists mortar)
  • Adjectives (Careful! - Objectivity)
  • Nouns (A journalists bricks)
  • Conjunctions (Careful! - Lengthy)
  • Adverbs (Careful! - Objectivity)
  • Pronouns (Careful! - Clarity)
  • P

76
7 Parts of Speech
  • Verbs (A journalists mortar)
  • Adjectives (Careful! - Objectivity)
  • Nouns (A journalists bricks)
  • Conjunctions (Careful! - Lengthy)
  • Adverbs (Careful! - Objectivity)
  • Pronouns (Careful! - Clarity)
  • Prepositions

77
7 Parts of Speech
  • Verbs (A journalists mortar)
  • Adjectives (Careful! - Objectivity)
  • Nouns (A journalists bricks)
  • Conjunctions (Careful! - Lengthy)
  • Adverbs (Careful! - Objectivity)
  • Pronouns (Careful! - Clarity)
  • Prepositions (Careful! - Lengthy)

78
Verbs
79
Verbs
  • Verb A word that expresses an action or a state
    of being.

80
Verbs
  • Verb A word that expresses an action or a state
    of being.
  • Action Verbs run, walk, hit, throw, etc.

81
Verbs
  • Verb A word that expresses an action or a state
    of being.
  • Action Verbs run, walk, hit, throw, etc.
  • Verbs of Being am, is, are, was, were, be,
    been, being (any form of to be) words like
    appear or feel.
  • Joey Falco is under arrest.
  • Rachel Warford appears ill despite this
    interesting lecture.

82
Action Verbs
83
Action Verbs
  • Action Verbs can be Transitive or Intransitive
  • Transitive verbs require a Direct Object.
  • They express an action that is performed on
    someone or something
  • Estella Ganger hit her roommate.
  • Leo Ferrine throws the baseball.

84
Intransitive Action Verbs
  • Intransitive Verbs do not take a Direct Object.
  • They express actions that do not require a
    recipient
  • Katie sings in the choir.
  • Colleen walks in the woods.
  • Vince writes beautifully.

85
Transitive Action Verbs
86
Voice
  • All Transitive Verbs Have 2 Voices
  • Active Voice
  • Subject performs the action
  • I hit you.

87
Voice
  • All Transitive Verbs Have 2 Voices
  • Active Voice
  • Subject performs the action
  • I hit you.
  • Passive Voice
  • Subject receives the action
  • You were hit by me.

88
Advantages of the Active Voice
  • Straight-line meaning.
  • Listeners less likely to confuse who did what.
  • Economy of words.
  • Saves time while promoting clarity.
  • More accurate reporting.
  • Forces the writer to include vital information.
  • More appealing to the ear.
  • Sounds more natural conversational.

89
Components of the Passive Voice
  • A verb phrase (at least 2 words)
  • Some form of to be in the verb phrase
  • The national anthem was sung by Katie
    Antonacci.
  • The subject of the sentence is the receiver,
    rather than the performer of the verbs action
  • Thomas McCall is being arrested for swimming in
    the reflecting pool.

90
Changing Passive Voice to Active Voice
  • Relocate the Actor -- usually by making the
    direct object the subject of the sentence
  • Lisa will be driven insane by Professor Sieber.

91
Changing Passive Voice to Active Voice
  • Relocate the Actor -- usually by making the
    direct object the subject of the sentence
  • Lisa will be driven insane by Professor Sieber.
  • Professor Sieber will drive Lisa insane.

92
Changing Passive Voice to Active Voice
  • Relocate the Actor -- usually by making the
    direct object the subject of the sentence
  • Lisa will be driven insane by Professor Sieber.
  • Professor Sieber will drive Lisa insane.
  • Identify the Missing Actor
  • The airplane was landed during the storm.

93
Changing Passive Voice to Active Voice
  • Relocate the Actor -- usually by making the
    direct object the subject of the sentence
  • Lisa will be driven insane by Professor Sieber.
  • Professor Sieber will drive Lisa insane.
  • Identify the Missing Actor
  • The airplane was landed during the storm.
  • Father Jenkins landed the airplane during the
    storm.

94
Changing Passive Voice to Active Voice
  • Change the Verb
  • The bell will be sounded at noon.

95
Changing Passive Voice to Active Voice
  • Change the Verb
  • The bell will be sounded at noon.
  • The bell will ring at noon.

96
Changing Passive Voice to Active Voice
  • Change the Verb
  • The bell will be sounded at noon.
  • The bell will ring at noon.
  • Simply Drop the to be Verb
  • The spotlight was focused on downtown.
  • The spotlight focused on downtown.

97
Passive Voice FAQs
  • Is the passive voice grammatically incorrect?
  • No, but it is a construction better suited for
    print than broadcast writing. The active voice
    is used more frequently in everyday conversation.
  • Is it ever O.K. to use the passive voice?
  • Sure, in a few rare cases. He was born in
    1973. She was injured in the fire.

98
You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)
  • The mountain was easily climbed by the scout
    troop.

99
You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)
  • The mountain was easily climbed by the scout
    troop.
  • The lost earrings were found by the sales clerk.

100
You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)
  • The mountain was easily climbed by the scout
    troop.
  • The lost earrings were found by the sales clerk.
  • Henrietta carried the injured dog to the pet
    hospital.

101
You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)
  • The mountain was easily climbed by the scout
    troop.
  • The lost earrings were found by the sales clerk.
  • Henrietta carried the injured dog to the pet
    hospital.
  • Mrs. Jennings was given a blue ribbon by the
    judges for her pie.

102
You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)
  • The Bartons car crushed our flower bed.

103
You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)
  • The Bartons car crushed our flower bed.
  • The charcoal was supplied by the park rangers.

104
You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)
  • The Bartons car crushed our flower bed.
  • The charcoal was supplied by the park rangers.
  • The news directors point was not missed by the
    reporter.

105
You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)
  • The Bartons car crushed our flower bed.
  • The charcoal was supplied by the park rangers.
  • The news directors point was not missed by the
    reporter.
  • A mistrial was declared in the case.

106
You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)
  • The Bartons car crushed our flower bed.
  • The charcoal was supplied by the park rangers.
  • The news directors point was not missed by the
    reporter.
  • A mistrial was declared in the case.
  • Teachers were taught a thing or two themselves.

107
You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)
  • He turned to the federal system after being
    rejected in his appeals by the state.

108
You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)
  • He turned to the federal system after being
    rejected in his appeals by the state.
  • Firefighters were called to the scene just before
    noon.

109
You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)
  • He turned to the federal system after being
    rejected in his appeals by the state.
  • Firefighters were called to the scene just before
    noon.
  • Scenes of the historic meeting were watched by
    viewers around the world.

110
You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)
  • He turned to the federal system after being
    rejected in his appeals by the state.
  • Firefighters were called to the scene just before
    noon.
  • Scenes of the historic meeting were watched by
    viewers around the world.
  • The pilot was let go and the escapees sped away.

111
You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)
  • A South Bend woman was arrested last night for
    leaving her children locked in a car for eight
    hours.

112
You Make the Call (Active or Passive?)
  • A South Bend woman was arrested last night for
    leaving her children locked in a car for eight
    hours. (Past Tense / Passive)

113
Dont Get Tense
  • A South Bend woman was arrested last night for
    leaving her children locked in a car for eight
    hours. (Past Tense / Passive)
  • Police arrested a South Bend woman last night for
    leaving her children locked in a car for eight
    hours.

114
Dont Get Tense
  • A South Bend woman was arrested last night for
    leaving her children locked in a car for eight
    hours. (Past Tense / Passive)
  • Police arrested a South Bend woman last night for
    leaving her children locked in a car for eight
    hours. (Past Tense / Active)

115
Dont Get Tense
  • A South Bend woman was arrested last night for
    leaving her children locked in a car for eight
    hours. (Past Tense / Passive)
  • Police arrested a South Bend woman last night for
    leaving her children locked in a car for eight
    hours. (Past Tense / Active)
  • Police have arrested a South Bend woman for
    leaving her children locked in a car for eight
    hours.

116
Dont Get Tense
  • A South Bend woman was arrested last night for
    leaving her children locked in a car for eight
    hours. (Past Tense / Passive)
  • Police arrested a South Bend woman last night for
    leaving her children locked in a car for eight
    hours. (Past Tense / Active)
  • Police have arrested a South Bend woman for
    leaving her children locked in a car for eight
    hours. (Present Perfect Tense)

117
Dont Get Tense
  • Police arrest a South Bend woman for leaving her
    children locked in a car for eight hours.

118
Dont Get Tense
  • Police arrest a South Bend woman for leaving her
    children locked in a car for eight hours.
    (Historical Present Tense)

119
Dont Get Tense
  • Present Tense
  • Terrail Lambert likes this class.

120
Dont Get Tense
  • Present Tense
  • Terrail Lambert likes this class.
  • Historical Present Tense
  • Terrail Lambert drives in three runs as the Irish
    beat North Carolina.

121
Dont Get Tense
  • Present Tense
  • Terrail Lambert likes this class.
  • Historical Present Tense
  • Terrail Lambert drives in three runs as the Irish
    beat North Carolina.
  • Present Perfect Tense
  • Terrail Lambert has driven in 54 runs so far this
    season.

122
Dont Get Tense
  • Past Tense
  • Terrail Lambert drove in three runs in Sundays
    win over North Carolina.

123
Dont Get Tense
  • Past Tense
  • Terrail Lambert drove in three runs in Sundays
    win over North Carolina.
  • Past Perfect Tense
  • Terrail Lambert had driven in three runs before
    the Tar Heels knew what day it was.

124
Dont Get Tense
  • Past Tense
  • Terrail Lambert drove in three runs in Sundays
    win over North Carolina.
  • Past Perfect Tense
  • Terrail Lambert had driven in three runs before
    the Tar Heels knew what day it was.
  • Future Tense
  • Terrail Lambert will drop this class if I keep
    using his name.

125
Types of TV News Stories
  • Reader (RDR)
  • Less than 30 seconds in length.
  • Used only when pictures are not available
    (breaking story, e.g.).
  • Talking Head (yuk!)

126
Types of TV News Stories
  • Reader (RDR)
  • Less than 30 seconds in length.
  • Used only when pictures are not available
    (breaking story, e.g.).
  • Talking Head (yuk!)
  • Anchor Voice-Over (AVO)
  • 20-40 seconds in length.
  • Used as a quick update to earlier story, or
    video headline of less important story.

127
Types of TV News Stories
  • Anchor Voice-Over w/ Soundbite (AVO/SOT - Sound
    On Tape)
  • 20-60 seconds in length.
  • Provides greater detail, comments from witnesses,
    officials, or natural sound.
  • Soundbites generally less than 10 seconds.
  • Dont be redundant getting into or out of
    soundbites.
  • Provide in-cues and out-cues for video bites.

128
Types of TV News Stories
  • Package (PKG)
  • An edited, self-contained videotape report of a
    news event or feature, complete with pictures,
    soundbites, voice-over narration, and natural
    sounds. The package is a form of narrative story
    telling with a beginning, middle, and ending.

129
Types of TV News Stories
  • Package (PKG)
  • The backbone of contemporary TV newscasts.
  • Great advantage Precision of editing pictures,
    sound, and narration.
  • 50 seconds - 200 in length. Depends on the
    overall quality of the story (importance, visual
    appeal, strong writing, etc.).
  • Provides depth and complexity.
  • Demonstrates firsthand knowledge.

130
Types of TV News Stories
  • Live Shots (LIVE)
  • Immediacy, Energy, Pace.
  • Often used as a wrap-around for packages.
  • Can include interviews.
  • Can be a remote AVO(/sot) by reporter.
  • Scripted in advance (most of the time).
  • Bad idea to memorize script verbatim.

131
Script Writing
  • Use the right half of the page for script.
  • Use the left half of the page for technical
    instructions (ENG , running time, etc.)
  • Write in ALL CAPS.
  • Double space
  • Indent every sentence as if it were a new
    paragraph.

132
Search Strategy
133
Search Strategy
  • Question Analysis

134
Search Strategy
  • Question Analysis
  • Identification of Potential Contributors

135
Search Strategy
  • Question Analysis
  • Identification of Potential Contributors
  • Informal Sources

136
Search Strategy
  • Question Analysis
  • Identification of Potential Contributors
  • Informal Sources
  • Institutional Sources

137
Search Strategy
  • Question Analysis
  • Identification of Potential Contributors
  • Informal Sources
  • Institutional Sources
  • Library Database Sources

138
Search Strategy
  • Question Analysis
  • Identification of Potential Contributors
  • Informal Sources
  • Institutional Sources
  • Library Database Sources
  • Interviews

139
Search Strategy
  • Question Analysis
  • Identification of Potential Contributors
  • Informal Sources
  • Institutional Sources
  • Library Database Sources
  • Interviews
  • Selection and Synthesis

140
Search Strategy
  • Question Analysis
  • Identification of Potential Contributors
  • Informal Sources
  • Institutional Sources
  • Library Database Sources
  • Interviews
  • Selection and Synthesis
  • Message

141
Search Strategy (Question Analysis)
  • Identify Concepts
  • Define Language (business, medical, legal)
  • Draw Disciplinary Boundaries
  • Refine Scope of Question
  • Identify Contributors

142
Search Strategy (Informal Sources)
  • Professional Networks
  • Citizen Networks
  • Casual Files
  • Observation! (3 types)
  • Routine
  • Participant
  • Unobtrusive

143
Search Strategy (Informal Sources)
  • Supervisors (Assignment Manager)
  • Colleagues
  • Clients
  • Neighbors
  • Friends
  • Newspapers, Magazines, Press Releases, File
    Clippings, etc.

144
Search Strategy (Informal Source Hazards)
  • Impressionistic
  • Opinion Based
  • Fragmentary
  • Possibly Inaccurate or Self-Serving
  • Informal sources are best used as STIMULATORS,
    providing the FIRST word in a story, not the LAST
    word.

145
Search Strategy (Institutional Sources)
  • Private
  • Businesses Corporations
  • Unions Labor Organizations
  • Foundations
  • Religious Institutions
  • Colleges Universities
  • Political Parties and Associations

146
Search Strategy (Institutional Sources)
  • Public
  • Municipal and City Government
  • State Government
  • Federal Government
  • Some International Agencies (but not all)

147
Search Strategy (Inst. Source Hazards)
  • Institutional Bias
  • U.S. Dept. of Defense vs. Womens International
    League for Peace and Freedom
  • Selective Disclosure of Information

148
Search Strategy (Interviews)
  • Individual
  • Group
  • Investigative
  • News Conference
  • Surveys/Polls

149
Search Strategy (Selection Synthesis)
  • Standards and Ethics
  • Evidence and Credibility
  • Audience Factors and Taste
  • Legal Issues

150
Ethics vs. Law
  • Law and Ethics are different subjects.
  • Vast majority of media ethics cases have no legal
    context BUT, almost all media law cases are
    dispatched without the slightest consideration of
    ethical principles.
  • Law is one source of moral precepts, but not the
    only (or necessarily best) source. Other
    sources Religion, Societal Values, Cultural
    Norms.

151
Ethics vs. Law
  • Law is a limited source of ethical values.
  • Often thought of as a floor, below which
    activities are considered immoral. BUT
  • Are all legal behaviors ethical?
  • Are all illegal behaviors unethical? (Thoreaus
    concept of Civil Disobedience Ghandi MLK).
  • mala en se vs. mala prohibita

152
Guiding Principles for Journalists
  • Seek the Truth and Report It.
  • Minimize Harm
  • Act Independently
  • Be Accountable

153
Quantifying Ethics?
HIGH HIGH LOW HIGH
Range of Acceptable Actions?
Minimize Harm
LOW LOW LOW HIGH
Seek Truth Report It
154
Quantifying Ethics?
HIGH HIGH LOW HIGH
Range of Acceptable Actions?
Be Accountable
LOW LOW LOW HIGH
Act Independently
155
The Potter Box
JUDGMENT?
I. Define the Situation II. Examine
Values
IV. Decide Loyalties III. Consult
Principles
SOCIAL ANALYTICAL
WHAT? WHY?
156
The Potter Box -- Ethical Principles
  • Aristotles Golden Mean (4th Cent. B.C.)
  • Moral virtue is the appropriate location
    between two extremes.

Shamelessness Modesty
Bashfulness Stinginess
Generosity Wastefulness
157
The Potter Box -- Ethical Principles
  • Immanuel Kant (Critique of Practical Reason -
    1788)
  • Act on that maxim which you will to become a
    universal law. (Categorical Imperative).
  • Certain actions (lying, cheating, stealing) are
    always wrong. The circumstances dont matter.
  • Deception by the media, even to get a good story,
    cannot be excused or tolerated.
  • An absolutist position.

158
The Potter Box -- Ethical Principles
  • John Stuart Mill (Principle of Utility -
    mid-1800s)
  • Seek the greatest happiness for the greatest
    number of people. Or The good of the many
    outweighs the good of the few -- or the one.
    (Star Trek The Wrath of Khan).
  • Focus on consequences rather than the inherent
    goodness or evil in the act itself.
  • Stealing from the rich to give to the poor is
    okay.
  • A relativist position.

159
The Potter Box -- Ethical Principles
  • John Rawls (Veil of Ignorance --contemporary
    egalitarian philosophy)
  • Justice emerges when negotiating without social
    differentiations.
  • Fairness is fundamental to justice ethics.
  • Behind the veil of ignorance, no one knows how
    they will emerge when stepping back into real
    life.
  • Independence, toughness, persistence are good
    qualities for the journalist cynicism,
    boorishness, and callous insensitivity are not.

160
The Potter Box -- Ethical Principles
  • The Golden Rule (Judaeo-Christian tradition
    nearly all the worlds religions)
  • Love your neighbor as yourself.
  • Do unto others as you would yourself be
    treated.

161
Roseland Robbery
A South Bend man resides in jail tonight after
he stole one hundred fifty dollars from a Shell
gas station in Roseland.
162
Roseland Robbery
The South Bend Community rests easier tonight as
police have an armed robbery suspect behind
bars. The suspect, 36-year-old Charles Reese,
entered the Roseland Shell gas station early this
morning armed with a knife and escaped with
approximately 150.
163
Roseland Robbery
A police officer with a big nose nabs an armed
robbery suspect in Roseland.. Some cops might be
offended by that observation.. but not this
one. The officer is a police dog named Dieter
(DEE-ter). He tracked down a South Bend man
suspected of holding a gas station attendant at
knifepoint and stealing a hundred-fifty dollars
early this morning.
164
Roseland Robbery
After leaving with 150 dollars, Reese fled
northbound to the Signature Inn Motel. Local
officers, with help from Dieter the police dog,
located Reese underneath a vehicle in the motel
parking lot. Thankfully, there are no injuries
to be reported and officers have recovered the
stolen money.
165
Moral Development
166
Moral Development Scores For Various Professionals
  • Seminarians/Philosophers
  • Medical Students
  • Practicing Physicians
  • Journalists
  • Dental Students
  • Nurses
  • Graduate Students
  • Undergraduate Students
  • Veterinary Students
  • Navy Enlisted Men
  • Orthopedic Surgeons
  • Adults in General
  • High School Students
  • Prison Inmates
  • Junior High Students

167
Theories of Moral Development
  • Tabula Rasa Blank Slate
  • Children start with no innate understanding of
    right and wrong.
  • If they are taught good things, they will turn
    out good.
  • If they are taught bad things, they will turn out
    bad.

168
Theories of Moral Development
  • Lawrence Kohlberg (Harvard Psychologist - 1963).
    Model of Justice.
  • People develop in their conception of moral
    reasoning through a specific series of sequential
    stages.
  • Based on how people understand justice.
  • Primary motivating force is internal
    psychological conflict. Current stage of moral
    reasoning no longer meets needs.

169
Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Development
  • LEVEL ONE Pre-conventional or Egocentric
    Stages.
  • Stage 1 Punishment and Obedience Orientation.
  • Right obedience to authority figures and
    avoidance of punishment.
  • Stage 2 Instrument and Relativity Orientation.
  • Right meeting ones own needs desires, with
    little regard for others.

170
Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Development
  • LEVEL TWO Conventional or Social Stages.
  • Stage 3 Interpersonal and Concordance
    Orientation.
  • Right Social approval being liked and thought
    of as a good person.
  • Stage 4 Law Order Orientation.
  • Right accord w/ laws rules obedience not
    from fear of punishment, but to maintain social
    order.

171
Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Development
  • LEVEL THREE Post-Conventional or Principled
    Stages.
  • Stage 5 Social Contract Orientation.
  • Right harmony w/ social principles behind laws
    see a higher moral authority than the
    rule-makers, and will challenge laws out of step
    w/ deeper social values principles.

172
Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Development
  • LEVEL THREE (contd.)
  • Stage 6 Universal Ethical Principles
    Orientation.
  • Right adherence to ones personally articulated
    yet universal ethical principles. Not followed
    by all of humanity, but all rational and logical
    thinkers would conclude that these are worthy
    principles to follow. (Martin Luther King, Jr.,
    Mahatma Ghandi).

173
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174
Bob Miller Crash
A woman is in serious condition with head
injuries after her car darted across traffic and
crashed into a store window today in south bend.
175
Bob Miller Crash
This afternoon, a local female driver loses
control and crashes into the front window of Bob
Millers appliances.
176
Bob Miller Crash
A local woman is being treated for head injuries
and is in serious condition at Memorial Hospital
this evening. The woman was the cause of a
serious car accident at Bob Millers Appliances
earlier this afternoon.
177
Bob Miller Crash
A speeding car interrupted shoppers at a South
Bend business when it crashed through the front
window shortly after noon today.
178
Bob Miller Crash
A woman wreaks havoc at Bob Millers appliances
early this afternoon when she loses control of a
speeding stolen car and crashes ti through the
South Bend stores window.
179
Bob Miller Crash
A speeding car veers off of the road and crashes
into a South Bend business, leaving its driver
injured.
180
The American Legal System
  • Divided (broadly) into two types of cases
  • Criminal law.
  • Involves the commission of an offense against the
    state (murder, robbery, assault, larceny, etc.).
  • Burden of proof Beyond a reasonable doubt.
  • Goals
  • Punish the wrongdoer.
  • Deter others from similar behavior.
  • Provide retribution (justice) for the victim.
  • Rehabilitate the offender.

181
The American Legal System
  • Two broad types of cases (contd).
  • Civil Law
  • Involves one party suing another for a wrong that
    has been committed .
  • Burden of proof Preponderance of evidence.
  • Goals
  • Compensation, not just punishment the retrieval,
    to the extent possible, of what was lost.
    (Compensatory damages).
  • In some cases, deterrence. (Punitive damages).

182
Law of Torts
  • A tort is a wrongful or harmful act committed
    by one party against another.
  • Tort law may be viewed as the backbone of civil
    litigation.
  • When one person sues another, and no contract is
    involved, it is a matter for the law of torts.

183
3 Kinds of Torts
  • Intentional Torts
  • Oldest form of tort liability, and similar to
    crimes in the criminal law.
  • Assault, battery, trespass, and wrongful death
    (murder) are examples of intentional torts.
  • But compensation to the victim is the primary
    goal, not punishment to the offender.

184
3 Kinds of Torts
  • Negligence Torts
  • Bread butter of tort law.
  • Banana peel slip fall lawsuits, traffic
    accidents involving personal injury, etc., etc.
  • Negligence Failure to act as an ordinary,
    reasonable person would act under the
    circumstances.

185
3 Kinds of Torts
  • Strict Liability Torts
  • Accidents that are nobodys fault.
  • The result of an activity considered fraught with
    unusual risk (making TNT, for example).
  • Now applies to most manufacturing concerns --
    product liability.
  • When there are public hazards inherent in
    defective products that reach the market,
    responsibility for injury must be fixed where it
    will most effectively reduce the hazard.

186
New York Times v. Sullivan
  • Among the most important Supreme Court decisions
    of the 20th century
  • The starting point for all discussion of modern
    libel law in the United States.
  • A collision of the federal judiciary with the
    states.
  • The role of the media as an agent for social
    change.
  • The slow, painful struggle for legal and social
    equality for African Americans.

187
New York Times v. Sullivan
  • Social/Historical context
  • A last desperate attempt by southern states to
    suppress the message of civil rights activists.
  • NY Times v. Sullivan was a political tool, not an
    attempt to challenge the 1st Amendment freedoms
    of the press.
  • Like many lawsuits, Times v. Sullivan had
    unforeseen consequences. By happenstance, it had
    a broad impact on American journalism, though
    that was not its original intent.

188
New York Times v. Sullivan
  • Alabama (1960)
  • Libel was a strict liability tort.
  • If the product was proved to be defective -- even
    minor deviations from the literal truth -- then
    the publisher was strictly liable for the
    injuries caused.
  • State libel laws were not weighed against
    federally guaranteed 1st Amendment press
    freedoms.
  • Damages from libel were presumed. Publishers
    could be forced to pay huge monetary judgments
    w/out any actual proof that the plaintiff
    suffered demonstrable harm.

189
New York Times v. Sullivan
  • Alabama (1960) - Kangaroo Court?
  • Trial lasted 3 days.
  • Judge Walter B. Jones - The Confederate Creed.
  • Seating by race. Racial epithets routinely used.
  • …the white mans justice… will give the parties,
    regardless of race or color, equal justice under
    law.
  • 394 of 650,000 copies of NYT went to Alabama
    only 35 copies to Montgomery Co.
  • 6 witnesses said ad was of and concerning
    Sullivan.
  • 500,000 award to Sullivan 10 more cases waiting
    - seeking 5,600,000 5 against CBS for
    1,700,000.

190
NY Times v. Sullivan (64) Majority (6-3) opinion
by Justice William Brennan
  • Made state libel laws (most of which were strict
    liability torts) subject to a constitutional
    First Amendment test
  • …Against the background of a profound national
    commitment to the principle that debate on public
    issues should be uninhibited, robust and
    wide-open, and that it may well include vehement,
    caustic and sometimes unpleasantly sharp attacks
    on government and public officials.

191
NY Times v. Sullivan (64) Majority (6-3) opinion
by Justice William Brennan
  • Established the standard of actual malice in
    cases involving public officials. Actual malice
    defined to mean
  • Knowledge that a published defamatory statement
    was false, OR
  • Reckless disregard of whether the statement was
    false or not. (More than mere negligence).
  • Reckless disregard means to transgress to the
    point of being sinful A deliberate lie or at
    least serious doubts as to the truth of the
    statement.

192
NY Times v. Sullivan (64) Majority (6-3) opinion
by Justice William Brennan
  • Absent proof of actual malice, public officials
    were prevented from recovering damages. Times v.
    Sullivan did not grant the media absolute
    immunity from libel suits brought by public
    officials, but it created a very difficult
    standard of proof for such plaintiffs.

193
Saturday Evening Post v. Butts, A.P. v. Walker
(67)
  • Extended the actual malice standard to public
    figures in addition to public officials.
  • Public figure a public man in whose public
    conduct society and the press have a legitimate
    and substantial interest.

194
Rosenbloom v. Metromedia (71)
  • Extended NY Times v. Sullivan actual malice
    standard to private figures involved in issues of
    public interest, like crime.

195
Gertz v. Welch (74)
  • Reversed the Rosenbloom decision.
  • Gave courts wider leeway in determining whether
    someone was a public person.
  • Gave state courts the right to decide what
    standard of liability should be used in cases
    brought by private persons. (Negligence, Strict
    Liability, or Actual Malice).
  • No such thing as a false opinion, BUT facts
    disguised as opinion are actionable.

196
Herbert v. Lando (79)
  • Subjected the medias decision making processes
    to the scrutiny of discovery under the rules of
    civil lawsuits.

197
Harte-Hanks Communications v. Connaughton (89)
  • Actual malice can be proven by errors of
    omission A publisher or broadcaster who
    deliberately decides not to pursue information
    which could have refuted a defamatory allegation.

198
Milkovich v. Lorain Journal (90)
  • Did away with the Gertz v. Welch ruling that
    opinion is protected. Any statement is
    actionable, even if stated in the form of an
    opinion, if it includes facts that can be proven
    true or false.

199
Masson v. New Yorker Mag. Janet Malcolm (91)
  • Use of quotation marks indicates a nearly
    verbatim transcript of what someone said. The
    deliberate alteration of a plaintiffs words does
    not equate w/ knowledge of falsity... UNLESS it
    results in a material change in the statements
    meaning.

200
Cohen v. Cowles Media Co. (91)
  • Breaking a promise of anonymity to a confidential
    source can be legitimate grounds for a breach of
    contract lawsuit.

201
Eppie Chang v. WNDU
  • Anonymous Source
  • Called on weekend
  • Reporter checked story on Monday
  • Story ran on Wednesday

202
Eppie Chang v. WNDU
  • Items different from court documents
  • Idustrial espionage vs. Misappropriation of
    trade secrets
  • Glucometer
  • Chang intended to sell the secrets for one
    million dollars vs. The assets of such a
    company would be worth an estimated one million
    dollars

203
Eppie Chang v. WNDU
  • Chang lived in Portage, Michigan
  • Worked at Miles Laboratories in Elkhart, Indiana
  • Sued WNDU for 65-million
  • Sued Notre Dame for 65-million
  • Sued the Elkhart Truth for 65-million
  • Filed in Federal Court South Bend

204
Eppie Chang v. WNDU
  • Lessons learned
  • Truth is a defense
  • A little diligence would have prevented a world
    of headaches
  • Be prepared to discuss your story (and sources)
    with your editor/manager
  • Discovery process is a pain
  • Geography matters

205
Invasion of Privacy (4 types)
  • Intrusion
  • Publicizing Private Matters
  • Publicizing in a False Light
  • Appropriation

206
Intrusion
  • Wrongful use of tape recorders, microphones,
    cameras, and other electronic recording or
    eavesdropping devices.
  • Trespassing.
  • Misrepresentation to gain access to a place or
    person on private property.
  • ABC 20/20 - Food Lion 60 Minutes - Charter
    Hospitals

207
Publicizing Private Matters
  • Sensational disclosures about a persons health,
    sexual activity, social or economic affairs, etc.
  • Events that occur in public, no matter how
    intimate or embarrassing, are not actionable.

208
Publicizing in a False Light
  • Closely related to libel law because it must
    include an element of falsity.
  • Most often occurs when trying to condense or
    fictionalize actual events (docudramas or thinly
    disguised biographies, for example).
  • Most states require proof of intent by publisher
    to create a false impression -- not
    accidental.

209
Appropriation
  • Use of a persons name, likeness, image, or
    personality without permission for commercial
    purposes or for ones own benefit.
  • Celebrity impersonators (voice or image).
  • Current and past news events or biographies of
    legitimate public interest are exceptions.

210
Invasion of Privacy Defenses
  • Consent
  • Expressed or tacit consent.
  • Generally required for commercial purposes.
  • Generally not required for newsgathering
    activities.

211
Invasion of Privacy Defenses
  • Newsworthiness
  • Public Figures Must accept even unwelcome
    publicity, even if it involves private life (to
    the extent necessary in covering activities of
    public interest). The public has a continuing
    interest even after a public figure retires.
  • Private Figures Exposure of private affairs
    offensive to ordinary sensibilities and that have
    no legitimate public interest. BUT, unwitting
    participation in a news event is not actionable.

212
Invasion of Privacy Defenses
  • Constitutional Privilege (Truth). Used in False
    Light cases.
  • Publication of accurate information on matters of
    public interest, even if the information is
    private, is protected constitutionally from false
    light claims.

213
Types of TV News Stories
  • Package (PKG)
  • An edited, self-contained videotape report of a
    news event or feature, complete with pictures,
    soundbites, voice-over narration, and natural
    sounds. The package is a form of narrative story
    telling with a beginning, middle, and ending.

214
Writing Packages
  • Elements of a Package
  • Focus or Commitment
  • Beginning
  • Anchor (or Studio) Intro
  • Package Lead
  • Visual Lead ( nat. sound)
  • Narrative Lead
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