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Elements and Periodic Table

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Atomic mass: the average of all the isotopes' mass ... Titanium. Aluminum. Sulfur. K. Hg. S. Al. Ti. Zn. Ne. I. O. Ca. Periodic Table Video Clip1 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Elements and Periodic Table


1
Elements and Periodic Table
  • Bonding, Compounds, Periodic Table

2
What does the periodic table tell me?
  • Element symbol
  • Atomic number number of protons (and usually
    electrons, neutrons)
  • Atomic mass the average of all the isotopes
    mass
  • What type of element it is (metal, nonmetal, etc)
  • What elements can bond together (valence )
  • In what ratio elements bond (oxidation )

3
Reading the Periodic Table Elements
S
16
32.06
4
Types of Elements
  • Metals usually shiny, conductors, malleable,
    ductile, solids at room temperature. On left side
    of periodic table
  • Non-metals gas or brittle solid at room
    temperature, insulators. On right side of
    periodic table.
  • Metalloids have properties of both metals and
    non-metals. Between metals and non-metals.

5
Three types of Elements
6
Things to remember with symbols
  • They are either one or two letters.
  • Only the first letter is capitalized!
  • Some symbols are based on the Latin name
  • Some of the newest symbols use three letters
    until they are renamed (the atomic number in
    Latin)

7
Element symbols you need to know
Gold
Au
Chlorine
Cl
Silver
Ag
Sodium
Na
Iron
Hydrogen
H
Fe
Lead
Helium
He
Pb
Copper
Carbon
C
Cu
8
More element symbols
Potassium
K
Neon
Ne
Mercury
Zinc
Hg
Zn
Iodine
I
Titanium
Ti
Oxygen
O
Aluminum
Al
Ca
Calcium
Sulfur
S
9
Atomic Masses
  • The mass comes from
  • the average mass of the isotopes
  • protons and neutrons each weigh one atomic unit
  • Remember Isotopes - different number of neutrons.
  • Identified by name and mass number.
  • Boron-10, Boron-11
  • Try It! 5 atoms of Boron, four are Boron-10, one
    is Boron-11. What is the average atomic mass?

(10 10 10 10 11) / 5 10.2 u
10
Whats the diff?
  • Atomic Weight Is an AVERAGE usually in decimal
    form. On the periodic table
  • Mass number The weight of that specific atom.
    Is a whole number. Often listed in the name
    (Boron-10, Carbon-14, Uranium-235)
  • We will be more concerned with mass number
    because it is how we find the number of neutrons!
    (mass number-atomic number neutron number)

11
Periodic Table
Noble Gas
Non-metals
Metalloids
Halogen
Metals
Transition Metals
12
Types of Elements
  • Noble Gas Chemically stable. Has outer valence
    level full. Happy AKA Inert elements. Dont
    bond with others.
  • Halogens Are non-metals. Bond VERY easily. Have
    7 electrons in outer shell.
  • Non-metals Do not easily conduct electricity or
    heat.
  • Metalloids Have traits of both metals and
    non-metals.
  • Metals Good conductor of heat and electricity,
    shiny, ductile (pulled into a wire), and
    malleable (pounded into flat sheets)
  • Transition metals Metals that can have two
    different valence numbers. Is shown in the
    formula. Example Fe (II)

13
Periodic Table
Alkali metals
Alkaline Earth metals
Transition metals
14
Hindenburg (5 minutes)
15
Reasons for the crash (7 minutes)
16
Element symbols you need to know
Gold
Au
Chlorine
Cl
Silver
Ag
Sodium
Na
Iron
Hydrogen
H
Fe
Lead
Helium
He
Pb
Copper
Carbon
C
Cu
17
More element symbols
Potassium
K
Neon
Ne
Mercury
Zinc
Hg
Zn
Iodine
I
Titanium
Ti
Oxygen
O
Aluminum
Al
Ca
Calcium
Sulfur
S
18
Periodic Table Video Clip1
19
Periodic Table video clip2
20
Word Wizard vocabulary
21
Word wizard Ionic Bond
Your definition
Important Points
Bond that is formed by the stealing of
electrons.
One atom is now and one is now -. This makes
them attract to each other. Most are solid at
room temp.
  • Ionic Bond

Examples
Non-Examples
Sodium Chloride NaCl Sugar C6H12O6
Water H2O Diatomic molecules Cl2, H2, N2
(gasses)
22
Word wizard Covalent Bond
Your definition
Important Points
Bond that is formed by the sharing of
electrons.
A stronger bond than ionic. Atoms can share more
than one electron. Most are liquid or gas at room
temp.
Covalent Bond
Examples
Non-Examples
Sodium Chloride NaCl Sugar C6H12O6
Water H2O Diatomic molecules Cl2, H2, N2
(gasses)
23
Word wizard Polar Molecule
Your definition
Important Points
A molecule that has a positive end and a negative
end
Polar will mix with polar. Polar will not mix
with non-polar
Polar Molecule
Examples
Non-Examples
Water H2O Sugar C6H12O6 Salt NaCl
Oil Grease Gasoline
24
Word wizard Non-Polar Molecule
Your definition
Important Points
Non-polar will mix with non-polar. Non-polar will
not mix with polar
A molecule that has an equal charge all over.
Non-polar Molecule
Examples
Non-Examples
Cooking Oil Grease Car oil (things that dont mix
with water)
Water H2O Sugar C6H12O6 Salt NaCl
25
Word wizard Anion
Your definition
Important Points
Anions have more electrons than protons. This
makes them negative overall.
An ion that has a negative charge has extra
electrons.
anion
Examples
Non-Examples
Chlorine Oxygen Nitrogen Non-metals
Sodium Potassium Magnesium Metals
26
Word wizard Cation
Your definition
Important Points
Cations lose electrons. They have more protons
than electrons and are positively charged.
An ion that is positively charged has less
electrons
Cation
Examples
Non-Examples
Sodium Potassium Magnesium Metals
Chlorine Oxygen Nitrogen Non-metals
27
Word wizard Chemical Formula
Your definition
Important Points
Large and small letters. Shows what elements are
in a compound and how many of each.
A shorthand way of writing compounds using their
symbols.
Chemical formula
Examples
Non-Examples
Water Sugar Salt
H2O C6H12O6 NaCl
28
Word wizard Chemically Stable
Your defintion
Important Points
Elements that have the outer electron shell
full. Also called Noble Gases or Inert
Elements
Will not typically bond with other
elements. Likes to be ALONE!
Chemically Stable
Examples
Non-Examples
Helium Krypton Neon Xenon Argon
Radon
Gold Carbon Sodium Nickel Potassium
Oxygen
29
Valence Numbers
Valence
1
2
3
5
4
8
6
7
30
Diatomic Molecules
  • Covalent bond between identical atoms.
  • Usually a gas
  • Examples
  • H2 (hydrogen gas)
  • O2(oxygen gas)
  • N2(nitrogen gas)
  • Nitrogen has 5 electrons in the outer shell.
  • It wants 8.
  • Two nitrogen atoms share three electrons.
  • BONDED!

31
Making Compounds
  • Lets bond, shall we?

32
Valence Numbers
  • Valence electrons how many electrons are in the
    outer shell.
  • Chemically stable elements having their outer
    shell full. The noble gases are chemically stable
    without bonding.
  • To fill the outer shell, elements can share or
    steal electrons (bond).
  • To be Happy atoms typically want 8 electrons in
    the outer shell (ionic or covalent bonds)

33
Ionic bonding
  • Stealing electrons
  • This makes one negatively charged (it has an
    extra electron that it stole). The other is now
    positively charged (had an electron taken).
    Opposites attract!
  • Ionic bonds are weaker than covalent.
  • Compounds that are solids at room temperature are
    usually from ionic bonds.

34
Covalent Bonding
  • From sharing electrons
  • Covalent bonds are stronger than ionic
  • Compounds that are liquids or gas at room
    temperature are typically covalent bonds.
  • Diatomic Some elements will covalently bond with
    themselves!

35
Common Household Compounds
NaHC03
Baking Soda
Carbon Monoxide
CO
SiO2
Sand
Ammonia
NH4
Carbon Dioxide
CO2
Salt
NaCl
Bleach
NaClO
Propane
C3H8
Vinegar
HCH3O2
Stomach Acid
Water
H2O
HCl
36
Dihydrogen Monoxide
  • The dangers, uses and potential threats posed by
    this chemical, Dihydrogen Monoxide, are
    widespread, and some feel, terrifying. Here is
    just a small taste of what Dihydrogen Monoxide
    (DHMO) is
  • Some call Dihydrogen Monoxide the "Invisible
    Killer"
  • In its gaseous form, DHMO can cause severe burns
  • Dihydrogen Monoxide is found in all cancerous
    tumors
  • Dihydrogen monoxide was found at every recent
    school shooting
  • Athletes use DIHYDROGEN MONOXIDE, or DHMO, to
    enhance performance
  • Dihydrogen Monoxide has been found to cause
    failure in automotive breaks
  • Dihydrogen Monoxide is a major component of acid
    rain
  • Thousands die each year after inhaling dihydrogen
    monoxide
  • Dihydrogen Monoxide can be deadly
  • Visit DHMO.org to find out more

37
Whats in a name?
  • Mono one
  • Di two
  • Tri three
  • Tetra four
  • Penta five
  • Examples
  • Carbon Monoxide CO
  • Carbon Dioxide CO2
  • Dihydrogen Monoxide ??

H2O
38
Dot Diagrams
  • What you need to know to make a dot diagram
  • Chemical symbol
  • valence number
  • How to draw the dot diagram of an element 1.
    Write the symbol 2. Find the valence
    number 3. Fill in dots
  • two together (the S ones)
  • one in other sides until you run out of room.

P
39
More Dot Diagrams
F
Li
Ge
Mg
Se
Kr
40
Im still seeing dots!
Sr
As
Why is this one right?
He
Because Helium only has two electrons in the
first place!
41
Oxidation numbers
1
-1
-2
/-4
3
-3
2
42
Making Compounds
  • Criss-Cross Method
  • List the Metal first, non-metal second.
  • Write the oxidation number above the symbol.
  • Criss-cross the numbers. (a 1 does not need to be
    written, drop the or -)
  • Final answer lists only the subscripts (numbers
    below the line)
  • If they are the same number, they cancel out

Example Combine Hydrogen and Chlorine
1
-1
Cl
H
HCl
43
Now try these...
Hydrogen and Oxygen
1
-2
H
O
H2O
Magnesium and Nitrogen
-3
2
Mg
N
Mg3N2
44
Writing Equations (again??)
  • Remember the criss cross method.
  • Use the oxidation number
  • Dont write in 1s or the charges
  • Oxidation numbers of transition elements are
    given in a roman numeral.
  • Put in lowest terms

Example Combine H and O
1
-2
H
O
H2O
Example Combine Fe (III) and O
-2
3
Fe
O
Fe2O3
45
Writing Equations something new
  • Monoatomic Ions
  • normal
  • one element
  • can get from the periodic table or roman numerals
  • what youve been working with
  • Example H20

Example Combine Potassium and Permanganate
  • Polyatomic Ions
  • compounds that always work together.
  • Always has more than one element
  • Get the information off a chart
  • Criss cross method still works.
  • Keep these elements together!

1
-1
K
MnO4
KMnO4
46
More Practice Polyatomic Ions
Combine Iron (II) and Nitrate
2
-1
Fe
NO3
Fe(NO3)2
Combine Calcium and Carbonate
-2
2
Ca
CO3
CaCO3
47
Word wizard
The mixture can have new properties. (lower melt
point, stronger, etc.
Two or more metals melted down and mixed together.
Not ALL metals are mixtures. (All
alloy) Alloys are like allies (mixed but not the
same)
Sterling silver, 14 karat gold, bronze, brass
48
Word wizard
Reaction where substances are combined to make a
new substance.
Like two people going out and becoming a
couple. Dating is a sin
49
Word wizard
One ingredient kicks out the other. Leaders
always stay leaders!
Getting dumped for someone else. One ends up
single
50
Word wizard
Elements will change partners in this type of
reaction. Leaders are always leaders!
Switching dates at the prom. Nobody gets left
alone!
51
Word wizard
A substance is broken down into its parts in
this reaction
A couple breaking up. Things break down when
they decompose.
52
Word wizard
A reaction where two of the products are water
and carbon dioxide
Combustion fire Picture a fire with smoke (CO2)
and water(H20) to put it out.
53
Word wizard
Chemical reaction where heat is ABSORBED.
Heat being absorbed makes it feel COLD.
Break and shake ice pack. (Heat is absorbed by
ice pack, but it feels cold)
Endo has a d in it. Cold has a d in
it. Endothermic reactions FEEL cold.
54
Word wizard
Chemical reaction where heat is released.
This reaction will feel warm/hot.
Exo exit Heats EXITS an exothermic
reaction. (it feels warm)
Hand warmers BenGay, Thermocare hot wraps
55
You cant play God
  • Law of Conservation of Mass says that we cant
    create or destroy mass!
  • Example the weight of a piece of paper will be
    the same as the weight of the ash, smoke, etc
    after you burn it!!
  • In chemical reactions, you need to have the same
    amount of atoms before and after the reaction!

56
Its a balancing act
Ag
Ag
1
2
H
2
H
2
Not Balanced! Conservation of mass says we cant
create or destroy anything!!
S
1
S
1
57
Its a balancing act
2
Ag
Ag
1
2
2
H
2
H
2
S
1
S
1
58
Try balancing this
2
2
Mg
Mg
1
1
O
O
2
1
Balanced!!
How to read it 2 units of Magnesium added to
oxygen gas yields 2 units of Magnesium Oxide
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