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Cultures of Africa

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People in some places in the world may share the same language...but speak different dialects (versions) ... one language. Unlike North Africa, not united by a single religion or ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cultures of Africa


1
Chapter 8
  • Cultures of Africa

2
Section 1 North Africa Cultures
  • OBJECTIVES
  • Learn about the elements of culture
  • Discover how Islam influences life in North
    Africa
  • Find out about cultural changes in North Africa

3
Key Terms
  • Culture the way of life of people who share
    similar customs and beliefs
  • Quran the sacred book of Islam also spelled
    Koran
  • Cultural diffusion the spread of customs and
    ideas from one culture to another

4
North African countries
  • Countries of North Africa -
  • Egypt
  • Libya
  • Tunisia
  • Algeria
  • Morocco

5
Culturewhat is it?
  • Culture includes
  • Food
  • Clothing
  • Homes
  • Jobs
  • Language
  • How people view the world
  • Religion
  • Behaviors

6
Examples of Shared Elements of Culture
  • People in some places in the world may share the
    same languagebut speak different dialects
    (versions)
  • Rural villages in Morocco houses are made of
    thick adobe (brick made from dried clay)
  • Southwestern United States houses are made from
    adobe as well

7
Religion in North Africa
  • Arabic language unifies the different people of
    North Africa
  • The majority of North Africans are Muslim 95
  • Islam
  • God Allah
  • Founder /Prophet Muhammad
  • Holy book Quran (Koran)
  • Believe Jesus is one of Gods messenger

8
Islam
  • Quran is the word of God
  • Allah revealed the verses of the Quran to
    Muhammad
  • Quran includes stories, promises and instructions
  • Teaches about God and provides a guide to living
  • It forbids lying, stealing, and murder
  • Prohibits gambling, eating pork and drinking
    alcohol

9
Islam
  • Islamic law is based on the Quran
  • Governs many aspects of life
  • Family life
  • Business practices
  • Banking
  • Government

10
(No Transcript)
11
Ethnic Groups
  • Majority of North Africans are Arabs
  • Berbers ethnic group
  • Mainly live in Algeria and Morocco
  • Speak Berber and Arabic
  • Mostly Muslim
  • Live in cities and small villages
  • Herders and farmers

12
Cultural Changes
  • North Africa, due to its location, has been a
    center of trade for people
  • Have been in contact with other peoples cultures
  • Traded with
  • Europeans
  • Asians
  • Other parts of Africa

13
Western and Muslim Culture
  • Recent influencers on North Africa has been
    Western culture (North America and Europe)
  • Some Muslims are concerned that their countries
    are becoming too Westernized
  • Clothing
  • Products
  • Films/television
  • Muslims fear that these influences will lead to
    the loss of Muslim values and traditions

14
Section 2 West Africa Cultures
  • OBJECTIVES
  • Learn about West Africas ethnic diversity
  • Find out about the importance of family ties in
    West Africa culture
  • Examine the West African tradition of
    storytelling.

15
West African countries
  • Nigeria
  • Ghana
  • Liberia
  • Mali
  • Ghana
  • Benin
  • Senegal
  • Mauritania

16
Key Terms
  • Culture diversity a wide variety of cultures
  • Kinship a family relationship
  • Nuclear family the part of a family that
    includes parents and children
  • Extended family the part of a family that
    includes parents, children, and other relations
  • Lineage a group of families descended from a
    common ancestor
  • Clan a group of lineages

17
Diversity in West Africa
  • Home to hundreds of ethnic groups
  • Useful to speak more than one language
  • Unlike North Africa, not united by a single
    religion or language
  • Some people speak four or five languages
  • French, English, Portuguese, local language
    called Hausa

18
Working in West Africa
  • Many live in rural areas
  • Typical village a group of homes surrounded by
    farmland
  • Subsistence farmers and cash crops
  • Coastal locations fish
  • Desert life herd
  • City life work in hospitals, hotels, office
    buildings

19
Family Life
  • Kinship very strong in West Africa
  • Nuclear and extended families are very common
  • Some all live together, work together and make
    decisions together
  • Family members care for the elderly, sick
  • Watch over the children of other families in the
    village and willing to help neighbors

20
Changes in Family Life
  • Many people are beginning to move to urban areas
  • Breaking the tradition value of family
  • Many young men are moving to the cities looking
    for work
  • Women stay back in the rural areas and the men
    visit the family from time to time

21
Storytelling
  • Traditions are being preserved by storytelling
  • Spoken aloud rather than written down
  • Griot (gree oh) passes a groups oral traditions
    from one generation to the next
  • Stories include
  • Tricksters
  • Animal fables
  • Proverbs
  • Riddles
  • Songs

22
Influences of Culture
  • Many of the enslaved Africans brought to America
    were from West Africa
  • Influenced American culture
  • Blues and jazz music have roots from West Africa
  • Many African-American ideas, stories and dances
    trace back to West Africa

23
Jazz/Blues musicians
24
Section 3 East Africa Cultures
  • OBJECTIVES
  • Find out how geography has affected the
    development of East African cultures
  • Learn how and why ideas about land ownership are
    changing in East Africa

25
Key Terms
  • Swahili an ethnic group in East Africa that
    resulted from the mixing of African and Arab ways
    more than 1,000 year ago also a language
  • Heritage the values, traditions, and customs
    handed down from ones ancestors

26
Countries of East Africa
  • Ethiopia
  • Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Somalia
  • Uganda
  • Eritrea
  • Djibouti

27
Geography and Cultural Diversity
  • Much of the cultural diversity stems from contact
    among people from other cultures
  • Trade with Arabs, Indians and other Asians
  • Swahili combination of Arab and African peoples
  • Strength of the Swahili
  • Their ability to adapt to other cultures
  • Try to preserve their heritage
  • Swahili video

28
Swahilis
  • Live along East Africas coast from Somalia to
    Tanzania
  • The language is used for business and
    communication
  • Children of East Africa learn Swahili early and
    also English as they get older

29
Religion in East Africa
  • Islam and Christianity have large followings
  • Islam was introduced by Arab traders
  • Christianity spread from North Africa to East
    Africa during the rule of the Roman Empire
  • 1800s Europeans pushed Christianity even
    farther
  • Traditional African religions are still practiced
    as well

30
Changing Ideas About Land
  • Most people in East Africa live in rural areas
  • Before Europeans arrived individual Africans did
    not buy or sell land
  • Families had the rights to farm plots of land
  • Size and location of the plots might change over
    time

31
Changes in Land Use
  • Traditionally, extended families farmed the land
    to produce food for the whole group
  • Men cleared the land and broke up the soil
  • Women planted seeds, tended the fields and
    harvested crops

32
Changes in Land Use
  • Europeans created plantations in East Africa
  • European powers sold the land to individual
    Africans when they became independent
  • Some land in East Africa is still for sell
  • Most of it is poor farmland
  • Most people live in fertile regions
  • Ethiopian Highlands
  • Great Rift Valley
  • Conflicts have risen in certain areas over the
    developed land

33
Where is Home?
  • East Africa is becoming increasingly urban
  • Most East Africans who live in urban settings do
    not call it their home
  • Instead they call home a specific village or
    his/her clan

34
Section 4 Southern/Central Africa Cultures
  • OBJECTIVES
  • Learn about the cultural diversity of Southern
    Africa.
  • Examine the different ways of life in Central
    African and learn about the diverse cultures of
    the region.

35
Key Terms
  • Migrate worker a laborer who travels away from
    where he or she lives to find work
  • Compound a fenced-in group of homes

36
Countries of the Region
  • South Africa
  • Botswana
  • Zambia
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Angola
  • Cameroon
  • Madagascar
  • Mozambique
  • Malawi
  • Swaziland
  • Lesotho

37
Diversity in Southern Africa
  • Most of the people of Southern Africa are black
    Africans
  • Also a population people of European descent
  • Southern Africa attracted Europeans from as early
    as the 1500s
  • Southern Africa is home to 3 main groups of
    European ancestry
  • Afrikaners Dutch ancestry
  • British ancestry
  • Portuguese ancestry

38
Urbanization
  • Europeans introduced industrialization to the
    region
  • Before people lived and worked in rural settings
  • Many large cities in Southern Africa
  • Cape Town
  • Johannesburg
  • Maputo

39
Industry
  • Southern Africa is the richest, most urban and
    most industrialized in all of Africa
  • Industries demanded labor
  • Many people migrated to Southern Africa
  • Lived in compounds
  • Worked long hours
  • Dangerous conditions
  • Low wages

40
Life in Central Africa
  • On the coast, many countries have large oil
    reserves
  • Benefit from the wealth of oil
  • People that live on the coasts gain exposure to
    cultures outside of Africa
  • Living conditions worsens as you move in to the
    interior
  • Village societies are organized by kinship groups
  • Land is owned by clans
  • Less populated
  • Families work and live on their land

41
Diverse Ways of Life
  • Around 200 ethnic groups in D.R.C.
  • Millions of people live in crowded cinderblock
    apartments
  • Millions of others live in rural settings
  • Christianity and Islam are practiced
  • Traditional African religions are still practiced
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