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Era of Good Feelings


... eventually end on its own: Madison, Henry Clay and Thomas Jefferson, for example ... Thomas Jefferson. Right: Thomas Jefferson, by Rembrandt Peale, 1805 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Era of Good Feelings

Era of Good Feelings
  • Yeah, right.
  • 1816-1820

War of 1812 Changes Republicans
  • Build a permanent professional army and navy
  • Second Bank of the United States
  • Internal improvements National Road
  • Protective tariff Tariff of 1816
  • Essentially adopted all of Hamiltons ideas as
    their own
  • Federalists now in opposition
  • Republicans the only party by 1824

Panic of 1819
  • Worldwide economic panic
  • Collapse in cotton prices because of reduced
    British demand
  • Deflation
  • Land speculation and debts
  • Right Crowd Outside the NYSE, October, 1929

Controversial Role of the Bank
  • BUS tightens credit
  • Stopped inflation, but slowed speculation
  • Made bank unpopular in South and West
  • Panic on scale similar to Great Depression
  • Generational memory
  • Front of Second Bank of the US Building in
    Philadelphia, PA by Peter Clericuzio, 2006

Bigger Crisis Looms Missouri Controversy
  • By 1819, slavery all but dead in North
  • West of Mississippi River no clear boundary for
  • 1812-1819 Louisiana Purchase divided three ways
  • Louisiana
  • Arkansas Territory
  • Missouri Territory
  • Thomas Cole, The Garden of Eden (1828)

Missouri Territory
  • Develops rapidly, especially St. Louis and up the
    Missouri River
  • Population reached for statehood
  • Congress prepares to discuss territorys future

James Tallmadge and his amendments
  • NY Congressman, involved in ending slavery in New
  • Proposed two amendments to a Missouri statehood
  • No more slaves in MO
  • Free all slaves born after 1820 at 25
  • Post nati emancipation
  • George Caleb Bingham, Fur Traders on the Missouri
    River, 1845

Stakes are high in Missouri debate
  • Three-fifths compromise gave disproportionate
    representation to South in House
  • Senate equally distributed, free and slave
  • Missouri would tip the balance one way or other

Northern viewpoints
  • Imbalance of representation already there
  • Messing with egalitarianism
  • National politics changing
  • More democratic
  • North gaining in population
  • Lithograph of US Capitol, ca. 1800

Southern viewpoints
  • South Carolina Senator William Smith, ca. 1820
  • Sour grapes over Southern power
  • Moderates rally to defend the region, regardless
    of views on slaverys future
  • Each new state must decide for itself

Congressional debate begins in late 1819
  • No one arguing over the morality of slavery
  • The argument is over whether or not Congress
    could regulate slavery
  • Typical of early debates over slavery
  • Morality not at issue
  • Effect on the nation and is democracy more

Can Congress regulate slavery?
  • Northerners generally insist that the answer is
  • Northwest Ordinance is the precedent

Can Congress regulate slavery?
  • Looney extreme South Carolina says absolutely
  • Congress cannot bind states, ever
  • Fifth Amendment issue
  • Left Flag of South Carolina

Can Congress regulate slavery?
  • For most Southerners in 1819, the answer is YES,
  • Most believe slavery will eventually end on its
    own Madison, Henry Clay and Thomas Jefferson,
    for example
  • But congressional moves against it will make
    matters worse

A complex argument
  • Expansion will kill slavery
  • Allow slavery to go west and two things will
    operate to kill it
  • Great American Desert
  • Dilution of slave population will make whites
    more comfortable with ending it
  • These views nothing new in 1819
  • Most Southern leaders espouse them
  • Most believe perpetual slavery bad for country
  • Because morality off the table, people are
    willing to compromise
  • Only South Carolina arguing for the desirability
    and morality of slavery

Missouri Compromise
  • Begins in the Senate, but Clay makes it possible
    in the House
  • Maine to be brought in as a free state
  • Missouri will be a slave state
  • No slavery above 3630 North longitude
  • Tallmadge Amendments buried

Crisis over slavery past for now
  • This momentous question, like a firebell in the
    night awakened and filled me with terror. I
    considered it at once as the knell of the
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Right Thomas Jefferson, by Rembrandt Peale, 1805