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Schooling in the American Colonies before the Civil War

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Thomas Jefferson. The Common School Era and Horace Mann ... Thomas Jefferson. 1743-1826. Member of the Continental Congress (1775-1776), (1783-1784) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Schooling in the American Colonies before the Civil War


1
Schooling in the American Colonies before the
Civil War
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • The Common School Era and Horace Mann
  • Focus on Political Economy, Ideology and Schooling

2
Why is the History of Education Important to
Know?
  • Must be able to put what is happening today in
    education into context
  • Better understanding of the forces and issues
    that help shape American Public education
  • Knowledge of the main themes in contemporary
    education that were shaped by the history of
    education in the U.S.

Main Themes
Universal education Local Control Curriculum
and Instruction
Aims of Education
Continuation and enforcement of democratic ideals
Religion Save souls
3
Thomas Jefferson 1743-1826
  • Member of the Continental Congress
  • (1775-1776), (1783-1784)
  • Served in the Virginia Legislature (1776-1779)
  • Wrote the Declaration of Independence (1776)
  • Governor of Virginia (1779-1781)
  • Minister to France (1784-1789)
  • Secretary of State (1790-1793)
  • Vice President of the United States (1796-1800)
  • President of the United States (1800-1809)
  • Founded the University of Virginia (1819)
  • Believed that Democracy could only be sustained
    through education
  • Died on July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversary of the
    Declaration of Independence

4
POLITICAL ECONOMY
Jeffersonian Era
  • Decentralized Republican government
  • Communities were like local government.
  • Nation separated into 3 regions
  • New England
  • Mid Atlantic
  • Southern States
  • Agrarian Economy
  • Family
  • Government
  • IDEOLOGY
  • 6 Central and Fundamental Ideas of Classical
    Liberalism
  • Faith in Reason
  • Natural Law
  • Virtue
  • Progress
  • Nationalism
  • Freedom

5
SCHOOLING
  • Through education, reason and virtue would
    develop
  • Mind was made up of faculties---memory, reason
    and imagination
  • Mind was a muscle which needed exercise for
    development and was an empty vessel which needed
    filling through education
  • Democracy could only be sustained through
    education

Jeffersons Plan for Education
  • TIER ONE
  • Districts/wards
  • Overseer
  • 3 year curriculum
  • Free for all children
  • Smartest boys were then chosen to continue
  • grammar schoolscreened for future
  • leaders
  • TIER TWO
  • Grammar schools/district colleges or
  • schools
  • 6 year curriculum
  • Ages 10-15 were the best for
  • memorization and learning language
  • Graduates provided leadership in
  • business, transportation, surveying, the
  • militia and local government
  • Where teachers for the elementary schools
  • would be drawn

6
Jeffersons Plan for Education cont…
  • TIER THREE
  • University
  • Believed education was a prerequisite for
    leadership
  • Original Plan-Professorships
  • Private tuition in religion, gymnastics,
    military, manual arts, dancing, music and drawing
  • TIER FOUR
  • Self-education…lifelong learning
  • Plans for libraries
  • Provide annual allotments for the purchase of
    books, paintings and statues for the libraries

7
GOALS FOR ELEMENTARY EDUCATION
  • Information sufficient to transact business
  • Writing skills
  • Calculation skills
  • Reading skills
  • Improved morals
  • Understanding of duties
  • Knowledge of rights
  • Ability to vote intelligently
  • Ability to judge office holders conduct
  • Ability to fulfill social relationships

GOALS FOR UNIVERSITY EDUCATION
  • Political Leaders
  • Knowledge leading to political freedom
  • Understanding to improve the economy
  • Reason, morals, virtue and order
  • Understanding of science and math to promote the
    general health, security and comfort
  • Habits of reflection and correct actions in
    students which render them examples of virtue to
    others and bring happiness to themselves

8
Curricula
  • Curricula in colonies mostly based on
    interpretation of the Old and New Testaments and
    the three Rs.
  • Arithmetic was learned from resources around them
  • Books studies in school were what they were sent
    with by their parents (if at all)
  • Hornbook first reader
  • New England Primer
  • Geography Made Easy textbook, 1784
  • Websters American Spelling Book, (a.k.a.
    Blue-Backed Speller), 1783
  • Mcguffey Readers (still produced and sold)

9
The Common School Era
Massachusetts in the 1830s Focus on
Demographics Politics Economics Ideology Ho
race Mann
10
  • Demographic Changes
  • Settlers went from the coastal states to the
    interior territories
  • Irish immigrants--settled in the northeast mainly
  • Urbanization stimulated by industrialization.
  • Political Changes
  • 1789 fewer than 1 in 7 could vote
  • 1824, 4 in 7 white men could vote
  • Upper class supported the Whig party.
  • Upper class was alarmed at how many uneducated
    voters there were.
  • Upper class supported education so that theses
    voters could make informed and educated voting
    decisions
  • Economics
  • Transportation improvements increased people,
    goods and
  • produce movement
  • Expansion of commerce centered in port cities
  • Cottage Industries
  • Rise in commerce and industrialization presented
    the need for schooling

11
Ideology
  • Early in the period, Puritanism was still
    influential
  • Later in period more belief in a benevolent God
    who created a rational universe and endowed human
    nature with rationality
  • New Englanders began to believe that God had
    given them the power for improvement
  • Prisons were Hospitals for mentally ill were
    built
  • Youthful offender institutions were
    developedReformatories
  • Womens suffrage movement received support
  • Abolitionists believed African-Americans should
    be free
  • More government involvement and centralization of
    authority
  • Laissez Faire now meant the government should
    step in when necessary to assist economic
    development
  • Classic Liberalism spread from government to
    citizens now
  • Faith in human reason
  • Newtons conception of Natural Law
  • Continuing progress
  • Politics, newspapers and churches became vehicles
    for new ideas
  • State power over education began to overpower
    local self-government.
  • Literacy was needed to read the Bible

12
HORACE MANN 1796-1859
The Father of American Education
Education, then, beyond all other devices of
human origin, is the great equalizer of the
conditions of men -- the balance-wheel of the
social machinery. Be ashamed to die until you
have won some victory for humanity.
13
SCHOOLING
  • Believed that schooling should be
  • Free
  • State financed and controlled
  • Universal
  • Compulsory
  • Common School
  • Great equalizer
  • Poverty would disappear as popular intelligence
    would tap new treasures of natural material and
    wealth
  • Crime would decline as well as violence and fraud
  • Social good was infinite
  • Schools must teach appropriate set of morals.
  • State school would lead to moral and political
    consensus
  • Educating the masses would result in increased
    economic benefits for the nation.
  • Common schools would need teachers so he
    supported the Normal Schools.

14
Popular and Arsitocratic Education Tier
System Tozer, p. 64-Exhibit 3.1
Teacher Education
  • Teachers needed special preparation
  • Opposed recitation teaching methods as well as
    corporal punishment.
  • Academic portion of the curriculum be limited to
    the subjects taught in the common schools.
  • Wanted institutions that would teach only teacher
    education
  • Teachers needed to be moral exemplars
  • Women were cheaper labor and naturally better
    suited for the instruction of children
  • Is there not an obvious, constitutional
    difference of temperament between the sexes,
    indicative of a prearranged fitness and
    adaptation, and making known to us, as by a
    heaven imparted sing, that women, by her livelier
    sensibility and her quicker sympathies, is the
    fore chosen guide and guardian of children of a
    tender age.

15
Criticisms of Mann
  • Reforms placed control in a centralized
    government vs.local control.
  • Exclusion of religion from schooling
  • Conflicts between the Whig Party (Mann) and the
    Democratic Party.
  • Democrats thought Normal Schools would teach Whig
    values
  • Public Tax support for only non-sectarian
    Protestant vs. Catholic schools
  • Iinstituting a system of schooling for social
    control.
  • Minority groups had little active participation
    in the fundamental decision making about their
    education.
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