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Natural Units Atoms, electrons, molecules, and moles

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Title: Natural Units Atoms, electrons, molecules, and moles


1
Natural Units Atoms, electrons, molecules, and
moles
Units such as meter, second, joule, calorie,
gram, kilogram etc are artificial (man-made)
units. What are natural units?How many are
there? How do natural units interact with each
other?What are the ultimate fundamental
particles (units) of the universe? Atoms,
electrons, molecules, and moles are natural units
or building blocks of matter. Photons are natural
units of EM radiation (energy).
2
Philosophy and Sciences
Philosophy the love of wisdom and ultimate truth
-a critical and systematic study of utmost-limit
of things. Sciences ask fundamental questions
-satisfy intellectual curiosities stimulated by
the environment around us. Science is the logic
reunion of knowledge corresponding to the
reality. Philosophy is a united logic parallel
and dont have any effect because it isnt
experimental. Both come from the same principle
and follow to the same end the knowledge of
reality.
3
Philosophical Approach
Philosophy is the serious and systematic attempt
to investigate What is the world, and what is
our place in it? What is science? Is it
infallible? How should science affect us? What is
the relation between the world and us? Is there a
single set of correct moral standard? Issues
regarding materialsthe smallest number of
things, the smallest units of things, the
fundamentals in the world or universe,
4
The Aspect of Learning
Everything that the human race has done and
thought is concerned with the satisfaction of
deeply felt needs and the assuagement of pain.
Albert Einstein
The aspect of learning includesclear
understandingimpartial truthright reasonfair
playgood willdecent dialogand wise priorities.
science
pantheism theism atheism anti-pantheism
Non-theism polytheism
religion
5
Fundamental Natural Units
What are the fundamentals of the physical
world? The Yin-Yang Dualism (orient) The Primal
Substances (Greek) These philosophies dominated
human reasoning for a long period, and they still
have some effects over modern scholars. Many
dont dare to disagree. What to do if you dont
agree? deal with it philosophically rigorous
and constructive reasoning, clarity of
expression, and the ability to address complex
and difficult problems.
6
The Yin Yang Dualism
Dualism The ultimate of the universe consists of
Yin and Yang. I-ching (Book of change(s)) by
Fu-Hsi (early Zhou dynasty 1134-247 BC) The
oracle is one of 64 different hexagrams. The
hexagram itself is composed of two trigrams, each
consisting of three lines. Those lines are either
straight (or Yang) or broken (Yin).
Links to I-Chingpacificcoast.net/wh/
7
I-Ching book of change(s)
During the Zhou dynasty (1100-256 B.C.), Lao Tzu
(LaoZi) started the Tao philosophy based on
I-Ching, and Confucius started the first public
school that opened to commoners. This also marked
the first schism in I-Ching scholars.
In Zhou, the lunar calendar based on the 10
celestial stems and 12 earthly branches was
established. By marking the compass with the 10
celestial stems and 12 earthly branches, the
space and time met the first time. 
8
Implication
9
Yin-Yang philosophy
Yin originated from Yang and vice versa.
Together, Yin and Yang form ONE system, no
superior part. Each and any part of a system has
the ability to imbalance the harmony of the
whole. Yin and Yang could not exist alone they
co-exist with no conflict of interest. They
encircled and embrace each other. The constant
moving balance is the ideal image of
harmony.  This philosophy came to being during
the pre-class society, members being considerate.
It reflects the character of many Chinese even
today. Reserve your right not to agree!
10
Einstein on Religion and Science
What are the feelings and needs that have led men
to religious thought and belief in the widest
sense of the words? A little consideration will
suffice to show us that the most varying emotions
preside over the birth of religious thought and
experience. With primitive man it is above all
fear that evokes religious notions - fear of
hunger, wild beasts, sickness, death. Stages of
Religion Social religion, Moral religion, Cosmic
ReligionThere is a third stage of religious
experience which belongs to all of them, even
though it is rarely found in a pure form I shall
call it cosmic religious feeling. It is very
difficult to elucidate this feeling to anyone who
is entirely without it, especially as there is no
anthropomorphic conception of God corresponding
to it. Science and ReligionThe man who is
thoroughly convinced of the universal operation
of the law of causation cannot for a moment
entertain the idea of a being who interferes in
the course of events - provided, of course, that
he takes the hypothesis of causality really
seriously. He has no use for the religion of fear
and equally little for social or moral religion.
11
Primal Substances Platos natural units
Plato (427-347 BC) postulated that combinations
of four primal substancesair, water, fire, and
earth made up all materials.
According to Timaeus
Show the falsity of primal substances
12
Aristotles World
Aristotle (384-322 BC) examined the ideas of
primal substances from the viewpoint of causes
and effects. He added four qualitiescold, wet,
dry and hotto account for the changes.
Earth Water Cold Wet Dry Hot Fire Air
Plato's doctrine dominated scientific reasoning
for almost 2000 years.
What is wrong with Aristotles world?
13
Doctrine Challenged
The important thing is not to stop questioning.
Curiosity has its own reason for existing. One
cannot help but be in awe when he contemplates
the mysteries of eternity, of life, of the
marvelous structure of reality. It is enough if
one tries merely to comprehend a little of this
mystery every day. Never lose a holy curiosity.
A. Einstein
Enterprise, medicine, trade, and technology lead
to wealth, which brought leisure to people for
the pleasure of science. Plato doctrine was
challenged by a few scholars Bacon (1561-1626)
developed methods of fact collection Descartes
(1596-1650) introduced a principle of
doubt Galileo (1564-1642) invented experimental
methods Helmont (1580-1644) and Boyle
(1627-1691) investigated gasThey
disagreed! Primal substance concept invalidated,
as a result.
14
The Chemical Element Concept
During the 16th century, tools emerged for the
study of gases. Not all gases the same. Air is
not a primal substance. Boyle initiated the
chemical element concept
I mean by Elements, as those Chymists that speak
plainest do by their Principles, certain
Primitive and Simple or perfectly unmingled
bodies which not being made of any other bodies,
or of one another, are the Ingredients of which
all those call'd perfectly mixt (i.e. compound)
Bodies are immediately compounded and into which
they are ultimately resolved.
A chemical element is a substance that cannot be
decomposed into any simpler things. They are the
natural building blocks (units) of matter.
15
The Phlogiston Theory
Becher (1635-1682 ) suggested that combustible
material contained an inflammable phlogiston,
which was released during burning, Metal ?
residue phlogiston The late 18th century was
dominated by the "phlogiston" theory. Phlogiston
theorists identified three essences which
comprise all matter sulfur or terra pinguis,
the essence of inflammability mercury or terra
mercurialis, the essence of fluidity and salt
or terra lapida, the essence of fixity and
inertness. Priestly and Lavoisier Metal
oxygen calx (ash) They denounced the phlogiston
theory as being a pure logical speculation.
16
Discovery of Oxygen as an Element
Priestly discovered that not all air are the
same. He found nitrous air reacted with portion
of air. The modern explanation is due to the
reaction 2 NO O2 2 NO2 1/5 of
air NO2 is soluble in H2O.
17
Additional Elements
Traite Element de Chimie lists these
elements GeneralLight, Caloric, Azote
(nitrogen), Hydrogen, Oxygen Nonmetals whose
oxides are acidmetallic, Sulfur, Fluoric
radical, Charcoal, Muriatic radical, Phosphorus,
Boric radical Metals whose oxides are
acidsAntimony, Iron, Silver, Arsenic, Lead,
Platina, Bismuth, Manganese, Tin, Colbalt,
Mercury, Tungstein, Copper, Molybdens, Zinc,
Gold, Nickel Salt and earthy substanceLime,
Magnesia, Argill, Barytes, Silex
18
Daltons Atomic Theory
Dalton (1766-1844 ) all substances are made of
small, indivisible, and fundamental natural units
called atoms.
19
Periodic Table of Elements
Goto Internet www. Webelements.com www.
periodictable.com/pages/AAE_History.html
20
Natural Units in Chemical Reactions
Atoms and ions Fe S FeS H Cl H
Cl Molecules, moles and Avogadros number
Arrangement of Ge atoms in crystals image from
webelements.com
21
Molecules
Failure of Daltons atomic theory 2 H O 2
HO 2 H O H2O (does not agree with volume
measured) H O HO (does not agree with
volume measured) Avogadro(1775-1856 ) natural
units (for chemical reactions are molecules
rather than single atoms. 1 vol. O2 2 vol.
H2 ? 2 vol. H2O 2 CO (g) O2 (g) Avogadros
number 6.0221367e23 molecules mol-1 (physical
constant)
22
Natural Units of Electric Charge
Electrostatic Force (Coulombs law or
Interaction)The force between two static charges
of q1 and q2 C separated at distance r is
q1 q2 F C ---------- r
2 Coulomb constant in vacuumC (4??)1
8.987551787x109 N m2 C-2 C Coulomb, SI unit of
charge
Newton's law m1 m2 F G ----------
r 2 Gravitational constant G
6.67259x10-11 N m2 kg-2
23
Electrochemical Reactions
Galvani (1737-1798) studied medicine, but taught
at university and carried out research on
electric effect of tissues and muscles.
24
Galvani
Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) erroneously concluded
that the frog's nervous system generated an
electrical charge, his work stimulated much
research into the electrochemistry. The depiction
of his laboratory ?
25
Electrochemistry
A. Volta (1745-1827) experimented with different
materials, and made voltaic piles (batteries)
William Nicholson (1753-1815) observed bubbles
forming on the surfaces of metals submerged in
water when they are connected to a voltaic pile
Humphry Davy (1778-1829) observe electrolysis of
water and metal salts. Following that, Michael
Faraday (1791-1860) studied electrolysis, and
discovered the relationship between charges and
chemical stoichiometry
26
Electrolysis
Faraday (1791-1860) discovered chemical reactions
caused by electricity, and he further
investigated electrolysis. Passing 96485.309
coulomb through the cell will deposit 108 g (1
mole) of silver (Ag), or 1.008 g (also 1 mole) of
hydrogen. Faraday constant F 96485.309 C.
27
The Electron
Crookes (1832-1919) discovered cathode rays as
negatively charged particles J.J. Thomson
determined mass to charge ratio in
1897. Millikan's experiment determined the charge
28
Electrons
qe 1.60217733e-19 C F 96485 C me
0.00054856 amu 9.1093897e-31 kgspin ½
(two state) magnetic moment
9.284770e24 J/tesla
Voltaic piles (batteries) made the following
study possible W. Crookes (1832-1919) observed
cathode rays in low-pressure tubes. 1897 J.J.
Thomson determined the charge to mass ratio (e /
me) of cathode rays (electrons). 1916 R. Millikan
(1868-1953) measured the amount of charge of e.
29
Properties of Electron
9.1093897x10-31 kg5.4856 x10-4 amu 0.510999 MeV
(/c2)
Rest mass
-1.60217733 x 10-19 C-4.80663 x10-10 esu-1
atomic charge
Charge
1/2
spin
9.284770x10-24 J/tesla1.00115965219 Bohr
magmetons
Magnetic moment
30
Spin of the Electron
In 1896, P. Zeeman (1865-1943) shared physics
Nobel Prize with H.A. Lorentz for observed the
broadening of the sodium D-lines when the source
is placed in a magnetic field. The theoretical
explanation is provided almost 30 years later by
quantum mechanics. George E. Uhlenbeck
(1900-1988) and Samuel A. Goudsmit (1902-1978)
proposed that the electrons might have an
intrinsic angular momentum or spin of sz ½h.
31
Stern-Gerlach Experiment
32
Electron Spin Magnetic Moment
The z-component of magnetic moment due to
intrinsic spin of the electron is expected to be
?z ½ ?B but the measured value turns out to
be about twice that. ?B h / 2 ? m
33
Electron Spin Technology
According to Nature of Dec. 6, 2001 We (6
researchers at UC St. Barbara) would like to
electrically manipulate the electron spin because
that's the bridge to a scalable technology.
Today's charge-based electronics all use
electrical gates--a sandwich of electrical
plates--to guide electrons. We want to use the
electrical control methods of today's technology
to fabricate a spin gate. This paper reports spin
gates that can make the electron spin go one way
or the other or just stay put. And the gate works
at room temperature.
34
Protons, Neutrons and Quarks
As we shall see, the discovery of protons and
neutrons made people consider them as the
fundamental particles. However, physicists have
evidences to show that all particles, including
protons and neutrons are made up of quarks. There
are two types of quarks in each of the three
generations of matter. Individual quarks have
not been detected, but their existences are
inferred. Please recall the Yin and Yang
philosophy. We shall give a full discussion on
protons, neutron, and quarks.
35
Natures Hierarchy a biological view
? ? ? Sub-Atomic ParticlesAtomMoleculeOrganelle
CellTissueOrganOrgan SystemMulticellur
OrganismPopulationCommunityEcosystemBiosphere
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