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WHAT IS RACE?

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'On the Natural Variety of Mankind,' first published in 1775 ... may be the amalgamation of the two races, producing a mongrel population and a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WHAT IS RACE?


1
WHAT IS RACE?
2
(No Transcript)
3
What is Race?
4
What is Race?
  • (a) Biological Category

5
What is Race?
  • (a) Biological Category
  • Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) Of the Different Human
    Races

6
What is Race?
  • (a) Biological Category
  • Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) Of the Different Human
    Races
  • The mere proof that what a Negro said was stupid
    is that the fellow is black from head to foot.

7
Immanuel Kant
  • Four Pure Races
  • WHITE. Europe. Rational.
  • RED. America. Wild, unintelligent.
  • YELLOW. Asia. Unintelligent.
  • BLACK. Africa. Idle.

8
What is Race?
  • (a) Biological Category
  • Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840)

9
What is Race?
  • (a) Biological Category
  • Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840)
  • On the Natural Variety of Mankind, first
    published in 1775

10
What is Race?
  • (a) Biological Category
  • Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840)
  • On the Natural Variety of Mankind, first
    published in 1775
  • Coined the term Caucasian

11
What is Race?
  • (a) Biological Category
  • Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840)
  • On the Natural Variety of Mankind, first
    published in 1775
  • Coined the term Caucasian
  • monogenesis v polygenesis

12
What is Race?
  • (a) Biological Category
  • Separate species?

13
What is Race?
  • (a) Biological Category
  • Separate species?
  • Darwin same species

14
What is Race?
  • (a) Biological Category
  • Separate species?
  • Darwin same species
  • eugenics

15
What is Race?
  • (a) Biological Category
  • Separate species?
  • Darwin same species
  • eugenics defined hereditary improvement
    through breeding

16
What is Race?
  • (a) Biological Category
  • Separate species?
  • Darwin same species
  • eugenics defined hereditary improvement
    through breeding
  • 1883 Francis Galton

17
What is Race?
  • (a) Biological Category
  • Separate species?
  • Darwin same species
  • eugenics defined hereditary improvement
    through breeding
  • 1883 Francis Galton
  • Galton advocated selective breeding to improve
    the health, energy, ability, manliness, and
    courteous disposition

18
What is Race?
  • (a) Biological Category
  • Eugenics in USA

19
What is Race?
  • (a) Biological Category
  • Eugenics in USA
  • sterilization of the feebleminded or infirm, was
    implemented in a number of American states

20
What is Race?
  • (a) Biological Category
  • Eugenics in USA
  • sterilization of the feebleminded or infirm, was
    implemented in a number of American states
  • United States Supreme Court in an eight-to-one
    decision in Buck v. Bell (274 U.S. 200, 1927

21
Buck v Bell (1927)
  • Carrie Buck was a feeble minded woman who was
    committed to a state mental institution. Her
    condition had been present in her family for the
    last three generations. A Virginia law allowed
    for the sexual sterilization of inmates of
    institutions to promote the "health of the
    patient and the welfare of society." Before the
    procedure could be performed, however, a hearing
    was required to determine whether or not the
    operation was a wise thing to do.

22
Buck v Bell (1927)
  • Did the Virginia statute which authorized
    sterilization deny Buck the right to due process
    of the law and the equal protection of the laws
    as protected by the Fourteenth Amendment?

23
Buck v Bell (1927)
  • The Court found that the statute did not violate
    the Constitution. Justice Holmes made clear that
    Buck's challenge was not upon the medical
    procedure involved but on the process of the
    substantive law. Since sterilization could not
    occur until a proper hearing had occurred (at
    which the patient and a guardian could be
    present) and after the Circuit Court of the
    County and the Supreme Court of Appeals had
    reviewed the case, if so requested by the
    patient. Only after "months of observation" could
    the operation take place. That was enough to
    satisfy the Court that there was no
    Constitutional violation. Citing the best
    interests of the state, Justice Holmes affirmed
    the value of a law like Virginia's in order to
    prevent the nation from "being swamped with
    incompetence . . . Three generations of imbeciles
    are enough."

24
What is Race?
  • (a) Biological Category
  • Scientific Racism, 19C

25
What is Race?
  • (a) Biological Category
  • Scientific Racism, 19C

26
What is Race?
  • (a) Biological Category
  • Scientific Racism, 19C
  • Craniometry

27
What is Race?
  • (a) Biological Category
  • Scientific Racism, 19C
  • Craniometry
  • Samuel Morton (17991851), collected hundreds of
    human skulls from all over the world He claimed
    that he could judge the intellectual capacity of
    a race by the cranial capacity (the measure of
    the volume of the interior of the skull). A large
    skull meant a large brain and high intellectual
    capacity, and a small skull indicated a small
    brain and decreased intellectual capacity

28
Morton
  • In disposition the Negro is joyous, flexible, and
    indolent while the many nations which compose
    this race present a singular diversity of
    intellectual character, of which the far extreme
    is the lowest grade of humanity.

29
Morton
  • The American Race is marked by a brown
    complexion long, black, lank hair and deficient
    beard.

30
Morton
  • The Negroes have little invention, but strong
    powers of imitation, so that they readily acquire
    mechanic arts. They have a great talent for
    music, and all their external senses are
    remarkably acute.

31
Houston Chamberlain (1855-1927)
32
Houston Chamberlain (1855-1927)
  • distinct races emerged through geographical and
    historical conditions which create inbreeding
    among certain individuals with similar traits

33
Houston Chamberlain (1855-1927)
  • distinct races emerged through geographical and
    historical conditions which create inbreeding
    among certain individuals with similar traits
  • key strands of western civilization -
    Christianity and ancient Greek philosophy and art
    emerged from the Aryan race

34
Houston Chamberlain (1855-1927)
  • distinct races emerged through geographical and
    historical conditions which create inbreeding
    among certain individuals with similar traits
  • key strands of western civilization -
    Christianity and ancient Greek philosophy and art
    emerged from the Aryan race
  • Teutonic Germans, their diametric opposite was
    the Jew, the highest manifestation of the Semitic
    Race

35
Nazi Eugenics
36
Nazi Eugenics
37
Nazi Eugenics
  • life unworthy of life

38
Nazi Eugenics
  • life unworthy of life
  • Influence by American Law

39
Nazi Eugenics
  • Sparta must be regarded as the first Völkisch
    State. The exposure of the sick, weak, deformed
    children, in short, their destruction, was more
    decent and in truth a thousand times more humane
    than the wretched insanity of our day which
    preserves the most pathological subject, and
    indeed at any price, and yet takes the life of a
    hundred thousand healthy children in consequence
    of birth control or through abortions, in order
    subsequently to breed a race of degenerates
    burdened with illnesses (A. Hitler)

40
What is Race?
  • Postwar, eugenics discredited

41
What is Race?
  • Postwar, eugenics discredited
  • US military wasnt integrated

42
What is Race?
  • Postwar, eugenics discredited
  • US military wasnt integrated
  • Jewish quotas in universities

43
What is Race?
  • Postwar, eugenics discredited
  • US military wasnt integrated
  • Jewish quotas in universities
  • Anti-miscegenation laws

44
What is Race?
  • Postwar, eugenics discredited
  • US military wasnt integrated
  • Jewish quotas in universities
  • Anti-miscegenation laws
  • 1967, Loving v. Virginia, US Supreme Court

45
What is Race?
  • Postwar, eugenics discredited
  • US military wasnt integrated
  • Jewish quotas in universities
  • Anti-miscegenation laws
  • 1967, Loving v. Virginia, US Supreme Court
  • Sixteen states still had anti-miscegenation laws

46
What is Race?
  • "The evil tendency of the crime of adultery or
    fornication is greater when committed between
    persons of the two races ... Its result may be
    the amalgamation of the two races, producing a
    mongrel population and a degraded civilization,
    the prevention of which is dictated by a sound
    policy affecting the highest interests of society
    and government." (Pace Cox v. State, 69 Ala
    231, 233 (1882)

47
What is Race?
  • New Idea Race is a social construction
  • No biological foundation
  • No black blood
  • All the same species
  • No inherent racial traits
  • Some blacks are whiter than some whites

48
What is Race?
  • Supreme Court cant find a stable meaning of
    race (US vs. Singh Thing)
  • Simone De Beauvoir, The Second Sex Women are not
    born, they are made.
  • Influential in 1960s
  • Jean-Paul Sartre, If the Jew did not exist, he
    would have been created by the antisemite.
  • Race is constructed by racists those who wish to
    have power and exclude others.

49
What is Race?
  • New Idea Race is a social construction
  • Simone De Beauvoir, The Second Sex Women are not
    born, they are made.

50
What is Race?
  • Should we be a post-racial society?
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