Phosgene Oxime Vesicants Blistering Agents - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Phosgene Oxime Vesicants Blistering Agents

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An urticant or nettle agent, not a true vesicant ... Penetrates rubber. Requires frequent changes of protective gear. Detection ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Phosgene Oxime Vesicants Blistering Agents


1
Phosgene Oxime Vesicants / Blistering Agents
2
Vesicants / Blistering Agents
  • Phosgene Oxime

3
Overview Phosgene Oxime
  • Phosgene oxime (CX), a halogenated oxime, causes
    severe injury
  • Can be mixed with other agents
  • An urticant or nettle agent, not a true vesicant
  • Like vesicants, it can produce similar eye, lung,
    and skin damage

4
Overview Toxicity
  • Concentrations lt 8 - little injury
  • Higher concentrations - more severe damage
  • For skin exposure, estimated LD50 is 25 mg/kg
  • For inhalation, the estimated LCt50 is 1500
    2000 mg-min/m3
  • Systemic toxicity possible, including hepatic and
    vascular necrosis

5
Protective Equipment
  • Ordinary clothing and surgical gear offer little
    or no protection
  • Respirator, protective overgarments, gloves and
    overboots are required
  • Penetrates rubber
  • Requires frequent changes of protective gear

6
Detection
  • No automatic detectors available

7
Decontamination
  • Efficient and immediate
  • Full absorption can occur within a minute
  • Mixed with another agent
  • Skin damage increases victims vulnerability to
    second agent
  • Clothing contaminated by liquid CX poses an
    immediate danger of off-gassing vapors

8
Decontamination
  • Skin
  • Physical absorption achieved with Fullers earth
    or talcum powder
  • Inactivate chemically with alkaline agents
  • Inactivation using chlorination is ineffective
  • Use large amounts of water only if nothing else
    is available

9
Decontamination
  • Mucous Membranes and Eyes
  • Flush immediately with water
  • Flush the eyes with water, isotonic sodium
    bicarbonate (1.26), or saline (0.9)

10
Signs and Symptoms
  • Instant and severe pain
  • Leads to the rapid use of protective gear and
    decontamination
  • Victims have removed protective gear in an effort
    to relieve the pain

11
Signs and Symptoms
  • Eyes
  • Immediate symptoms
  • Pain, conjunctivitis, blepharospasm, blepharitis,
    lacrimation, and keratitis
  • Severe damage
  • Corneal damage
  • Permanent blindness

12
Signs and Symptoms
  • Sequence of skin damage
  • First minute
  • Intense pain and itching
  • Full absorption
  • exposed area turns white
  • circular zone of erythema
  • Within an hour area becomes edematous
  • Within 24 hours
  • Edema resolves
  • Lesion becomes darkly pigmented
  • Severe necrosis develops

13
Signs and Symptoms
  • Sequence of skin damage
  • Over 7 10 days
  • Desquamation with necrosis
  • Eschar formation
  • Purulent discharge
  • Necrotic lesions surrounded by intense
    inflammation

14
Signs and Symptoms
  • Respiratory Tract
  • Instant irritation
  • Leads to pulmonary edema
  • Necrotizing bronchiolitis and pulmonary venule
    thrombosis
  • Pulmonary injury may result from severe skin
    exposures

15
Treatment
  • No specific treatment
  • Relieve symptoms, prevent infection, promote
    healing
  • Surgical treatment for necrotic lesions
  • Treat pulmonary edema as indicated
  • Recovery takes 1 - 3 months
  • 6 months recovery time for burns

16
Treatment
  • Caveats
  • Eyes
  • No topical anesthetics
  • Use protective goggles, not bandages
  • GI
  • Do not induce emesis
  • Give 4-8 ounces of milk or water
  • Respiratory Tract
  • Treat symptomatically -- be alert for pneumonia

17
Long Term Medical Sequelae
  • Unknown
  • Related to the initial acute injuries
  • Carcinogenicity and reproductive effects unknown

18
Environmental Sequelae
  • Highly reactive and volatile
  • Non-persistent agent
  • Environmental hazards unlikely

19
Summary
  • Urticant agent
  • Skin, eye and pulmonary damage
  • Mixing with other agents causes severe injury
  • Immediate decontamination is critical

20
Summary
  • Instant intense pain
  • Followed by tissue necrosis
  • No specific antidote or treatment
  • Relieve symptoms, prevent infection, promote
    healing
  • Recovery takes 1 - 3 months
  • Skin burns take over 6 months to heal
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