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SOVIET AND POSTSOVIET FOREIGN POLICY

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Tactical Flexibility (read summary on page 36) ACCOMMODATION OR RETREAT? ... WWII and the COLD WAR. THURSDAY (4/26) The decline of the Soviet Union ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SOVIET AND POSTSOVIET FOREIGN POLICY


1
SOVIET AND POST-SOVIET FOREIGN POLICY
  • In Search of Stalin

2
TODAYS AGENDA
  • Administrative
  • Web Site of the Day
  • News
  • Soviet Foreign Policy under Stalin

3
ADMINISTRATIVE
  • Apology
  • Thanks for the Essays
  • Do Your Readings!
  • Office and Office hours
  • Upcoming Exam (5/1)
  • How to use the study guide
  • See me after class to sign-up for lunches
  • Voluntary
  • TNSTAAFL
  • Wexner

4
WEB SITE OF THE DAY
  • The Central Intelligence Agency
  • http//www.odci.gov
  • Especially the World Factbook
  • Maps- by country plus one of CIS
  • Background information
  • To include major religion and capitals
  • Use it for first exam!!!

5
The World Factbook
6
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7
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8
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9
AND IN THE NEWS...
  • President and Patriarch celebrate Paschal Liturgy
  • Putin The Orthodox Church has played a special
    role in the history of Russia, in the
    establishment and consolidation of the state.
  • Patriarch congratulated those fighting in
    Chechnya
  • Open Skies Treaty
  • transparency
  • US Criticizes Attacks on Free Press
  • Lets look at each sides frame
  • Are these frames determined by ideology or
    pragmatism (realism vs. ideas)
  • What is the goal of our position?
  • What are the costs and benefits of our position?
  • Goal and costs of their position?
  • The Perils of Volunteer Work
  • Not to mention fishing, doing science, or serving
    in military

10
IDEOLOGY, MISCALCULATION, OR PURE GENIUS
  • Ideology world revolution was inevitable
  • Bolsheviks Divided on WWI Strategy
  • 1917 Decree of Peace
  • Olive Branch to Germany (devil)
  • Play for time (why?)
  • Germans had the better hand
  • Trotskys No War No Peace
  • German called their bluff and moved East
  • Gave support to Lenins pragmatism
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
  • Russians gave up tons of land, humiliated, more
    pragmatic, defensive, and bitter
  • Realized need to consolidate power at home while
    moving for revolution abroad.
  • Consolidated Lenins control over party
  • The Polish Fiasco Revolution from Without
  • Three factors resulting from formative years
  • Revolutionary Internationalism (isolation,
    COMINTERN)
  • The new pillar of the revolution the RKKA
  • Tactical Flexibility (read summary on page 36)

11
ACCOMMODATION OR RETREAT?
  • Huge Army No longer necessary
  • Move to dual standing/militia formulation
  • War Communism no longer useful
  • Switch to NEP (Which one was Lenins true
    preference?)
  • Adversarial Relationship w/West no longer useful
  • Needed hold out until world revolution (Lenins
    preference?)
  • Double strategy formal friendship while
    undermining friends (COMINTERN)
  • Increased economic ties, but still uneasy about
    West
  • The answer? Align with Germany
  • Treaty of Rapallo true pragmatism (16 April
    1922)
  • Full diplomatic relations
  • Mutual most-favored nation status
  • Mutual renunciation of war damages
  • Served many purposes
  • Security alliance with a major Western power
  • Took advantage of Western divisions and prevented
    anti-Soviet alliance maintained balance of power
  • Secret protocols military cooperation

12
STALIN COMES IN
  • 1922 Treaty of Rapallo
  • W/ Germany
  • Lenin dies in 1924
  • Stalins Rise to Power
  • He, Zinoviev and Kamenev vs. Trotski (left)
  • Then shifting alliances to consolidate power
  • Then ZKT vs. Stalin, Bukharin et al (right) won
    in 1927
  • But NEP became unpopular so Stalin vs. Bukharin
    and rise of 5 year plans
  • How did Stalin do it?
  • Socialism in One Country
  • Necessity is the mother of invention

13
STALIN COMES IN
  • Soviet Situation in 30s
  • State of Economy? 5 year plans imposed short
    term losses
  • State of military? (purges etc.)
  • State of relations/accommodation? Deteriorating
  • In Europe Collective Security (Litvinov)
  • Doomed from the get go?
  • Worried about war, knew they MUST have peace
  • Rise of Hitler in 33
  • Japanese troops on Eastern border
  • German/Japanese anti COMINTERN union
  • Luckily, Japan attacked China instead
  • Joined League of Nations (after Germany and Japan
    left)
  • At Home build industry and modernize army
  • Purge the military and elite (1934-9)

Military Purge Rank Killed/Total Marshals
3/5 Army COs 13/15 Corp Cos
50/57 Div Cos 154/186 Colonels
401/456
14
TRYING TO AVOID WWII
  • 1938 and CZ Stalin out in the Cold
  • Stalin new war was coming
  • The Western Powers dragged their feet
  • Litvinov (Mr. Collective Security) sacked
  • August 23, 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
  • No War, No Peace- Revisited?
  • Goodbye for good collective security!!!
  • Why did they do this? What were the benefits?
    Time?
  • August 30, 1939 Molotov defends pact
  • September 1, 1939 Germany - Poland
  • WWII Begins
  • 1940 Stalin Gets Greedy
  • Finland, Bulgaria, Turkey, Bessarabia
  • Treaty of Neutrality with Japan
  • Continued appeasement of Germany
  • And Pays for it!!! (22 June 1941)

15
COMING UP
  • TUESDAY (4/24)
  • WWII and the COLD WAR
  • THURSDAY (4/26)
  • The decline of the Soviet Union
  • Perhaps a movie on Afghanistan
  • TUESDAY (5/1)
  • EXAM
  • Contact me if you have questions!!!!

16
THE WAR ENDS
  • May 8, 1945 Germany Surrenders
  • August 6 Hiroshima
  • August 8 Soviets vs. Japan
  • August 14 Japan Gives Up (9/2/45)

17
THE IRON CURTAIN
  • February, 1947 USSR Expands
  • Annexation, treaties, coalitions, etc.
  • Why Expansionism?
  • The Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan
  • Soviet Consolidation

18
KOREA
  • Russias Interest and Strategy
  • August 15, 1945 38th Parallel
  • June 25, 1950 Invasion
  • UN/US Reaction and Results
  • July 1953 Armistice
  • Stalin in Retrospect

19
QUESTIONS???
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