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Janet Knodel

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Types piercing-sucking and chewing. Severity of injury negatively impact health of tree? ... Pierce host tissue and suck plant sap causing yellow spotting ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Janet Knodel


1
Common Insects Problems in Trees Shrubs in
North Dakota
Janet Knodel Extension Entomologist
2
Master Gardener Basics
  • Proper insect identification
  • Understand pest biology
  • Life cycle (complete or incomplete metamorphosis)
  • Hosts
  • Recognize feeding injury
  • Types piercing-sucking and chewing
  • Severity of injury negatively impact health of
    tree?
  • Control necessary?
  • Know when and how to apply control methods
  • USE Integrated Pest Management IPM approach
  • Insecticides as last resort

3
Proper Identification of Insects
4
Complete Metamorphosis
  • Egg to larval stages to pupae to adult
  • Larvae look different from adult
  • Pupal stage (inactive)

beetles moths/butterflies bees/wasps flies
5
Incomplete Metamorphosis
  • Egg to larval stages (nymphs) to adult
  • Larvae look similar to adult
  • No pupal stage

grasshopper aphid plant bug
6
Mouthparts Chewing
  • Holes in plant leaves or other parts
  • Skeletonized leaves
  • Tunneling in wood

mandibles
7
Mouthparts Piercing-Sucking
  • Wilting plants
  • Dead spots in tissues
  • Honeydew

8
I P M
Integrated Pest Management for
Insects
9
information based
The IPM Continuum
biocontrol
System Based
biorational
predictive model
pest monitoring
Conventional
resistant varieties
cultural controls
chemical based
10
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11
Mouthparts Piercing-Sucking
  • Wilting plants
  • Dead spots in tissues
  • Honeydew

12
Aphids
  • Found on most plants
  • Various colors (black, green, )
  • Two tailpipes or cornicles
  • Winged or wingless
  • Reproduce rapidly (asexual)
  • Produce large amounts of honeydew
  • Ants move and protect them
  • Black Sooty mold

13
Plant Bugs or Leafhoppers Ash plant bug
  • Adult ½ inch, tan colored with pinkish markings
    on back
  • Nymph
  • 2 generations per year
  • Midsummer
  • Late summer
  • Overwinter as eggs in bark

14
Ash plant bug
  • Pierce host tissue and suck plant sap causing
    yellow spotting of leaves
  • Leaf mottling
  • Deformed leaves
  • Premature leaf drop
  • HEALTHY trees tolerate injury
  • Foliage damage is observed throughout tree
    canopy, use insecticide for control

15
Cottony Ash PsyllidNew Insect Pest in North
Dakota
  • North Dakota Dept of Ag first observations in
    2005
  • Fargo
  • Grand Forks
  • Dickinson
  • Minot
  • Hankinson

16
Cottony Ash Psyllid - Hosts
  • Black ash, Fraxinus nigra
  • Mancurian ash, Fraxinus mandshurica
  • Hybrids of these two species
  • Northern Treasure
  • Northern Gem
  • Not know to feed on green ash or white ash

17
Cottony Ash Psyllid
Adult
Adult light green, small size 3mm Nymph
light green to yellow-green
Nymph
18
Scale Insects
  • Cottony maple scale insect
  • Cottony egg sacs with 1,500 eggs
  • Egg hatch in late June or July

19
Cottony maple scale
  • Crawlers
  • Tiny, brown
  • Feed on underside of leaves
  • Move back to branch in fall
  • Maple, popular, basswood, elm

20
Cottony Cushion
Lecanium Scale
  • The first instar nymphs have legs and antennae
    and are called a crawler.
  • After the first molt the insect becomes sessile
    and attaches itself to the plant.
  • The insect then covers itself with a waxy,
    cottony, or scale like covering.

21
Pine Needle Scale
  • Overwinter as eggs
  • hatch in May
  • in August, needles spotted with white scales

22
Oystershell Scale
23
Spider mites
  • Very small
  • Injury symptoms
  • Yellowing
  • Spots with no green tissue
  • Webbing
  • White paper for sampling
  • Hot dry conditions
  • Increase mite populations

24
Predatory Spider mites
  • Dont confuse this beneficial mite with bad
    phytophagous mites
  • Active, fast moving
  • Longer legs
  • Feeds on phytophagous mites

25
Mouthparts Chewing
  • Holes in plant leaves or other parts
  • Skeletonized leaves
  • Tunneling in wood

mandibles
26
Leaf Feeding Caterpillars Tent Caterpillars
  • Prairie - large silk tents around fork or branch
  • Forest - no tents
  • one generation
  • eggs laid in fall
  • larvae hatch in
  • spring
  • larvae leave web
  • (when present) to feed

27
Tent caterpillar
  • Webs constructed in V of limbs
  • Caterpillars leave web to feed

28
Tent caterpillar
  • Defoliation
  • Hardwoods chokecherry, ash, aspen, elm, maple,
    oak, poplar
  • Larvae feed outside web making control with
    insecticide easy
  • Bt insecticides work well with young larvae
  • Pyrethrin or synthetic insecticides  

29
Fall and Spring Cankerworms
Cankerworm caterpillar
Male and wingless female moths caught in
tanglefoot
Cankerworm feeding injury
30
Fall and Spring Cankerworms
Cankerworm caterpillar
Wingless female moth
Cankerworm feeding injury
31
Fall Webworm
32
Fall Webworm
  • Caterpillars stay in protection of web
  • expand web for more food as leaves are eaten
  • Difficult to control when webs fully
    developed

33
Other Leaf Feeding InsectsPear slug sawfly
  • Adult 3/16th of inch, shiny dark wings
  • Larvae slug-like, covered with slime
  • Life Cycle
  • Overwinter as larvae
  • Pupate in spring
  • Emerge as adults
  • 2 generation a year
  • Hosts cotoneaster, fruit trees, hawthorn,
    mountain-ash

34
Pear slug sawfly
  • Defoliation
  • Leaf skeletonization
  • Premature leaf drop
  • Little damage to host
  • Control
  • Wash off larvae with strong jet of water
  • Sprinkling wood ash on larvae
  • Insecticidal soap or conventional insecticides

35
Birch leafminer
  • Adult sawfly, ¼ inch long, black, fly-like wasp,
    do not sting
  • Larvae very flat, white with 3 black spots,
    live within birch leaves
  • Damage
  • Large blotch mines in leaves
  • Multiple generations and high populations forces
    tree to refoliate and reduces ability to produce
    food
  • Makes tree more susceptible to bronzed birch
    borer

36
Birch leafminer Life cycle
  • Overwinter as mature larvae
  • Spring pupate and transform into adults
  • Adults emerge as newly expanding foliage of
    birches
  • Mate and oviposit on upper leaves in sunny
    locations
  • Egg hatch in 7 to 10 days
  • Larvae mine leaf for 14 to 20 days
  • 2 to 3 generations a year

37
Birch leafminer
  • Control
  • Cultural control
  • Pupation barrier
  • Resistant birches
  • River birches (B. nigra)
  • Dahurian birches (B. davurica)
  • Chemical control
  • Target adults
  • Systemic insecticides for larval control
  • Orthene, imidacloprid
  • Timed sprays using Degree-day
  • 190-290 DD (50 degree F base) first generation
    of larvae susceptible to control

38
Yellow-headed Spruce Sawfly
  • Adults emerge in spring
  • young larvae feed on new needles
  • rear up in S shape
  • larvae drop to ground in July

39
Wood Boring InsectsBark beetles (Scolytinae)
  • Symptoms bark of dead or dying limbs, small
    holes, galleries underneath bark
  • Keep trees in good health
  • Usually attack stressed or dying trees in spring

40
Bronzed birch borerBuprestidae
  • Adult bullet-shaped, with metallic bronzed reflection
  • Larvae flat-headed borer, legless, 1.25 inch
    when full grown
  • Life cycle 1 to 2 years
  • Adults emerge late June through August
  • Injury larval tunneling beneath bark

D-shaped exit holes
41
Bronzed birch borer
  • Young, transplanted or weakened or dying trees
    most susceptible
  • Symptom bumpy branches
  • Control
  • Adult to prevent egg laying
  • Foliar insecticide in mid-June and twice more at
    3-week intervals until August
  • Imidacloprid soil drenches
  • Insecticide injections by professional variable
    results
  • Destroy heavily infested limps
  • Resistance Brown-barked river birch

42
Lilac or Ash Borer Sessidae
Wasp-like moths emerge in June
Die-back and breakage
larvae mine sapwood
43
Emerald Ash Borer EXOTIC!Cerambycidae
  • Native to East Asia
  • Likely introduced via solid wood packing material
  • First detected in Detroit, MI area in 2002
  • Probably established 7 to 12 years previously

Agrilus planipennis
44
Emerald Ash Borer - Hosts
  • Green ash
  • Black ash
  • White ash
  • Blue ash
  • Including all cultivars

-Color varies from bronzed to golden green -
Darker metallic purplish green wing covers
45
Emerald Ash Borer
  • Has killed an estimated 10 million ash trees in
    SE Michigan

46
Emerald Ash Borer - Symptoms
  • Thinning canopy starting in upper 1/3 of tree
  • Epicormic shoots or suckers

47
Emerald Ash Borer - Symptoms
  • D-shaped exit holes
  • S-shaped tunnels from larval feeding

48
Emerald Ash Borer - Symptoms
  • Vertical splits in bark
  • Activity by woodpeckers

49
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50
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51
mossy rose gall wasp
Gall Insects
  • aphids
  • psyllids
  • midges (flies)
  • wasps
  • Mites

Hackberry nipple gall (psyllid)
- Usually not harmful to plants - Gall forms from
salivary secretions from pest
petiole leaf gall aphid
52
Maple bladder gall mite
Ash flower gall mite
oak flake gall
53
The remaining slides are examples of Good or
Beneficial Insects
54
Preying mantis
55
Preying mantis egg case
56
Lady beetles . . . Aphid predators
larva
pupa
57
Ground beetle
58
Orius, a.k.a. Pirate bug
59
Pirate bug feeding on aphid
60
Nabis, a.k.a. Damsel bug
61
Damsel bug nymph
62
Big-eyed bug
63
Spiny soldier bug
64
Spiny soldier bug nymph
65
Assasin bug
wheel like hump
66
Lacewing adult
67
Lacewing eggs
stalk
68
Lacewing larva
69
Syrphid fly
70
Syrphid fly larva
71
Wasp or Hornet
72
Parasitic wasp
73
Aphid parasite
74
Aphid mummy parasitized by wasp
75
Parasitic wasp egg-parasite
76
Parasitic wasp egg-parasite
77
Parasitic wasp larvae emerging from host
78
Spiders
79
Predatory spider mite
80
Bacteria-killed caterpillar
81
Virus-killed caterpillar
82
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