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Chapter 5. Macromolecules

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Smaller organic molecules join together to form larger molecules. macromolecules ... Atkin's Diet. South Beach Diet. 2005-2006. AP Biology. Carbohydrates ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 5. Macromolecules


1
Chapter 5. Macromolecules
2
Macromolecules
  • Smaller organic molecules join together to form
    larger molecules
  • macromolecules
  • 4 major classes of macromolecules
  • carbohydrates
  • lipids
  • proteins
  • nucleic acids

3
Polymers
  • Long molecules built by linking chain of
    repeating smaller units
  • polymers
  • monomers repeated small units
  • covalent bonds

4
How to build a polymer
  • Condensation reaction
  • dehydration synthesis
  • joins monomers by taking H2O out
  • 1 monomer provides OH
  • the other monomer provides H
  • together these form H2O
  • requires energy enzymes

5
How to break down a polymer
  • Hydrolysis
  • use H2O to break apart monomers
  • reverse of condensation reaction
  • H2O is split into H and OH
  • H OH group attach where the covalent bond used
    to be
  • ex digestion is hydrolysis

6
  • Carbohydrates

7
So whats all this talk about carbs?
  • Atkins Diet
  • South Beach Diet

8
Carbohydrates
  • Carbohydrates are composed of C, H, O carbo -
    hydr - ate
  • CH2O
  • (CH2O)x C6H12O6
  • Function
  • energy u energy storage
  • raw materials u structural materials
  • Monomer sugars
  • ex sugars starches

9
Sugars
  • Most names for sugars end in -ose
  • Classified by number of carbons
  • 6C hexose (glucose)
  • 5C pentose (fructose, ribose)
  • 3C triose (glyceraldehyde)

10
What functional groups?
carbonyl
aldehyde
ketone
hydroxyl
11
Sugar structure
  • 5C 6C sugars form rings in aqueous solutions
  • in cells!
  • Carbons are numbered

12
Numbered carbons
C
6'
C
O
5'
C
C
1'
4'
C
C
2'
3'
13
Simple complex sugars
  • Monosaccharides
  • simple 1 monomer sugars
  • glucose
  • Disaccharides
  • 2 monomers
  • sucrose
  • Polysaccharides
  • large polymers
  • starch

14
Building sugars
  • Dehydration synthesis

monosaccharides
disaccharide
glucose
glucose
maltose
glycosidic linkage
15
Building sugars
  • Dehydration synthesis

monosaccharides
disaccharide
fructose
glucose
sucrose
glycosidic linkage
structural isomers
Lets go to the video tape! (play movie here)
16
Polysaccharides
  • Polymers of sugars
  • costs little energy to build
  • easily reversible release energy
  • Function
  • energy storage
  • starch (plants)
  • glycogen (animals)
  • building materials structure
  • cellulose (plants)
  • chitin (arthropods fungi)

17
Branched vs linear polysaccharides
18
Polysaccharide diversity
  • Molecular structure determines function
  • isomers of glucose
  • How does structure influence function

19
Digesting starch vs. cellulose
20
Cellulose
  • Most abundant organic compound on Earth

21
Glycemic index
  • Which food will get into your blood more
    quickly?
  • apple
  • rice cakes
  • corn flakes
  • bagel
  • peanut MM

22
Glycemic index
  • Ranking of carbohydrates based on their immediate
    effect on blood glucose (blood sugar) levels
  • Carbohydrate foods that breakdown quickly during
    digestion have the highest glycemic indices.
    Their blood sugar response is fast high.

23
Glycemic index
  • Which food will get into your blood more
    quickly?
  • apple 36
  • rice cakes 82
  • corn flakes 84
  • bagel 72
  • peanut MM 33

24
  • Lets build some
  • Carbohydrates!
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