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Sorting Through The World of Diets: Real Nutrition for Real Health

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South Beach. The Ornish Diet. Weight Watchers. USDA Food Guide Pyramid ... The South Beach Diet: Dr. Arthur Agatston. Not all carbohydrates are created equal ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sorting Through The World of Diets: Real Nutrition for Real Health


1
Sorting Through The World of Diets Real
Nutrition for Real Health
  • Lynn Goldstein, MS, RD, CDN
  • The Jay Monahan Center for Gastrointestinal Health

2
Diet Statistics
  • 66.3 of adults over age 20 are overweight or
    obese
  • 17 of adolescents age 12-19 are overweight
  • 19 of children age 6-11 are overweight
  • 25 of American men and 45 of American women are
    on a diet on any given day
  • 95 of all dieters will regain their lost weight
    in 1-5 years
  • American spend over 40 billion on dieting and
    diet-related products each year
  • .

3
Health Risks Associated with Obesity
  • Heart disease/stroke
  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Cancer (uterine, gallbladder, ovarian, cervical,
    breast, colon, prostate, kidney, esophagus,
    stomach, liver and pancreas)
  • Gallbladder disease/gallstones
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Gout
  • Breathing problems
  • GERD

4
Other Nutritional Risk Factors for Cancer
  • High intakes of animal fat may increase the risk
    of breast, colon, prostate, and pancreas cancers
  • Increased risk for colon cancer with inactivity,
    diets low in fruits and vegetables, and high in
    red meat
  • High intakes of alcohol may increase cancer risk
    for mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver and
    breast
  • Diets high in sodium may increase risk for
    stomach cancer
  • Smoking can increase your risk for lung and
    pancreatic cancer

5
Overview
  • Atkins
  • The Zone
  • South Beach
  • The Ornish Diet
  • Weight Watchers
  • USDA Food Guide Pyramid
  • Lynns Opinion on the best way to eat

6
The Zone Dr. Barry Sears
  • Goal is to combat insulin resistance and alter
    eicosanoid levels hormonal messengers
  • Eicosanoids are produced by the body and
    influence blood clotting, blood pressure,
    immunity, and inflammation
  • Balance insulinglucagon ratio. These are
    hormones produced by the pancreas that act in
    opposing ways to regulate blood sugar levels.
  • According to Sears when theses are in balance the
    body is better able to burn stored calories and
    prevent unwanted fat deposition

7
The Zone Diet
  • Balance of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats to
    keep you in The Zone
  • The Zone means keeping ones blood insulin at a
    low and consistent level and this will suppress
    appetite and promote fat burning
  • 40 carb, 30 protein, 30 fat, calories are
    restricted
  • The protein to carbohydrate ratio of the diet
    0.75 or 3gm of protein for every 4gm of carb
  • Control eicosanoids hormones in the body that
    control inflammation, immune system, and cellular
    activity. Affected by dietary fat

8
The Zone Plate
  • Divide your plate into thirds
  • 1/3 is low fat protein
  • 2/3 are fruits and vegetables
  • Finally add in a healthy monounsaturated fat
  • Each meal and snack should contain this balance
  • The Zone Pyramid base is vegetables followed by
    fruits, low fat proteins, monounsaturated fats
    and at the top is grains and starches

9
The Zone Diet Pros and Cons
  • No long term studies to support the theory that
    the 40-30-30 ratio is necessary or more
    beneficial
  • The Zone Diet is ultimately a calorie/portion
    controlled diet, can be a very low calorie diet
  • Can be confusing and complicated to follow
  • Does emphasize fruits, vegetables, and high fiber
    foods
  • Eliminates grains from the diet
  • Does encourage exercise
  • Does encourage multivitamins omega 3 fatty acid
    supplements
  • Does encourage healthy fats and proteins

10
Atkins Diet Dr. Robert Atkins
  • High protein, very high fat and very low
    carbohydrate, unrestricted calories
  • Maintain low insulin levels, which leads to
    suppressed appetite, lower food consumption, and
    weight loss
  • Low insulin levels promote increased burning of
    fat for fuel and decrease fat storage
  • Leads to ketosis, burning of fat for fuel
  • Promotes meat, cheese, eggs, poultry, fats and
    limits fruit, vegetables and grains

11
Atkins Diet
  • High saturated fat foods are not discouraged
  • Low fruit and vegetable intake leading to a lack
    of key vitamins, minerals, and fiber
  • Protein/fat take longer to digest and to suppress
    hunger leading to lower calorie intake and
    therefore weight loss
  • Does recommend vitamins/mineral supplements
  • Does not address importance of regular exercise

12
The Dangers of the Atkins Diet
  • Harvard study indicates that regular meat
    consumption increased colon cancer risk by as
    much as 300
  • Harvard study indicates that women with the
    highest intakes of animal fat had over a 75
    greater risk for developing breast cancer
  • American Kidney Fund warns that high protein
    diets can lead to irreversible kidney damage
  • This type of diet can also increase your risk for
    constipation, diverticulosis, and colon cancer
  • Diets with high amounts of animal protein cause
    calcium loss from bone leading to osteoporosis
    and bone fractures

13
The South Beach Diet Dr. Arthur Agatston
  • Not all carbohydrates are created equal
  • Emphasizes the right carbs and fats with emphasis
    on promoting good health not just weight loss
  • Main culprits in our diet are highly processed
    carbohydrates found in baked goods, breads,
    snacks, soft drinks etc., which have been
    stripped of their fiber and nutrients
  • Decrease consumption of simple carbs, insulin
    resistance improves, weight decreases, metabolize
    carbohydrates properly
  • Cutting simple carbs also decreases triglyceride
    and cholesterol levels

14
South Beach
  • Suggests avoiding low fat products because the
    fat is replaced with carbohydrate
  • Recommends healthy monounsaturated fatty acids
    such as olive oil
  • Promotes fruits, vegetables and grains in the
    final stage
  • 3 phases to the diet
  • Phase I total elimination of fruit, bread,
    rice, potatoes, pasta, sugar, alcohol, and baked
    goods
  • Phase II after 2 weeks you can begin adding
    back some restricted foods but in moderation
  • Phase III less restrictive once the weight has
    been lost

15
South Beach Pros and Cons
  • Studies have shown and improvement in cholesterol
    levels and ratios as well as weight loss
  • Promotes vegetables, fruits, whole grains, lean
    proteins and does not eliminate any food group
  • Teaches portion control, promotes whole
    unprocessed foods, and emphasizes differences
    amongst healthy and unhealthy proteins, fats, and
    carbohydrates
  • Promotes regular exercise

16
Why Do Low-Carb Diets Work?
  • Water loss weight loss
  • Decreased appetite fat metabolism creates
    ketones which can decrease appetite
  • Increased feeling of fullness Fat and Protein
    take longer to digest
  • Reduced calories low carb diets reduce your
    overall calorie intake because they strictly
    limit the variety of foods you can eat.

17
Weight Watchers Jean Nidetch
  • Does not tell people what they can or cant eat
  • Educate people about food and encourage exercise
  • Local support groups to help keep people
    motivated
  • Members keep track of the calories they eat in a
    form of points
  • The points allotted are assigned based on your
    current weight and weight goal
  • Foods are assigned point values, stay within your
    point range and you loose weight

18
Weight Watchers
  • Ultimately a calorie restricted diet
  • Promotes developing healthy eating habits
  • Not meant to count points for the rest of your
    life
  • Cost to the plan includes a sign up fee,
    15/meeting, cost of packaged foods (optional),
    online service fees

19
The Ornish Diet Dr. Dean Ornish
  • Author of The Reversal Diet, The Prevention Diet,
    and Eat More, Weigh less
  • Diet plan to reverse/prevent heart disease
  • Low fat diet/vegetarian diet
  • 10 of calories come from fat, excludes all
    animal products (except for eggs and low fat
    dairy), nuts, seeds, avocado, chocolate, olives,
    and coconuts
  • Oils are eliminated except a small amount of
    canola oil for cooking and oil that supplies
    omega 3 fatty acids

20
The Ornish Diet
  • Prohibits caffeine but allows moderate intake of
    alcohol, sugar, and salt
  • Promotes fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and
    high fiber foods
  • Diet alone is not sufficient to reverse heart
    disease and needs to be combined with exercise,
    yoga, meditation, stress reduction, and lifestyle
    changes

21
The Ornish Diet Pros and Cons
  • AHA recommends a diet with 30 fat and the
    average American consumes a diet with 50 fat
  • Eliminates healthy fats as well as unhealthy fats
  • Studies show vegetarians have lower rates of
    disease
  • Studies show this approach does work to lower
    cholesterol, improve ratios and promote weight
    loss

22
The Ornish Diet Pros and Cons
  • Very restrictive and difficult to maintain
  • Too low in fat and does not provide enough
    essential fatty acids
  • Does promote taking vitamin supplements, fish oil
    supplements
  • Promotes exercise, stress relief and lifestyle
    changes
  • Low fat products tend to be high in sugar and
    calories

23
USDA Food Guide Pyramid
www.mypyramid.gov
24
Old Food Pyramid
25
(No Transcript)
26
What Are Whole Foods?
  • Eat foods that are closest to their natural form
  • Limit processed foods
  • Avoid sugar substitutes
  • Learn to read package labels Dont consume foods
    if you dont know what the ingredients are

27
Whole Foods
28
Whole Foods
29
Exception to the Rule
30
Professional Dietary Recommendations
  • The number one recommendation of the AICR is a
    plant based diet
  • The number one recommendation of the World Cancer
    Research Fund is a plant based diet
  • The number one recommendation of the NCI and the
    WHO is eat more fruits and vegetables
  • The number one recommendation of the ACS is eat
    more plant based foods and less meat

31
Which Plan Is Right?
  • Include a variety of foods including vegetables,
    fruits, grains, lean protein sources including
    animal protein, soy, legumes, etc.
  • Include foods you like to eat
  • Include foods that are accessible to you
  • Fit your lifestyle and budget
  • Include the correct nutrients and calories to
    help you loose weight safely
  • Should encourage regular physical activity
  • Plan should not make unrealistic promises like
    loosing 30 lbs in 30 days

32
Questions?
33
Please Consult Your Doctor
  • Before beginning any new nutritional or weight
    loss program, please consult your doctor
  • For people with certain health conditions, some
    foods discussed in this seminar may not be
    appropriate.
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