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Sorting Through The World of Diets: Real Nutrition for Real Health


South Beach. The Ornish Diet. Weight Watchers. USDA Food Guide Pyramid ... The South Beach Diet: Dr. Arthur Agatston. Not all carbohydrates are created equal ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sorting Through The World of Diets: Real Nutrition for Real Health

Sorting Through The World of Diets Real
Nutrition for Real Health
  • Lynn Goldstein, MS, RD, CDN
  • The Jay Monahan Center for Gastrointestinal Health

Diet Statistics
  • 66.3 of adults over age 20 are overweight or
  • 17 of adolescents age 12-19 are overweight
  • 19 of children age 6-11 are overweight
  • 25 of American men and 45 of American women are
    on a diet on any given day
  • 95 of all dieters will regain their lost weight
    in 1-5 years
  • American spend over 40 billion on dieting and
    diet-related products each year
  • .

Health Risks Associated with Obesity
  • Heart disease/stroke
  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Cancer (uterine, gallbladder, ovarian, cervical,
    breast, colon, prostate, kidney, esophagus,
    stomach, liver and pancreas)
  • Gallbladder disease/gallstones
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Gout
  • Breathing problems
  • GERD

Other Nutritional Risk Factors for Cancer
  • High intakes of animal fat may increase the risk
    of breast, colon, prostate, and pancreas cancers
  • Increased risk for colon cancer with inactivity,
    diets low in fruits and vegetables, and high in
    red meat
  • High intakes of alcohol may increase cancer risk
    for mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver and
  • Diets high in sodium may increase risk for
    stomach cancer
  • Smoking can increase your risk for lung and
    pancreatic cancer

  • Atkins
  • The Zone
  • South Beach
  • The Ornish Diet
  • Weight Watchers
  • USDA Food Guide Pyramid
  • Lynns Opinion on the best way to eat

The Zone Dr. Barry Sears
  • Goal is to combat insulin resistance and alter
    eicosanoid levels hormonal messengers
  • Eicosanoids are produced by the body and
    influence blood clotting, blood pressure,
    immunity, and inflammation
  • Balance insulinglucagon ratio. These are
    hormones produced by the pancreas that act in
    opposing ways to regulate blood sugar levels.
  • According to Sears when theses are in balance the
    body is better able to burn stored calories and
    prevent unwanted fat deposition

The Zone Diet
  • Balance of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats to
    keep you in The Zone
  • The Zone means keeping ones blood insulin at a
    low and consistent level and this will suppress
    appetite and promote fat burning
  • 40 carb, 30 protein, 30 fat, calories are
  • The protein to carbohydrate ratio of the diet
    0.75 or 3gm of protein for every 4gm of carb
  • Control eicosanoids hormones in the body that
    control inflammation, immune system, and cellular
    activity. Affected by dietary fat

The Zone Plate
  • Divide your plate into thirds
  • 1/3 is low fat protein
  • 2/3 are fruits and vegetables
  • Finally add in a healthy monounsaturated fat
  • Each meal and snack should contain this balance
  • The Zone Pyramid base is vegetables followed by
    fruits, low fat proteins, monounsaturated fats
    and at the top is grains and starches

The Zone Diet Pros and Cons
  • No long term studies to support the theory that
    the 40-30-30 ratio is necessary or more
  • The Zone Diet is ultimately a calorie/portion
    controlled diet, can be a very low calorie diet
  • Can be confusing and complicated to follow
  • Does emphasize fruits, vegetables, and high fiber
  • Eliminates grains from the diet
  • Does encourage exercise
  • Does encourage multivitamins omega 3 fatty acid
  • Does encourage healthy fats and proteins

Atkins Diet Dr. Robert Atkins
  • High protein, very high fat and very low
    carbohydrate, unrestricted calories
  • Maintain low insulin levels, which leads to
    suppressed appetite, lower food consumption, and
    weight loss
  • Low insulin levels promote increased burning of
    fat for fuel and decrease fat storage
  • Leads to ketosis, burning of fat for fuel
  • Promotes meat, cheese, eggs, poultry, fats and
    limits fruit, vegetables and grains

Atkins Diet
  • High saturated fat foods are not discouraged
  • Low fruit and vegetable intake leading to a lack
    of key vitamins, minerals, and fiber
  • Protein/fat take longer to digest and to suppress
    hunger leading to lower calorie intake and
    therefore weight loss
  • Does recommend vitamins/mineral supplements
  • Does not address importance of regular exercise

The Dangers of the Atkins Diet
  • Harvard study indicates that regular meat
    consumption increased colon cancer risk by as
    much as 300
  • Harvard study indicates that women with the
    highest intakes of animal fat had over a 75
    greater risk for developing breast cancer
  • American Kidney Fund warns that high protein
    diets can lead to irreversible kidney damage
  • This type of diet can also increase your risk for
    constipation, diverticulosis, and colon cancer
  • Diets with high amounts of animal protein cause
    calcium loss from bone leading to osteoporosis
    and bone fractures

The South Beach Diet Dr. Arthur Agatston
  • Not all carbohydrates are created equal
  • Emphasizes the right carbs and fats with emphasis
    on promoting good health not just weight loss
  • Main culprits in our diet are highly processed
    carbohydrates found in baked goods, breads,
    snacks, soft drinks etc., which have been
    stripped of their fiber and nutrients
  • Decrease consumption of simple carbs, insulin
    resistance improves, weight decreases, metabolize
    carbohydrates properly
  • Cutting simple carbs also decreases triglyceride
    and cholesterol levels

South Beach
  • Suggests avoiding low fat products because the
    fat is replaced with carbohydrate
  • Recommends healthy monounsaturated fatty acids
    such as olive oil
  • Promotes fruits, vegetables and grains in the
    final stage
  • 3 phases to the diet
  • Phase I total elimination of fruit, bread,
    rice, potatoes, pasta, sugar, alcohol, and baked
  • Phase II after 2 weeks you can begin adding
    back some restricted foods but in moderation
  • Phase III less restrictive once the weight has
    been lost

South Beach Pros and Cons
  • Studies have shown and improvement in cholesterol
    levels and ratios as well as weight loss
  • Promotes vegetables, fruits, whole grains, lean
    proteins and does not eliminate any food group
  • Teaches portion control, promotes whole
    unprocessed foods, and emphasizes differences
    amongst healthy and unhealthy proteins, fats, and
  • Promotes regular exercise

Why Do Low-Carb Diets Work?
  • Water loss weight loss
  • Decreased appetite fat metabolism creates
    ketones which can decrease appetite
  • Increased feeling of fullness Fat and Protein
    take longer to digest
  • Reduced calories low carb diets reduce your
    overall calorie intake because they strictly
    limit the variety of foods you can eat.

Weight Watchers Jean Nidetch
  • Does not tell people what they can or cant eat
  • Educate people about food and encourage exercise
  • Local support groups to help keep people
  • Members keep track of the calories they eat in a
    form of points
  • The points allotted are assigned based on your
    current weight and weight goal
  • Foods are assigned point values, stay within your
    point range and you loose weight

Weight Watchers
  • Ultimately a calorie restricted diet
  • Promotes developing healthy eating habits
  • Not meant to count points for the rest of your
  • Cost to the plan includes a sign up fee,
    15/meeting, cost of packaged foods (optional),
    online service fees

The Ornish Diet Dr. Dean Ornish
  • Author of The Reversal Diet, The Prevention Diet,
    and Eat More, Weigh less
  • Diet plan to reverse/prevent heart disease
  • Low fat diet/vegetarian diet
  • 10 of calories come from fat, excludes all
    animal products (except for eggs and low fat
    dairy), nuts, seeds, avocado, chocolate, olives,
    and coconuts
  • Oils are eliminated except a small amount of
    canola oil for cooking and oil that supplies
    omega 3 fatty acids

The Ornish Diet
  • Prohibits caffeine but allows moderate intake of
    alcohol, sugar, and salt
  • Promotes fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and
    high fiber foods
  • Diet alone is not sufficient to reverse heart
    disease and needs to be combined with exercise,
    yoga, meditation, stress reduction, and lifestyle

The Ornish Diet Pros and Cons
  • AHA recommends a diet with 30 fat and the
    average American consumes a diet with 50 fat
  • Eliminates healthy fats as well as unhealthy fats
  • Studies show vegetarians have lower rates of
  • Studies show this approach does work to lower
    cholesterol, improve ratios and promote weight

The Ornish Diet Pros and Cons
  • Very restrictive and difficult to maintain
  • Too low in fat and does not provide enough
    essential fatty acids
  • Does promote taking vitamin supplements, fish oil
  • Promotes exercise, stress relief and lifestyle
  • Low fat products tend to be high in sugar and

USDA Food Guide Pyramid
Old Food Pyramid
(No Transcript)
What Are Whole Foods?
  • Eat foods that are closest to their natural form
  • Limit processed foods
  • Avoid sugar substitutes
  • Learn to read package labels Dont consume foods
    if you dont know what the ingredients are

Whole Foods
Whole Foods
Exception to the Rule
Professional Dietary Recommendations
  • The number one recommendation of the AICR is a
    plant based diet
  • The number one recommendation of the World Cancer
    Research Fund is a plant based diet
  • The number one recommendation of the NCI and the
    WHO is eat more fruits and vegetables
  • The number one recommendation of the ACS is eat
    more plant based foods and less meat

Which Plan Is Right?
  • Include a variety of foods including vegetables,
    fruits, grains, lean protein sources including
    animal protein, soy, legumes, etc.
  • Include foods you like to eat
  • Include foods that are accessible to you
  • Fit your lifestyle and budget
  • Include the correct nutrients and calories to
    help you loose weight safely
  • Should encourage regular physical activity
  • Plan should not make unrealistic promises like
    loosing 30 lbs in 30 days

Please Consult Your Doctor
  • Before beginning any new nutritional or weight
    loss program, please consult your doctor
  • For people with certain health conditions, some
    foods discussed in this seminar may not be