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Energy Sources

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Solar. Daily energy from the sun is six hundred times greater than energy ... Electrical Generation - Solar energy is transformed into electrical energy. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Energy Sources


1
Energy Sources
  • Chapter 10

2
Energy Sources
  • Non-Renewable Energy - Energy sources used
    faster than can be replenished.
  • Coal - Oil - Natural Gas
  • Renewable Energy - Continuously present as a
    feature of the environment (solar energy), or is
    continually replenished.
  • Some forms are referred to as perpetual energy.

3
All Energy Sources
4
2. What percent of fossil fuels are used?
  • Fossil fuels supply 90 of worlds commercial
    energy.
  • Oil 40
  • Coal 24
  • Natural Gas 25

5
3. What is the difference between Resources and
Reserves
  • Resource - Naturally occurring substance of use
    to humans that can potentially be extracted using
    current technology.
  • Reserve - Amount of a known deposit that can be
    economically extracted using current technology,
    under certain economic conditions.
  • Reserve levels change as technology advances, new
    discoveries are made, and profit margins change.

6
Resources and Reserves
7
4. How is coal formed?
  • Coal
  • 300 mya plant material began collecting
    underwater, initiating decay, forming a spongy
    mass of organic material (peat).
  • Due to geological changes, some of these swamps
    were covered by seas, and covered with sediment.
  • Pressure and heat over time transformed peat into
    coal.

8
Recoverable Coal Reserves
9
5. Types of extraction
  • Two main extraction methods
  • Surface Mining (Strip Mining)
  • Removing overburden on top of a vein.
  • Efficient but destructive.
  • Underground Mining
  • Minimizes surface disturbance, but costly and
    dangerous.
  • Black Lung Disease

10
Surface mining of coal
  • Strip mine
  • Eco problem over burden
  • Laws in 1990s now require ground replacement

11
Surface-Mine Reclamation
12
Deep mining tunneling for coal
13
Problems with Coal
  • Bulky - causes some transport problems.
  • Black Lung Disease Mining creates dust
    pollution.
  • Mining accidents collapse of tunnels,
    malfunctioning machinery
  • Ecosystem damage/reclamation efforts
  • Burning releases pollutants (C and S).
  • Millions of tons of material released into
    atmosphere annually.
  • Acid Rain Sulfur leads to acid mine drainage
    and acid deposition.
  • Global warming Increased carbon dioxide

14
Coal Use Issues
  • Coal is most abundant fossil fuel.
  • Primarily used for generating electricity.
  • Three Categories
  • Lignite
  • High moisture content - Least desirable.
  • Bituminous
  • Most abundant - Most widely used.
  • Anthracite
  • Highest energy content - Hard to obtain.

15
7. Oil and Natural Gas
  • Accumulations of dead marine organisms on the
    ocean floor were covered by sediments.
  • Muddy rock gradually formed rock (shale)
    containing dispersed oil.
  • Sandstone formed on top of shale, thus oil pools
    began to form.
  • Natural gas often forms on top of oil.
  • Organic matter changed to lighter, more volatile
    hydrocarbons than those in oil.

16
Crude Oil and Natural Gas Pool
17
Oil rig ocean drilling for oil
18
Oil extraction
  • Primary Recovery oil rig drilling
  • Only removes 1/3 of a deposit.
  • Secondary Recovery
  • Force water or gas into wells.
  • As oil prices increase, more expensive and
    aggressive secondary recovery methods will need
    to be used.

19
9. Uses of oil - Processing Crude Oil
20
Oil products
21
Oil Use Issues
  • Processing
  • As it comes from the ground, oil is not in a form
    suitable for use, and must be refined.
  • Multiple products can be produced from a single
    barrel of crude oil.
  • Oil Spills
  • Accidental spills only account for about 1/3 of
    oil pollution resulting from shipping.
  • 60 comes from routine shipping operations.

22
Advantages of oil use
  • More concentrated than coal, burns cleaner, and
    is easily transported through pipelines.
  • Ideal for automobile use.
  • Difficult to extract.
  • Causes less environmental damage than coal mining.

23
Natural Gas Use
  • Drilling requirements similar to oil.
  • Hard to transport - flamed off at oil fields.
  • As demand increases, new transportation methods
    will be developed and implemented.
  • Liquefaction at -126o F
  • (1/600 volume of gas)
  • Least environmentally damaging fossil fuel.
  • Almost no air pollution.
  • Use is increasing (45 from 1985-2003).

24
Renewable Sources of Energy
  • Currently, alternative energy sources supply
    almost 10 of the worlds total energy.
  • Suggested these sources could provide half of the
    worlds energy needs by 2050.
  • Hydropower
  • Wind Turbines
  • Solar Cells
  • Biomass Fuels
  • Hydrogen Fuel

25
Renewable Energy as a Share of Total Energy
26
Hydroelectric Power
  • Hydroelectric power is created when flowing water
    is captured and turned into electricity.
  • Damming a river and storing water in a reservoir
    is the most common method.
  • Pumped Storage Plants - Use two reservoirs
    separated by a significant elevation difference.

27
Hydroelectric Power
  • Currently supplies 15 of worlds electricity.
  • China possesses 10 of worlds potential.
  • Reservoir construction causes significant
    environmental and social damage.
  • Loss of farmland.
  • Community relocation.
  • Reduction of nutrient-rich silt leading to loss
    of wetlands.
  • Three Gorges Dam on Yangtze River

28
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29
Environmental Effects of Hydroelectric
  • Flooding of vast areas of land behind dams.
  • Prevention of fish migrations.
  • Trapping of silt.
  • Stops flow of nutrients downstream.
  • Fills in reservoir.
  • Mercury Accumulation
  • Decaying vegetation produces greenhouse gases.

30
Tidal Power
  • Daily rise and fall of ocean levels relative to
    coastlines (tides) are a result of gravitational
    forces and the revolution of the earth.
  • As water flows from a higher level to a lower
    level, it can be used to spin an electricity -
    generating turbine.
  • Since tidal changes are greatest near the poles,
    and accentuated in narrow bays and estuaries,
    suitable sites are limited.

31
Geothermal
  • In some areas, molten material is close enough to
    surface to heat underground water and form steam
    - drilled and captured.
  • Only practical in limited areas.
  • California produces 40 of worlds geothermal
    electricity.
  • Can cause unpleasant odors and high mineral
    content leads to high maintenance.
  • Corroded pipes and equipment.

32
Geothermal Energy
33
Wind
  • As warm air becomes less dense and rises, cooler,
    denser, air flows in to take its place.
  • U.S. Department of Energy has stated the Great
    Plains could supply 48 states with 75 of their
    electricity.
  • Cost becoming very competitive with various
    fossil fuel sources.
  • Currently 3-6 cents per kilowatt hour.

34
Wind
  • Potential Problems
  • Steady,dependable wind source is critical.
  • Wide open areas are most desirable.
  • Can be hazardous to birds.
  • Produce noise and visual pollution.
  • Vibrations can cause structural damage.

35
Solar
  • Daily energy from the sun is six hundred times
    greater than energy produced each day by all
    other energy sources combined.
  • Major problem as an energy source is its
    intermittent nature.

36
Three Major Use Categories
  • Passive Heating - Suns energy is converted
    directly to heat and used at collection site.
  • South-Facing Windows.
  • Active Heating - Suns energy converted into
    heat, but transported elsewhere to be used.
  • Domestic Water Heating
  • Electrical Generation - Solar energy is
    transformed into electrical energy.
  • Photovoltaic Science

37
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38
Photovoltaic Cells
  • Solid-state semiconductors that allow direct
    conversion of sunlight to electricity.
  • Developed in 1954 by Bell Laboratories
    essentially as a novelty.
  • Amount of PV power installed worldwide has
    increased from 100 megawatts in 1992 to 1,200
    megawatts in 2002.
  • Film technology has made it possible to build
    solar cells into roof tiles, skylights, and
    building facades.

39
Photovoltaic Cells
  • Photovoltaics will be the most practical choice
    for generation of electricity in rural areas and
    less developed countries.
  • In place of generators that require fuel and
    centralized power plants that require
    distribution lines.

40
Biomass Conversion
  • Biomass is still the predominant form of energy
    used by people in less-developed countries.
  • Account for 14 of world energy use.
  • Three Distinct Sources
  • Municipal and Industrial Wastes
  • Agricultural Crop Residue
  • Energy Plantations

41
Biomass Conversion
  • Releasing chemical energy stored in biomass.
  • Burned directly for heat.
  • Burned to produce electricity.
  • Converted to alcohol or used to generate methane.
  • Costs depends on type of technology used, size of
    the power plant, and the cost of biomass supply.
  • Currently as low as 9 cents per kilowatt hour.

42
Fuelwood
  • In less-developed countries, fuelwood has been
    major energy source for centuries.
  • Fuelwood is primary energy source for nearly half
    worlds population.
  • Due to intense population growth, an estimated
    1.3 billion people cannot get enough feulwood, or
    are using it faster than rate of regeneration.
  • Source of air pollution and fly ash.

43
Solid Waste
  • Using municipal waste as a source of energy
  • Reduces landfill volume.
  • Not economically profitable.
  • Must be sorted.
  • Requires large, sustainable volume.
  • Produces air pollution.
  • Chlorine-containing organic compounds.

44
Hydrogen Economy
  • Hydrogen is abundant and generates heat and pure
    water when it reacts with air.
  • Hydrogen Fuel Cells
  • Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
  • Self-Sustaining
  • Low Operating Temperature
  • No Pollution
  • Successor to internal combustion engine.

45
Simple Fuel Cell
46
Energy Conservation
  • Conservation is not a way of generating
    electricity, but a way of reducing need for
    additional energy production/consumption and
    saving money for the consumer.
  • Lighting and air conditioning account for 25 of
    U.S. electricity consumption.
  • Widespread use of energy-efficient lighting could
    significantly reduce energy consumption.

47
Energy Conservation
  • Energy-inefficient machines can be produced very
    cheaply.
  • Long-term vs. short-term costs.
  • Electrical utilities will lead energy
    conservation charge.
  • Conservation is cheaper than building more power
    plants to meet increased demands.

48
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