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Renewable Energy Resources

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... are required for solar energy to make major ... Solar 0. Total 100. The shift to renewable energy, and the environmental benefits it can provide, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Renewable Energy Resources


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Renewable Energy Resources
2
  • Energy Policy Questions
  • Should the government intrude on the market
    mechanism in the energy sector of the economy?
  • Should the government actively promote the
    substitution of renewable for non-renewable
    sources?
  • Should the government legislate conservation and
    energy efficiency in the economy?

3
  • Principal Issues Driving Energy Policy
  • Global climate change
  • Energy resource supplies, costs
  • 3. Geographic distribution of energy resources
  • Pollution health threats to humans, vegetation
  • 5. Safety mining, nuclear

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How should the government influence the energy
economy to assure sufficient supplies while
minimizing risks?
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Stated plainly, no form of solar energy provides
a technological fix to the energy problems here
and now. We are faced only with hard choices
among risky depletable and risky renewable energy
options. Rather than seeking a panacea today, we
can attempt to identify niches where various
forms of solar energy can fit in a multifuel
energy system. In the near term, where can we
expect solar contributions to the worlds energy
supply? What technical achievements from research
and development are required for solar energy to
make major contributions in the long run? M.T.
Katzman, Solar and Wind Energy
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  • How Government Influences the Energy Economy
  • Taxes and tax exemptions
  • Subsidies
  • Laws and regulations
  • Energy research and development

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Farrell, A.E. et al. 2006. Ethanol can contribute
to energy and environmental goals. Science
311506-508. Raganskas, A.J. et al. 2006. The
path forward for biofuels and biomaterials.
Science 311484-489. Fargione et al. 2008. Land
clearing and the biofuel carbon debt. Science
3191235-1238. Searchinger et al. 2008. Use of
U.S. croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse
gases through emissions from land use change.
Science 3191238-1240.
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Conclusion Conversion of land from forest and
grassland to agricultural use to replace cropland
diverted to biofuel production will greatly
increase greenhouse gas emissions. Only biofuels
made from waste biomass or from biofuels grown on
abandoned agricultural lands can offer sustained
GHG advantages.
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Renewable Portfolio Standard A mechanism
whereby (State) government can encourage (force)
investment by energy suppliers in renewable
energy resources. Standard to reduce barriers
to investment owing to inconsistent public
policies. Portfolio The suite of electric
generation sources that a supplier acquires to
sell to consumers. Renewables what qualifies as
renewables differs among States (often new
renewables doesnt include hydro).
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New York State Electric and Gas Fuel Sources to
Generate Our Electricity (2008)
Source Percent of Total Natural
Gas 38 Nuclear 26 Hydro 17 Coal 13 O
il 5 Biomass 0 Total 100
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The shift to renewable energy, and the
environmental benefits it can provide, will be
driven by consumer demand. By sponsoring this
program, Niagara Mohawk is leading by example in
promoting access to less-polluting sources of
energy. William Edwards, President, Niagara
Mohawk
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Energy Information Administration. 2003.
Impacts of a 10-percent Renewable Portfolio
Standard
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A cyclist can do 1,000 miles on the food energy
equivalent of a gallon of gasoline, which will
move a car only some 15 to 30 miles. Facts and
figures be as they may, utilizing a 300
horsepower, 5,000-pound behemoth to move one
single 150-pound person a few miles is like using
an atomic bomb to kill a canary. Richard
Ballantine (1979)
30
In a world so transformed by the automobile that
whole landscapes and lifestyles bear its imprint,
a significant fact goes unnoticed. While
societies the world over define transportation in
terms of engine power, the greatest share of
personal transport needs is met by human
power. Marcia Lowe, (1989) The Bicycle
Vehicle for a Small Planet
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Bicycling is ideally suited for solving many
environmental, economic, and psychological
problems caused by motor vehicle traffic.
Bicycles provide a better transport environment
in terms of land use and air quality, they save
time and money and offer personal health and
well-being. David Perry, (1995) Bike Cult
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