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Introduction to Ski Racing: Competition Official Alpine

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An introduction to ski race officiating ... two days in each of these areas: Gate Judge. Course Maintenance. Timing Assistant ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Ski Racing: Competition Official Alpine


1
Introduction to Ski Racing Competition Official
- Alpine
  • Prepared by Robert Lipton in cooperation with
    Marty Besant, Allen Church, Grant Lindemer, Cath
    ODonnell, Steve Schowengerdt Gary Wright and
    Charley Burnham.
  • To be used in conjunction with Introduction to
    Ski Racing Competition Official - Alpine Study
    Guide and Gate Judge video, The Most Important
    Person on the Hill". Viewing of this
    presentation may not be used as a substitute for
    attendance at a USSA-approved Alpine Officials
    Clinic/Seminar.

2
Purpose
  • An introduction to ski race officiating
  • Fulfill Competition Official (CO) prerequisite
    for specialty area certifications
  • Chief of Course (CC)
  • Chief of Race (CR)
  • Data Management (DM)
  • Jury Advisor- Start and Finish Referee (JA)
  • Race Administrator (RA)
  • Referee (RF)
  • Timing Calculations (TC)
  • Technical Delegate (TD)
  • Part of Referee Training

3
AO Education Goals
  • To support and produce events that are
  • Responsible
  • Fair
  • Fun

4
AO Education Strategy
  • Recruit, develop, retain competent officials
  • through

- Education - Training - Experience
5
What is a Competition?
  • A competition is made up of events
  • - Slalom (SL)
  • - Giant Slalom (GS)
  • - Super G (SG)
  • - Downhill (DH)
  • - Super Combined (SC)
  • These events form the discipline of alpine ski
    competition

6
Where Do You Best Fit?
  • New Competition Officials should work one to
  • two days in each of these areas
  • Gate Judge
  • Course Maintenance
  • Timing Assistant
  • Race Administrator Assistant
  • Data Manager Assistant
  • With Chief of Race
  • Helps you to decide where you will be most
  • useful as a Race Official

7
Rules of Ski Racing
  • International Competition Rules (ICR or Blue
    Book) establishes the standards a new edition
    is currently published every four years
  • Precisions to the ICR are published bi-annually
    in the summer for the Southern Hemisphere and in
    the winter for the Northern Hemisphere_
  • The USSA Alpine Competition Rules (ACR) contains
    rules specific to competition at USSA events.
    When possible, numbering mirrors ICR numbering
    USSA exceptions are identified with a U
    preceding the rule number. The U is part of
    the rule number.
  • Additional Regional, Divisional, or State rules
    contain adjustments for age or competition level
    in the respective area
  • Local rules
  • Lift access,
  • Bib deposit requirements,
  • Equipment
  • Ski area rules, etc.

8
Age Classes
  • USSA competitions are structured by age levels
  • J5 and J4 - Instructional
  • Teaches the fundamentals of ski racing and
    emphasizes fun
  • J5 10 years old and younger
  • J4 11 and 12 years old
  • J3 - Competitive - Scored in Some Divisions
  • Improvement of skills
  • J3 13 and 14 years old
  • J2, J1, Senior - Scored Competition
  • J2 15 and 16 years old
  • J1 17,18,19 years old
  • Senior 20 years or older
  • Regions/Divisions/States may also assign age
    classes for younger
  • competitors, i.e. J-6 J-7

9
Age Classes
US Ski Team
WORLD CUP
Selection Events
FIS, USSA and Collegiate
Scored Ranked Internationally (FIS) Ages 15
up Collegiate Competitions Ages 18-22
USSA J1, J2, J3
USSA Masters Ages 18 over
Junior Olympics National Ranking
System Club-Based Programs - Ages 13-19
USSA J4-J5
Youth Competition Ages 8-12 non-scored
10
Collegiate, Disabled and Masters
  • Collegiate competition opportunities
  • NCAA
  • USCSA
  • FISU (FIS University)
  • Disabled Competition
  • Organized by impairment and equipment.
  • Disabled athletes are entitled to Golden Rule
  • Seeding after the first group, depending on
    points
  • Masters Competition - racers 18 years or older
  • Masters younger than 21 may only compete in
    local Masters events they may not compete in
    regional/divisional/national Masters
    Championships.

11
Competition Events Technical
  • Slalom (SL)
  • Technical Event -- quick and short turns
  • Variety of gate combinations to test skill and
    strategy
  • 2 runs times are combined. Fastest combined time
    determines finish
  • Giant Slalom (GS)
  • Technical Event -- Fewer gates and further apart
    than Slalom
  • 2 runs times are combined. Fastest combined time
    determines finish

12
Competition Events Speed
  • Super Giant Slalom (SG)
  • Speed Event (Hybrid of DH and GS)
  • 1 run event .. training run scheduled only for
    children
  • Downhill (DH) J1, J2, Senior
  • Speed Event Fewest number of gates racers find
    the fastest line
  • One run unless lack of vertical drop requires two
    Runs
  • Must include training runs
  • J3 Downhill - Special rules apply
  • Super Combined (SC)
  • Consists of 1 speed event Downhill or Super G
    and
  • 1 run of Slalom
  • Both runs are held on the same day

13
KOMBI EVENTS
  • Kombi (K) is an internationally recognized event
    for childrens racing.
  • Kombi events consist of a mixture of standard
    turns and gates
  • Kombi events meet development needs for this age
    group, creating tactical awareness by blending
    sections of different gates in a flowing,
    rhythmical, constantly changing pattern

14
TYPES OF KOMBI EVENTS
  • Technical This is a SL/GS format, setting with
    stubbies, SL gates and GS gates or colored ground
    indicators
  • Speed This is a GS/SL format, setting with GS
    and SG gates or colored ground indicators

15
What are Points?
  • SEED POINTS A numerical indicator based on the
    sum of a competitors best 2 results in each
    event and indicating their standing among other
    competitors in that event. 0.00 is best and
    990.00 is the highest.
  • - USSA Points for nationally-scored events
  • - FIS Points for internationally-scored events
  • RACE POINTS A calculated number that compares an
    individuals time to the winner's time in a
    particular race. The winners Race Points are
    always 0.00.
  • PENALTY POINTS A numerical indicator that allows
    an event at one site to be compared/equalized to
    the same type of event held at another site.

16
What is a Race Result?
  • A racers score for a given event is
  • RACE POINTS
  • PENALTY POINTS
  • RACE RESULT
  • When a Race Result is equal to current Seed
    Points, a competitor is skiing their points
  • When a Race Result is lower than current Seed
    Points, a competitor is showing improvement

17
How is a Race Organized?
  • Race Organizing Committee (ROC) - Off Hill
  • Chief of Race (Chairman)
  • Secretary (Sometimes but not always the Race
    Administrator)
  • Additional members may include Finance,
    Transportation, Lodging, Medical Services and
    Awards Chairpersons
  • Upon appointment, the following become members of
    the ROC
  • Technical Delegate
  • Referee when appointed by Technical Delegate or
    FIS (WC, OWG, WSC)
  • Assistant Referee (at speed events) when
    appointed by Technical Delegate or FIS (WC, OWG,
    WSC)
  • Forerunners when appointed by existing ROC
    (effective 2008-2009)

18
Race Committee
  • Responsible for On-the-Hill Duties
  • local level, Race Committee Organizing
    Committee
  • The Race Committee appoints all other officials
    not already designated by the sanctioning
    organization
  • Race Committee Members
  • Chief of Race
  • Chief of Course
  • Chief Gate Judge
  • Chief of Timing and Calculations
  • Race Secretary
  • Additional Members

19
The Jury Its Advisors
20
Jury Responsibilities
  • Duties ACR for USSA or ICR for FIS
  • Makes decisions on issues not clarified by the
    rules
  • Receives reports of rule infractions
  • Tenure begins before first Team Captains meeting
    and ends with expiration of protest period and
    approval of Official Results

21
Membership/Certification Requirements
  • All Jury members and Jury Advisors, Chief of
    Course, and Course Setters must be current
    Participant Members of USSA as Coach or Official
  • Referees, Assistant Referees and Course Setters
    must be certified Referees for USSA-scored events
  • Competitors must have appropriate membership
    Competitor, Youth or Student
  • Forerunners must meet all requirements of the
    competition including appropriate membership

22
USSA ON-LINE MEMBERSHIP
  • Effective 2008-2009, USSA membership applications
    may be completed on line through a link on the
    USSA website.
  • The following memberships, however, must still be
  • processed with hard copy
  • Associate Membership
  • Foreign Competitors USSA Membership
  • Lifetime Membership

23
IN ADDITION
  • Registration must be submitted only by those 18
    older
  • Registration must be submitted by the authorized
    membership card holder
  • Insurance information will be required or the
    individual will have to complete an on-line
    Medical Exception Agreement
  • Individuals whose membership application requires
    background screening will be directed to the
    screening link

24
USSA BACKGROUND SCREENING
  • Over 75 of USSAs membership is under the age of
    18. In order to help ensure that these
  • members are in a secure environment, USSA is
    implementing a strict policy that is in keeping
    with
  • the standards of many youth sports organizations,
    schools and recreational programs in the US.
  • All USSA employees, member coaches and officials
    are subject to the background screening
  • process. Following procedures are to be
    followed
  • Using either hard copy or on-line membership
    application, apply for your USSA coach or
    officials membership.
  • Upon receipt and processing of your on-line
    membership application and credit card payment,
    the USSA website will direct you to a link in
    order to initiate the on-line procedure for
    background screening registration.
  • If you are unable to use the on-line membership
    application, upon receipt and processing of your
    hard copy membership application, signed Waiver
    and applicable membership fees, USSA will contact
    you and advise you of the specific on-line
    background screening process.
  • You must then, within 10 days, register online
    with NCSI for screening. Your screening will be
    processed within 10 days. (Site is https
    similar to that used by financial institutions.)
  • During the screening process, a coach or official
    will be shown as PENDING in USSAs online member
    lookup tool and, even though their USSA number is
    highlighted, they must not be assigned as
    Referee, Assistant Referee, Jury Advisor
    (Start/Finish Referee), Chief of Course or Course
    Setter.
  • When USSA receives a green light from NCSI,
    your membership will be finalized and a USSA
    membership card will be issued.
  • Program is more fully explained in Member
    Announcements on the USSA web site or at
  • http//www.ussa.org/magnoliaPublic/ussa/en/formemb
    ers/membership/backgroundscreening.html

25
Technical Delegate
  • Official representative of the governing body
    USSA or FIS
  • Upon assignment, becomes a member of the
    Organizing Committee
  • Chairman of the Jury with tie-breaking vote
  • Assures that the rules and regulations of the
    governing body are adhered to
  • Assists that the event runs efficiently
  • Advises the organizers of the scope of their
    duties

26
Chief of Race
  • Member of the Organizing Committee and Race
    Committee
  • A voting member of the Jury
  • Responsible for the management of the entire event

27
Referee
  • Appointed by the TD (except WC,OWG, WSC)
  • Competitors/Coaches representative on Jury
  • A voting member of the Jury
  • Represents all competitors and coaches
  • Has full authority to change the course set, if
    required
  • Receives bib s and names of competitors who
  • Did Not Start (DNS) from Start Referee, and
  • Did Not Finish (DNF) from Finish Referees
  • Checks Gate Judge cards for Faults
  • Prepares a timely Report to be posted after each
    run listing Bib Numbers of racers who
  • Did Not Start - DNS
  • Did Not Finish - DNF
  • Disqualified with Gate or Rule for DSQ name
    of responsible official

28
Assistant Referee
  • Appointed by TD for Speed events (DH and SG) only
  • An assistant Referee may be appointed for
    educational purposes at GS or SL (non-voting)
  • Member of the Organizing Committee and Voting
    member of the Jury at Speed events
  • Has all rights and responsibilities equal to
    those of the Referee
  • Competitors/Coaches representative on Jury

29
Start Referee
  • At the Start
  • Must be present in the start area at the
    beginning of course inspection and remain through
    training and the race
  • Must have reserve bibs with unassigned numbers in
    case a replacement is needed
  • Must be able to communicate by radio with the
    Jury at all times
  • Assures that Manual/Hand Timekeepers are able to
    perform their duties without distraction
  • Verifies that start rules are enforced
  • Allows delayed provisional starts in cases of
    force majeure
  • In cases of doubt defers to the Jury
  • Forwards requests for provisional reruns to Jury
  • Reports names and bib numbers of competitors who
    did not start to Referee
  • Reports rule violations to Jury
  • Closes start in START STOP situations
  • Provisional starts and provisional reruns are
    not valid until ratified by the Jury

30
Finish Referee
  • At the Finish
  • Must be present in the finish area at the
    beginning of course inspection and remain through
    training and the race.
  • Supervises the condition of the finish area
  • The finish should be plainly visible to
    approaching racer
  • Marked horizontally with a colored line
  • Gently sloped with sufficient room to stop
  • Fenced to prevent unauthorized entry
  • Receives the course reports from forerunners,
    relays them to the jury
  • Assures that Manual/Hand Timekeepers are able to
    perform their duties without distraction
  • Is available to submit a request for a
    provisional rerun to Jury
  • Reports names and bib numbers of competitors who
    did not finish to the Referee
  • Reports names and bib numbers of competitors who
    violated rules to the Jury
  • Must be able to communicate by radio with the
    Jury at all times

31
Start/Finish Referee Recording Form
  • Record unusual circumstances at the Start and
    Finish
  • Record bib s that cross Finish Line
  • At upper-level events, this form may be completed
    by the Finish Controller

32
Race Administrator - The Key Inside Person
  • Also called Race Secretary or Secretariat
  • Receives entries
  • Is responsible for preparation of draw (scored
    events)
  • Works with Data Manager to prepare entry list
  • Supervises publication of all notices schedules,
    local rules, etc.
  • Supervises publication of all official documents
  • Start Lists, Results, Minutes of Jury Decisions,
    etc.

33
Chief of Course
  • Responsible for Course Preparation and
    Maintenance
  • directed by the Race Committee and Jury
  • Must be familiar with
  • Local snow conditions
  • Terrain
  • Usually a ski area employee or member of the host
    club
  • Supervises the on-course work done by course
    maintenance staff

34
Chief Gate Judge
  • Assembles the Team of Gate Judges (GJ)
  • Shows Gate Judge Video
  • Verbally clarifies duties of the Gate Judge
  • Counts and numbers the gates
  • Assigns Gates to each GJ
  • Checks that each GJ understands the rules for
    proper passage
  • Checks that each GJ has the necessary materials
  • Checks that each GJ has good sight lines
  • Collects GJ cards after each run and delivers
    cards to the Referee
  • In the event a Fault is recorded, makes sure
    that the GJ is available after the race to meet
    with the Jury

35
Additional Officials
  • Ski Patrol
  • Present for competitors course inspection,
    training and the race
  • Announcer
  • Announces bib number and name of racer in the
    start gate, who is on course, who has just
    finished, and the finishers unofficial time
  • Announces schedule changes
  • Announces disqualification data Bib , Name,
    Team and protest period expiration time
  • Scoreboard Recorder/Poster
  • Posts unofficial times as provided by Announcer,
  • Electronic Scoreboard, or
  • Electronic Time Recording form

36
Ski Racing Officials
Start Manual/Hand Timekeeper Start Recorder
Start Referee
Starter Assistant Starter
Chief of Course Course Setters Course
Maintenance Course Equipment
Chief Gate Judge Gate Judges
Technical Delegate Chief of Race Referee Assista
nt Referee
Finish Manual/Hand Timekeeper Finish Recorder
Finish Referee Finish Controller
Chief of Timing/Calc Electronic timer
operator Electronic timer recorder Backup timer
operator Score pad recorder Computer
operator Runners
Announcer
Scoreboard Poster
Race Administration
Bib Collector
37
USSA Individual Alpine Entry Card
  • Competitors complete and mail this card to enter
    a competition
  • Entry must be accompanied by appropriate entry
    fee
  • Entry must be received before specified deadline
  • Some events may limit the size of the field

38
Team Entry Form
  • Provides a single contact
  • If schedule changes are needed, allows Organizer
    to contact many entrants more easily and
    efficiently
  • FIS EVENTS REQUIRE USE OF A FIS ENTRY FORM
  • ROC may use on-line race registration. This
    process does not replace the FIS ENTRY FORM
    requirement

39
The Draw
  • Prepare Seed Strips with Last Name, First Name,
    Club or Nation, Current Points (if applicable)
  • Fifteen (15) racers with lowest seed points (or
    additional if there is a tie for 15th) are placed
    on the Draw board
  • Using two sets of numbered tags, balls, etc
  • Ball is drawn from first set for example 5 is
    drawn
  • Ball is drawn from second set for example 7
  • 5 Seed strip (fifth lowest points) is moved to
    the 7 starting position
  • USSA non-FIS events Computer-generated draw may
    be allowed by the Jury
  • FIS events Computer-generated Draw may be
    allowed by Jury however written consent of Team
    Captains is required
  • Draw MUST be held at a Team Captains Meeting.
    On-line or telephonic Team Captains Meetings are
    not acceptable (Exception allowed for USSA
    non-scored events where TRS (random class/gender
    seeding) used information meeting still required
  • Electronic boards must have capability to
    simultaneously display all competitors
  • There are special rules for DH, SG and GS which
    allow for extraordinary circumstances a SNOW
    SEED

40
WHAT IS A SNOW SEED?
  • In extraordinary circumstances, the Jury may
    authorize the drawing of a Snow Seed for DH, SG
    and GS
  • The Snow Seed is made up of 6 racers
  • The 6 racers are drawn from among the last 20 of
    the field
  • The Jury announces whether or not Snow Seed will
    be used
  • If the Jury decides the Snow Seed will start, it
    starts
  • At the published start time
  • Prior to Bib 1
  • In the reverse order of their assigned start
    numbers

41
Day of the Race
  • Activities
  • Competitors and race workers will be required to
    register
  • USSA membership will be verified
  • Non-USSA race workers will be required to sign
    Volunteer Race Worker Registration
  • Bib distribution and collection of bib deposit
    may occur
  • Lift tickets will be distributed
  • Start Lists and local rules will be available

42
Volunteer Race Worker Registration
  • Any age-eligible race worker who is not a USSA
    Participant Member must sign this form
  • Does not apply to landowner, ski area operator
    or any ski area employee acting within scope of
    their employment

43
Course Setter- First and Second Run
  • Must be familiar with current requirements of ACR
    at USSA events or ICR at FIS events
  • For USSA non-FIS events, must be current member
    of USSA and must also be a USSA-certified Referee
    for USSA-scored events
  • For USSA FIS events, may be member of a foreign
    Federation recognized by FIS
  • Nominated at or before the Team Captains
    meeting first run often set by host area
  • Assisted by Chief of Course
  • Concerning snow conditions
  • Terrain
  • Competitor Security
  • May be accompanied by Jury members, Team Captains
    and for speed events by the USSA-assigned
    Technical Advisor

44
Course Maintenance Workers
  • In accordance with the instructions from the
    Jury
  • Carries gates, panels, drills, gate keys, timing
    equipment, shovels, rakes
  • Sets protective fencing, Willy bags, spectator
    fencing
  • Clears loose snow from the course
  • Spreads chemicals
  • Sets outside gates

45
Chief of Timing and Calculations
  • Coordinates officials at the start and finish
  • Verifies synchronization of the timing
  • Manual/hand timekeeping
  • Electronic timekeeping
  • Is responsible for the accuracy of the timing
  • Responsible for the accuracy of the official
    times
  • Completes and signs the Timing Technical Report
    form (scored events only)
  • Delivers Technical Timing Report form to RA for
    TDs for signature
  • Are under the Chief of Timing and Calculations
  • Starter
  • Assistant Starter
  • Start Recorder
  • Chief Timekeeper
  • Assistant Timekeepers (Manual/Hand Timekeepers)

46
BASICALLY, THE CHIEF OF TC
  • Is responsible for supervising, documenting and
    enforcing the quality control of actual timing
    and results
  • The Chief of Timing and Calculations is not
    intended to be the individual operating the
    electronic timing equipment or the timing/race
    result software. (Exception USSA non-scored
    events, i.e. YSL due to staffing concerns)

47
Chief of Calculations
  • Calculate equivalent electronic time (EET) from
    electronic time obtained from System B
  • Or from manual/hand times
  • To verify accuracy of second run start order
  • To verify calculation of race points or race
    penalty
  • Duties may be combined with those of Chief of
    Timing and Calculations

48
Chief Timekeeper
  • Is in direct communication with the Starter
  • Verifies proper intervals are being maintained
  • Aware of what competitor is finishing
  • Aware of what competitor is starting
  • Aware of what competitor is in the gate
  • Communicates DNS and DNF information to Chief of
    T C
  • Verifies tape record (tapes from official
    electronic timing equipment) is available for
    each start and finish

49
Electronic Time Recording Sheet
  • May be used by the Chief Timekeeper or assistant
    to keep a written record of each racers
    electronic time or status DNS or DNF
  • Is intended as a backup for the printed tape from
    the electronic timekeeping equipment

50
Timing Assistants Start Manual/Hand Timekeeper
and Recorder
  • Start manual/hand timekeeping is totally
    independent of electronic timekeeping
  • Used in case of failure of both electronic
    systems - A and B
  • Uses a continuously running, synchronized,
    handheld stopwatch or hand operated battery
    operated timer
  • Timing devices must read to the hundredth of a
    second (MMSS.ss)
  • When competitors lower leg crosses the start
    line
  • Timekeeper pushes the button and freezes the
    display
  • Reads display to Manual/Hand Time Recorder
  • Is consistent
  • Start Manual/Hand Time Recorder writes the bib
    number and time-of-day start or finish for each
    racer
  • Records the time heard and then, repeats the time
    to the timekeeper for verification

51
Timing Assistants Finish Manual/Hand Timekeeper
and Recorder
  • Finish manual/hand timekeeping is totally
    independent of electronic timekeeping
  • Provides manual backup in case of failure of both
    electronic systems - A and B
  • Uses a continuously running, synchronized,
    handheld stopwatch or hand operated battery
    operated timer
  • Timing devices must read to the hundredth of a
    second (MMSS.ss)
  • When first part of competitors body crosses the
    finish line
  • Timekeeper pushes the button and freezes the
    display
  • Reads display to HT Recorder
  • Finish Manual/Hand Time Recorder should operate a
    second watch as a backup
  • Finish Manual/Hand Time Recorder writes the bib
    number and time-of-day finish for each racer

52
Start/Finish Timekeeper Recording Form
  • The same form is used by both Start and Finish
    Manual/Hand Timekeepers/ Recorders
  • Be sure to fill in all information at the top of
    the form

53
Timing Equipment..The start
54
Starter and Assistant Starter
  • Starter
  • Has direct communication with Chief Timekeeper
  • Informs Chief Timekeeper of bib number of
    competitor who has started
  • Informs Chief Timekeeper of bib number of
    competitor in the start gate
  • Verifies proper start intervals are observed
  • Starts competitors
  • Assistant Starter
  • Lines up competitors according to Start List
  • Announces bib number and name to avoid
    possibility of switched bibs

55
Start Intervals
  • Minimum intervals between consecutive competitor
    starts in a fixed interval event are
  • DH not less than 40 seconds, includes DHT
  • SG not less than 40 seconds
  • GS not less than 30 seconds
  • SL is a non-fixed/irregular interval event.
  • Jury, in agreement with Chief of Timing or
    Assistant determines this start interval

56
Start Commands Fixed Intervals
  • Fixed Interval Commands (DH, SG, GS)
  • Starter begins sequence with a warning 10
    seconds
  • After a 5 second pause, starter counts down to
    5, 4 3, 2, 1, Go
  • Racer may start 5 sec before until 5 sec after
    Go
  • Failure to start within that 10 second window
    will result in DSQ.
  • Start Referee will record the failure to start
    properly and report to Jury

57
Start Commands Non-Fixed Intervals
  • Non-Fixed Interval (SL)
  • Starter announces Ready
  • Followed, a few seconds later, by Go
  • As in fixed interval event, racer has 10 seconds
    to start
  • Failure to start within about 10 seconds results
    in DSQ

58
COURSE FREEZE
  • All disciplines require that movement on course
    be limited.
  • Speed events require that, with the exception of
    the racer on course, there is
  • NO MOVEMENT!
  • This is called a Course Freeze
  • Course Freeze time is noted on the daily
    schedule.

59
Gate Judge Most Important Person on the Hill!
  • Supervises one or more gates
  • Determines if both ski tips and boots passed the
    gates correctly
  • Verifies that the racer did not receive outside
    assistance
  • Replaces missing gates in dye spots, straighten
    leaning gates, replace panels
  • Maintains the race surface
  • Controls spectators and coaches who may crowd or
    interfere with the course
  • Course maintenance workers and other race
    officials
  • help with these duties

60
WHERE ARE THE TIPS BOOTS?
61
OH OH, FAULT?
62
WHAT DO I WATCH?
63
OH OH AGAIN!
64
AM I LEGAL?
65
YELLOW FLAG ZONES
  • Downhill and Super G courses have designated
    YELLOW FLAG ZONES
  • These are areas designated by the Jury for
    stopping on-course competitors who are
    approaching a START STOP situation

66
STOP START
  • The Technical Delegate is responsible for
    confirming that all Jury members, Jury Advisors,
    and Eyes of the Jury have reviewed and are aware
    of the start stop/ start stop/ yellow flag
    stop procedures.
  • START STOP! is called via radio by a Jury
    member, Eyes of the Jury (a coach positioned at a
    yellow flag zone) or Jury Advisor when it is
    necessary to control the departure of the next
    racer usually because the preceding racer has
    fallen and the racer or racers equipment is
    blocking the course.
  • When this command is issued, the Start Referee
    must immediately close the start.

67
START STOP YELLOW FLAG STOP
  • The command START STOP, YELLOW FLAG STOP! is
    called via radio by the Jury member, Eyes of the
    Jury or Jury Advisor who called the START STOP
  • - when it is necessary to control the
    departure of the next racer and also to
  • - yellow flag (stop) a racer who is
    already on course because the preceding racer
    has fallen and the racer or racers equipment is
    blocking the course.
  • When this command is issued, the Start Referee
    must immediately close the start.

68
Start Referee MUST
  • The Start Referee must immediately respond via
    radio that start is closed, and
  • Must state the start number of the last
    competitor to have started as well as
  • The start number of the competitor held at the
    start.
  • (Example
  • START STOP confirmed, number 23 on course,
    number 24 at the start)

69
WHEN A START STOP or START STOP/YELLOW FLAG
STOP IS CALLED
  • Ski Patrol assigned to the event and in radio
    contact with the Jury, is now on alert that a
    competitor may require medical assistance.
  • If the Jury / Eyes of the Jury / Jury Advisor
    call for medical assistance, Ski Patrol assigned
    to the race first verifies that the course is
    clear, i.e. no racer is on course,
  • Once Ski Patrol assigned to the race has verified
    that it has a clear course, it responds to the
    call for medical assistance.
  • SKI PATROL ASSIGNED TO THE RACE
  • NOT COACHES / TRAINERS / OFFICIALS / PARENTS -
  • ARE THE FIRST RESPONDER!

70
Reopening the Course
  • The individual (Jury member, Eyes of the Jury or
    Jury Advisor) who called the START STOP or
    START STOP, YELLOW FLAG STOP is responsible for
    releasing the course hold.
  • The course is reopened at the direction of the
    Jury
  • - either from top to bottom,
  • - bottom to top or
  • - from the position where the incident
  • requiring the START STOP occurred.

71
Racer Overtakes another at the Finish
  • The following is a suggested procedure
  • If a racer is overtaken near the finish
  • primary manual/hand timekeeper should record the
    first racer
  • secondary manual/hand timekeeper or recorder
    should record the second with the backup watch
  • Important that every attempt be made to provide
    every racer with both an electronic and manual
    time
  • If a Racer falls in the immediate finish area,
    the time is taken when any part of competitors
    body crosses the finish line
  • Once a racer has crossed the finish line, the
    racer has finished the race. If a gate has
    been missed, the racer may not cross back over
    the finish line in order to complete correct gate
    passage

72
Timing Equipment..The Finish
73
Subtracting Electronic Times A RACERS
ELECTRONIC TIME IS NEVER ROUNDED OR AVERAGED!
HINT 1 Minute 60 Seconds Cross a colon
borrow 60 cross a decimal borrow 10
102.019 Truncate to 102.01
  • Start Here
  • 361
  • 150401.891
  • -150259.871
  • 102.020
  • Truncate to 102.02

Start Here 361 150401.891 -150259.872
102.019 Truncate to 102.01
74
Replacement Times (Equivalent Electronic Times -
EET)
  • When the electronic time is missed on the primary
    system (System A), it will be necessary to
    calculate a replacement time from the secondary
    system (System B)
  • If both the primary and secondary systems fail,
    you must calculate a replacement time from the
    manual/hand timekeeping
  • A replacement time is a valid time!

75
Replacement/Equivalent Electronic Time Worksheet
  • Either of the next 2 forms can be used to provide
    a Replacement (EET) System A Time using System
  • B Times or a Replacement Time (EET) when
    calculation of manual/hand times is required

76
Replacement/Equivalent Electronic Time Worksheet
This form can be used to provide a Replacement
(EET) System A Time using System B Times or a
Replacement Time (EET) when calculation of
manual/hand times has been done by a secondary
source
77
Report by the Referee
  • This form must be completed for each
    classification gender for each run
  • Posted on Scoreboard/ Official Notice Board with
    date and time of posting as well as expiration
    time
  • Should be checked by Team Captains regardless of
    whether or not they feel one of their competitors
    may have committed a fault (DSQ)

78
Second Run Start Order
  • For scored events, racers are ranked according to
    First Run Time
  • The order for a pre-determined number of racers
    is then reversed 30 or 15 this is a bibbo
  • 30 is standard Jury may limit to 15 announced
    1 hour prior to start of race
  • Special rules for Second Run Start Order apply
    for
  • USSA non-scored events, i.e. Age Class, YSL
  • Bibbo with a tie at the pre-determined flip
    position
  • Collegiate events
  • Golden Rule

79
Summary
  • A large number of volunteers are required in
    order to organize an alpine skiing event
  • Each position requires a simple understanding of
    the position within the event
  • Each person has a responsibility to understand
    their individual job and how that job relates to
    the entire event
  • With experience, a Competition Official will be
    able to move between assignments and train for
    advancement into a specialty area
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