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Sea Power and Maritime Affairs

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Lesson 2: Sea Power in the Ancient Mediterranean World, from the Phoenicians to ... World's first Navy established (Circa 2,000 BC). Mahan-geographical position ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sea Power and Maritime Affairs


1
Sea Power and Maritime Affairs
  • Lesson 2 Sea Power in the Ancient Mediterranean
    World, from the Phoenicians to the Battle of
    Lepanto (1571)

2
Learning Objectives
  • The student will comprehend the importance of sea
    power and navies to the peoples of the
    Mediterranean basin during antiquity. Special
    emphasis will be placed on Crete, the
    Phoenicians, Persia, Greece, Rome and the Italian
    city-states of the Middle Ages and early
    Renaissance
  • The student will understand the crucial role of
    the galley in naval warfare up to the Battle of
    Lepanto (October, 1571).

3
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4
Remember our Themes!
  • The Navy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy
  • Interaction between Congress and the Navy
  • Interservice Relations
  • Technology
  • Leadership
  • Strategy and Tactics
  • Evolution of Naval Doctrine

5
Remember our Themes!
  • The Navy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy
  • Interaction between Congress and the Navy
  • Interservice Relations
  • Technology
  • Leadership
  • Strategy and Tactics
  • Evolution of Naval Doctrine

6
Early Mediterranean Navies
  • Water transportation was cheaper than overland
    routes, and especially in the Mediterranean
    basin.
  • The Mediterranean Sea was the natural locale for
    much of the war fighting that resulted from
    commercial and national or ethnic rivalry that
    characterized antiquity
  • From the outset, commercial or trading vessels
    were lumbering sailing ships naval vessels were
    galleys.

7
Age of Galleys
  • Circa 2,000 BC until the 16th Century.

8
Galley Warfare
  • Need for defense of merchant shipping gives rise
    to a new type of ship, the galley.
  • Primary Secondary
  • Propulsion Oars Sails
  • Weapons Infantry Rams/Projectiles
  • Formation Line-Abreast Not Applicable

9
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10
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11
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12
Greek Trireme - Galley with three banks
of oars.
13
Principal Functions of Navies
  • 1. Protect sea trade routes.
  • 2. Block or disrupt enemys sea trade routes.
  • Command Control of the Sea
  • 1. Defend against sea-borne attack.
  • 2. Isolate the enemys land forces.
  • 3. Carry the attack across the sea to the enemy.

14
Line Abreast Formations
15
Line Abreast Formations
16
Line Abreast Formations
  • Naval infantry used to board and capture enemy
    galleys.

17
Use of the Ram
18
Use of the Ram
19
Use of the Ram
  • Rams used to sink or immobilize enemy galleys.

20
Early Naval Powers
21
Early Naval Powers
  • Crete
  • First maritime-oriented civilization - use of the
    sea.
  • Worlds first Navy established (Circa 2,000 BC).
  • Mahan-geographical position
  • Natural resources- copper ore

22
Early Naval Powers
  • Phoenicians
  • Seafaring peoples in eastern Mediterranean Sea.
  • Colonies in southern and western Mediterranean
    Sea.

23
Greeks and Persians at War (c. 492-480 B.C.)
  • Background of Greeks
  • By 5th century B.C., Greeks dominated Black and
    Aegean Seas and held trading monopoly on eastern
    Mediterranean.
  • The Greeks exported olive, wine, and products of
    their gifted artisans and craftsmen established
    settlements and colonies as far away as the north
    shore of the Black Sea and Spain.
  • The Greeks were chronically weakened by divisions
    into warring city-states.

24
Greeks and Persians at War (c. 492-480 B.C.)
  • Background of Persia
  • Persia, a unified kingdom and empire, exuded from
    Iranian highlands, overwhelmed Phoenicians,
    Egyptians and all others in its path by 492
    B.C., Persia faced determined resistance from the
    Greek city-states to further expansion into
    Europe.

25
Greco-Persian War and After
26
Persian Empire
  • Persians expand empire from modern-day Iran.
  • Phoenicians supply the naval power
  • First two attempts to take Greece
  • 492 BC - Storm destroys Persian fleet.
  • 490 BC - Defeated by Athenians at the Battle of
    Marathon (amphibious invasion)
  • 10,000 Greeks threw Persians back to the sea

27
King Xerces
  • Persian King Xerxes mounted attacks in 480.
  • Battle of Thermoplylae and Salamis

28
Themistocles
Thermopylae Salamis
29
Battle of Thermoplylae
30
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31
Battle of Salamis -- 480 BC
32
Alexander the Great
33
Alexander the Great
  • King Philip of Macedon
  • Conquers most of Greece by 338 BC.
  • Philips son Alexander conquers the Persian
    Empire and forms a vast Greek empire.
  • Secures Phoenician cities on the coast in order
    to neutralize Persian naval power.
  • Siege of Tyre
  • Control of sea lines of communication allows
    control of eastern Mediterranean Sea.
  • Alexanders Empire
  • Divided upon his death in 323 BC.

34
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35
Roman Sea Power (c. 264-410 A.D.)
36
Background for Punic Wars/Roman Expansion
37
Roman Galley
  • Corvus Boarding device.
  • - Allowed Roman soldiers to board Carthaginian
    ships.

Corvus
38
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39
Punic Wars (264-201 B.C.)
40
Roman Navy
  • Remained second to Roman Army, but…
  • Enabled Roman empire to expand east to the
    Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf.
  • Cleared the Mediterranean Sea of pirates.
  • Adapted Roman Armys missile tactics use of
    catapults to hurl stones, javelins, and
    combustible projectiles.

41
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42
Mediterranean Sea Power After Pax Romana
43
The Players and the Action
  • Roman Empire divided between East and West.
  • Germanic barbarian invasions of the West.
  • Byzantine Empire continues in the East.
  • Crusades (1095)
  • Last 2 centuries
  • Crusaders are transported by merchant ships from
    Italian city-states, few naval battles.

44
The Players and the Action
  • Vikings - Invasions of Europe from Scandinavia -
    900s.
  • Norman Invasion of England - Battle of Hastings
    1066
  • Early Venice (1200s)
  • Republican and Imperial Venice
    (1300s-mid 1400s)

45
Ottoman Empire
  • Challenges Venetian control of the Mediterranean
    Sea.

46
From the Med to the Atlantic
  • Implications for Sea Power
  • Spain become formidable
  • Christians states continue inner rivalry for
    Mediterranean
  • Christians states unite to fight against the
    Ottoman Turkey
  • Culmination Battle of Lepanto (5 October 1571)

47
Battle of Lepanto - 1571
  • Last battle of the Age of Galleys.
  • Combined Christian fleet defeats Ottoman Turks.
  • Use of cannon mounted on front of galleys to
    supplement naval infantry.
  • Ottoman Empires domination of Mediterranean
    ends.
  • Barbary system remains in North Africa.
  • European powers forced to pay tribute for safe
    passage.

48
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49
Battle of Lepanto
50
Transitions
  • Battle of Lepanto last galley battle
  • Shift from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic
  • Spain and Portugal
  • New Naval Ships
  • Galleon
  • Age of Mediterranean preeminence in European sea
    power OVER

51
The Spanish Galleon
52
Discussion
Next time The Age of Sail, Oceanic Sea Power and
the Emergence of European Nation States…
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