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Wireless Communications Presentation 4

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Satellite Overview by Dr. Nocedal. The Promise of WiMax. Bridging the Digital Divide ... Satellite Operators: examples. Earth Station Products. Systems ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Wireless Communications Presentation 4


1
Wireless CommunicationsPresentation 4
  • Review of link Equations
  • Satellite Overview by Dr. Nocedal
  • The Promise of WiMax
  • Bridging the Digital Divide
  • Project Discussions

2
Link Equation for Power
3
Link Equation For Noise
4
Antenna Equations
5
Link Equation in dB Terms
6
A perspective of the Satcom Industry
  • Fernando Nocedal
  • Vitacom
  • Stanford, Sep 30 2005

7
Overview
  • Market info capacity, vendors, applications
  • Satellite Operators examples
  • Earth Station Products
  • Systems Engineering Aspects
  • VSAT networks for Rural Applications
  • Examples in Latin America the Vitacom experience

8
Satellite Operators
  • Regional
  • Asiasat
  • Eutelsat
  • Hispasat
  • Arabsat
  • Palapa
  • Telesat-Anik
  • Satmex
  • Star One (Brazil)
  • China
  • Korea, Thai, India.
  • Global
  • Intelsat
  • Panamsat
  • SES
  • Loral
  • NewSkies

9
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15
(from Futron)
16
(from Futron)
17
Consolidation
  • Operators
  • Intelsat announced its buying Panamsat Aug 2005
  • Still to be approved
  • Combined company would dominate intl market (55
    satellites)
  • Americom - GE - SES
  • Larger Operators are getting larger
  • Smaller Operators survivability

18
  • C-Band 19 active transponders, with EIRP of up
    to 41 dBW.

FREQUENCY PLAN C-Band
March 2005
19
Ku-Band
FREQUENY PLAN Ku Band
March 2005
20
Profitability in the SATCOM Market (by Futron)
21
Products for Networking
  • Network Architectures
  • Mesh / STAR / hybrid
  • Fixed/ demand/ random access
  • Applications
  • Mobile services video, data, voice
  • Building Blocks
  • Antenna
  • RF (transceiver) LNA
  • Modem
  • Router/encoder

22
Vitacom (1)
  • Started as Vitalink in 1980
  • Satcom products for Data networks in the USA
  • Expanded to Latin America in 1987
  • Provided first private networks in Lat AM
  • Shift from equipment manufacturing to service
    provider mid 1990s
  • Teleport in Mtn View to cover LAT AM
  • Products conventional scpc, plus integrated
    TDMA solutions, IP applications

23
Vitacom (2)
  • Produces proprietary transceivers C- and Ku-Band
  • Subsidiary in China (equipment only)
  • Service operations in MV, Mexico and Colombia
  • Main service internet via Satellite, private
    nets
  • Main Market Latin America
  • Sectors
  • a) Corporate International energy, finance, mfg
  • b) Education
  • c) ISPs and carriers
  • d) Rural comms

24
Satmex 5 (116.8 W) EIRP Region KU-2 Odd
Xponder (Pol. Ver/Hor)
40
20
Latitude N (Degrees)
0
-20
-40
120
100
60
80
40
Longitude W (Degrees)
SATMEX PROPRIETARY INFORMATION
25
Satmex 5 C-Band
EIRP 39 dBW SFD -92 dBW/m2 G/T -2 dB/K
26
EIRP Satmex 6 C-Band
C-3 Continental EIRP 38 dBW SFD -98
dBW/m2 G/T -3.0 dB/K
27
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28
DLSN (Puerto Rico)
  • Distance Learning Saltellite Network
  • Funded by No Child Left Behind project
  • Provides video conferencing, internet, data
    transfer and Video broadcast capabilities to 100
    training centers of the Dept. of Education of PR
  • DLSN is geared toward training the educators and
    the students
  • Promotes interaction between groups
  • Hub facility (Linkstar TDMA platform) is in Mtn
    View
  • Separate project in PR provides basic internet
    to 1500 schools (not by Vitacom)

29
DLSN (Puerto Rico) 2
  • Technology used
  • Satcom network by ViaSat Linkstar
  • DVB-TDM outbound 7Mbps
  • Several inbounds at 650kbps TDMA
  • VCON video conferencing
  • Separate one way video broadcast 3Mbps
  • Approx 12MHz for 100 nodes, i.e. 120kHz per node
    (excludes video bdcast)
  • Terminals 1.8m antenna, 2W BUCs, IDU, IRD, VCON

30
Systems Engineering Aspects
  • Modem Performance Improvements
  • Higher Level modulation
  • QPSK, 8PSK, 16QAM
  • (bandwidth efficiency)
  • High Coding gain Encoding
  • (power effciency)
  • Transponder Resource Mgmnt
  • Optimization of satellite capacity
  • C vs Ku vs Ka band
  • Rain attenuation
  • Terminal size
  • BW cost
  • coordination
  • Antenna Size
  • Small antenna reduces terminal cost but increases
    recurring cost
  • Small antenna easy to transport and install but
    reduces link availability

31
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33
Internet via Satellite
  • Thin route
  • Based on Linkstar TDMA product. Ku Band
  • Many combos downstream/upstream
  • 128kbps/32kbps to 1Mbps/512kbps various levels of
    CIR
  • From 80/mo to 2,000/mo
  • IP applications voice, data, surfing
  • Terminal cost around 2K
  • BW Sizing and Costing is a major task!!
  • Thick Route (backbone)
  • SCPC/SCPC asymmetrical
  • Cband for higher reliability
  • DVB down with SCPC up
  • DVB down one way (terr return)
  • Typical data rates
  • 256k, 512k, 2Mbps, 8Mbps
  • Pricing around 2K/mo/Mbps
  • Terminal Cost 10K and up

34
Rural Internet Mexico
  • e-Mexico
  • 2000 nodes, phase 1 (Interdirec-Linkstar)
  • Basic internet access only
  • 40MHz available (20 kHz /node)
  • Subsidized satellite BW
  • Poor performance network saturation
  • Phase 2 awarded to Telmex (Hughes technology)
  • Is it self-sustainable ?

35
Rural Internet Colombia
  • COMPARTEL
  • Various stages (4,000 nodes)
  • Gilat awarded most of the initial phase
  • Comsat and Andinet stage B
  • Phase 2 recently out for bids
  • Interesting formula
  • Government grants regulatory license to winner
  • Winner operates network, collects, etc
  • Performance specifications need to be met
  • Winner is that who requeires the smallest
    subsidy

36
Rural Internet
  • Internet kiosks for public use
  • If telephony offered on top, it adds significant
    value, but demands much more BW
  • Cyber Café very common in Lat Am
  • Use of Consumer Products in this market distorts
    prices and produces disappointments
  • Combine Satcom WiFi to provide wider coverage
  • Overall Economics
  • Incumbent Telcos Reaction

37
WiMax Network Projections
  • E Katz
  • D Labunsky

38
Wireless Network
  • Central hub supports multiple users using
    multiple applications, mostly Internet and VoIP
    telephony

39
Assumptions
  • Assume that the major differences between WiFi
    and WiMax are
  • Software
  • Power levels allowed (ERP)
  • This implies that most of the hardware required
    for a WiMax network will eventually be priced
    comparably to that required by a WiFi network
    today, with the exception of antennae and some
    physical infrastructure

40
More assumptions
  • We will limit our analysis to the last mile
    network, i.e. we assume local availability of
  • Power
  • A high place to put the antenna
  • Some high bandwidth internet access (i.e. fiber
    optic, satellite ground station, WiMax Backhaul,
    etc.)
  • Customers wanting internet service will need
    computers. We do not require high performance,
    however, and could easily make do with obsolete
    systems, donated by industrialized nations

41
Access Point
  • Assuming WiMax CPE will be priced comparably to
    WiFi equipment available today
  • Wireless router/access point
  • Linksys WRTP54G-ER Wireless-G 54Mbps Broadband
    Router with Earthlink VoIP Service - 39.99
  • Linksys WRT54GL Wireless-G Linux Router - 59.99
  • Linksys WRTP54G Wireless-G Vonage VoIP Router -
    59.99
  • Wireless Access Point
  • Linksys WAP54G Wireless-G Access Point -
    79.99
  • Netgear WG602 54Mbps Wireless Access Point -
    79.99
  • D-Link DWL-2100AP 108Mbps Wireless Access Point
    w/ SNMP AES - Price 99.99

42
Local Transceiver Antennae
  • Assumed to be at about 16 dB Gain
  • Assumed to run in the 2.4-2.5 GHz range
  • Good transmission, relatively low attenuation
  • In the US , there is an amateur band at 900 MHz
    2.4 GHz

43
Andrews Corporation2.4-2.5GHz 17dBi Grid Ant
  • 17 dBi (mid)N Male
  • Die cast grid antenna is manufactured with
    magnesium alloy, stainless steel and aluminum.
    Weighs 33 less than aluminum antennas with no
    rust.
  • Max Wind 140 MPH
  • List106.00
  • Gold68.90

44
More Antennae
 
 

  • 13 dBi (mid)
  • N Female Flat panel 60 degree sector antenna.
    Lightweight and rugged. Standard antenna mounts.
  • List595.00
  • Gold422.45  317.63
  • 14.0 dBi (mid)
  • N Female Lightweight and rugged Spread
    Spectrum/ISM band parabolic antenna. Mount
    provides fine adjustment of azimuth and
    elevation. Radome is included
  • List450.00
  • Gold297.00

45
Customer Premise Equipment- PCI Cards
  • Notebook Mobile Adapters
  • Netgear WN511T RangeMax Next Wireless N PC-Card
    Notebook Adapter - Price 99.99
  • Linksys WPC54G 54Mbps Wireless-G PC Notebook
    Adapter - Price 49.99
  • Buffalo CB-G54HP PC-Card AirStation High Power
    Wireless Notebook Adapter - Price 49.99
  • Wireless PCI Card Adapters
  • Linksys WMP54GS Wireless-G PCI Card with
    SpeedBooster - Price 59.99
  • D-Link DWL-G510 54Mbps Wireless-G PCI Card -
    19.99
  • Netgear WG311 54Mbps Wireless-G PCI Adapter for
    Desktop Computers - Price 39.99

46
Customer Premise Equipment- VoIP Phones
  • Direct-to-LAN phones
  • Hitachi IP-5000 - Hitachi-Cable Wireless
    IPC-5000 WiFi SIP VoIP Wireless phone 299.95
  • Phones With PC Base Stations
  • Grandstream GXP-2000 - 78.95
  • Grandstream Budgetone GS-101 Black SIP IP Phone
    37.99 
  • KeySpan VP-24A Cordless VoIP Phone (Skype) 66.99

47
VoIP for Existing Cell phonesOne Example is
TruPhone
  • TruPhone
  • Software provider
  • TruPhone Software makes VoIP calls from any LAN
  • Requires a phone compatible with TruPhone
    Software
  • Nokia's E-series and N-series phones
  • Calling landlines in other countries from their
    mobile (from US)
  • UK 3.2c/min
  • China 3.2c
  • Mexico City 3.6c
  • Japan 5.5c
  • Calling international mobiles(from US)
  • India 18.4c/min
  • UK mobiles 23.1c
  • China mobiles 3.3c
  • Japan mobiles 24.0c

48
A sample system- A WiMax point serves N
computer/phone stations
  • Linksys WRT54GL Wireless-G Linux Router (
    59.99)
  • Andrews Grid Antenna (106.00)
  • D-Link DWL-G510 54Mbps Wireless-G PCI Card -
    (N19.99)
  • Grandstream Budgetone GS-101 Black SIP IP Phone
    (N37.99)
  • Donated PC (0) 
  • Total 165.99 N57.98
  • Let N 10 Stations, Total cost 745.79

49
Bridging the Digital Divide
50
The Digital Divide
  • The differential access to computers, Internet,
    telecommunications, and information in society.
  • Typically characterized along the variables of
    income, education, race, age, ethnicity,
    disability and geography.

51
The Digital Divide
  • Digital Divide refers to the unequal access to
    knowledge, training, job opportunities, useful
    digital content, practices of the information
    economy, resources and so on.
  • The divide is not only a technological but also a
    socio-economic and political problem.

52
The Digital Divide
53
The Digital Divide
  • In the Human Resource Development report of 1999,
    Kofi Annan mentioned the Digital Divide as a
    source of growing inequality in the world and
    committed the UN to bridge this divide.
  • - Nicholas Negroponte and
  • UN secretary general Kofi Annan
  • unveil the 100 laptop.
  • (November 2005)

54
The Problems
  • Governance
  • Literacy / Social Facilitation
  • Service / Access Provision
  • Content / Services
  • Software Tools
  • Devices
  • Carriage Facilities

55
The structure of the Solution
56
ICT as the Solution to the Digital Divide Problem
  • Most Information and Communication Technology
    initiatives provide a cost effective method of
    bridging the Digital Divide.
  • The projects are generally the combined effort of
    the Government, Academia, NGO, Media, Community
    and CSR and Individual initiatives.

57
Key Questions
  • Is bridging the Digital Divide worth the effort
    and the outcome?
  • Can the poor and illiterate use new technologies?

58
POV (What critics say)
It Stinks!
  • The cost of creating a working Internet
    Connection in a developing nation is the same as
    that of providing immunization against 6 fatal
    childhood diseases to thousands of children.
  • The introduction of ICT into communities
    otherwise unchanged will merely heighten existing
    inequalities.

59
POV (What BoP consumers say)
  • I used to think the Internet was just for people
    working in offices, but I now realize it is also
    very useful for religious leaders and their
    communities. I know that many good things have
    been done by Americans in Mali. Now I am
    discovering that the same is true throughout the
    world. With the Internet, I can find information
    for the preaching I do on Fridays, and I can
    help other Moslems understand whats going on in
    the world. Im connected." - Imam Korobara (Mali)

60
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61
Snippets
  • Poor, rural women in Bangladesh use GSM cell
    phones, despite having no prior experience with
    phones of any type. Many of the Grameen Telecom
    village phone entrepreneurs, despite their
    illiteracy, have memorized country codes and
    proudly help customers call anywhere in the
    world.
  • Telecenters in El Salvador operated by
    Infocentros provide Internet conferencing to poor
    businessmen to negotiate sales of their crops.

62
Snippets
  • In Andhra Pradesh (India), SKS introduced Palm
    Pilots with smart cards as bank passbooks and
    issued them to the village womenfolk.
  • The promising feedback led SKS to believe it
    would be able to scale up operations in the near
    future.

63
Snippets
  • In Kenya, NairoBits is successfully training slum
    teenagers to be Web page designers.
  • In an experiment in coastal villages in India,
    local women were trained in less than a week to
    use a PC to interpret real-time satellite images
    of the concentration of schools of fish in the
    Arabian Sea, and could successfully direct their
    husbands to the right spots to catch fish.

64
Snippets
  • The M.S. Swaminathan Pondicherry Project,
    provides info-kiosks to provide farmers with
    information about agriculture. These info-kiosks
    were also, rather surprisingly, used to get
    information about government programs.
  • In Gujrat, India, automated butterfat assessment
    equipment is used by the dairies, which has
    radically simplified the process of evaluating
    milk and paying dairy farmers.

65
Reasons for Failure of ICT Projects
  • Friction with Government Society.
  • Financial sustainability, Cost Recovery.
  • Lack of Standardization of codes.
  • Unavailability of locally relevant content.
  • Credibility Concerns.
  • Commercial Funding.
  • Impact of technical decisions.

66
Case Study
67
Grameen Telecom - Bangladesh
  • One of the least wired counties with 97 of homes
    lacking telephones.
  • Grameen Bank (a micro finance institution) formed
    2 entities
  • Grameen Telecom A non profit organization which
    provides phones services in rural areas as an
    income generating activity for members of the
    Grameen Bank.
  • Grameen Phone Ltd. A for profit organization
    which has come to be the dominant mobile carrier
    of the country.

68
Grameen Telecom Business Model
  • Accomplishes simultaneous generation of income
    and connectivity.
  • GB approves financing of a phone, GT provides
    cellular subscription, the connection, hardware
    and training.
  • The initiative has a shared access business
    model which creates high returns, thus keeping
    the project in momentum.
  • Repayment rates for Grameen Bank are 90-95.

69
Results and Benefits
  • 213,000 village phones in 65,000 villages. (2005)
  • Revenue per phone per month 93 USD. (2001)
  • Secondary benefit is the employment and
    enhancement of status of Women since 95 of the
    phone operators are female.

70
Grameen Telecom - Hurdles
  • Most VP equipped villages are situated at the
    outer edges of the GSM cells resulting in signal
    fluctuations, dropped calls, revenue loss and
    customer dissatisfaction.
  • Problem countered by introduction of external
    High Gain Antenna, which also extends coverage
    for VP operation without further investment in
    network expansion.
  • Technologies like FWT and WLL are being
    considered as other solutions for extended
    coverage with good quality but set up costs are
    high.

71
Grameen Telecom - Hurdles
  • GP is experimenting towards finding cost
    effective ways (like the Mast Head Amplifier
    based BTS) to increase coverage in the rural
    area.
  • Power for charging the battery is another
    problem. There are villages with network
    coverage, but without electricity. The number of
    such villages increases as with the distance from
    Dhaka city. Solar panel and DC batteries have
    been tested as alternatives.

72
Grameen Telecom - Hurdles
  • All the solutions of the present problems, i.e.
    extended antenna, solar panel, DC battery
    increases the start up cost, which is funded by
    GB branch. This results in increase of weekly
    installment for the operator. On the other hand,
    new BTS or MHA will increase the cost on the
    network operators. An optimum balance must be
    found.

73
In the pipeline
  • Educ. AR Argentina
  • TARAHaat India
  • ITAFE (World Economic Forum)
  • Hole in the Wall Project
  • Reusable PCs
  • Low Cost PCs
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