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Facilitating Students Career Development and Planning: Using Career Theory to Inform and Enhance Adv


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Title: Facilitating Students Career Development and Planning: Using Career Theory to Inform and Enhance Adv

Facilitating Students Career Development and
Planning Using Career Theory to Inform and
Enhance Advising
Kenneth F. Hughey, Professor Julie Hunt, Academic
Advisor Kansas State University Manhattan,
KS 2006 NACADA Conference Indianapolis,
IN October 20, 2006
  • Academic advising is an educational activity
    that depends on valid explanations of complex
    student behaviors and institutional conditions to
    assist college students in making and executing
    educational and life plans. (Creamer, 2000, p.
  • Understanding theoretical frameworks can
    provide insights and give direction and meaning
    to advisors daily contacts with students.
    (Gordon, 2006, p. 23)

Hollands Theory of Vocational Personalities and
Work Environments
Hollands Hexagon
What is your Holland code?
  • SIC
  • ISE
  • RIA
  • RIS
  • CEA
  • SEA
  • AEI
  • ESC

  • Congruence is the degree of fit between an
    individuals personality type and current or
    prospective work environment. A person is in a
    congruent work environment when the persons
    personality type matches the occupational
    environment. Conversely incongruence occurs when
    individuals are in environments that do not match
    their personality. (Niles Harris-Bowlsbey,
    2005, pp. 64-65)

Supers Developmental Theory
Developmental and lifelong Self-concept Career
maturity (adaptability)
Life Career Rainbow
Cognitive Information Processing Theory
CIP Pyramid
For students, what is involved in a career choice?
  • Knowing about myself
  • Knowing about my options
  • Knowing how I make decisions
  • Thinking about my decision making
  • (Florida State University Career Center Web site)

Career Readiness
  • the capability of an individual to make
    appropriate career choices while taking into
    account the complexity of family, social,
    economic, and organizational factors that
    influence an individuals career development
  • (Sampson, Reardon, Peterson, Lenz, 2004, p.

Capability and Complexity
  • Capability--the cognitive and affective
    capacity of an individual to engage in effective
    problem solving and decision making (Sampson et
    al., 2004, p. 68)
  • Complexity--contextual factors, originating in
    the family, society, economy, or employing
    organizations, that make it more difficult (or
    less difficult) to process information necessary
    to solve career problems and make career
    decisions (Sampson et al., 2004, p. 69)

Career Thoughts
  • outcomes of ones thinking about assumptions,
    attitudes, behaviors, beliefs, feelings, plans,
    and/or strategies related to career problem
    solving and decision making
  • (Sampson, Peterson, Lenz, Reardon, Saunders,
    1996, p. 2)
  • From the CIP perspective, dysfunctional career
    thinking negatively impacts career problem
    solving and decision making.

Positive or Negative Thinking
  • Follows through with appropriate next steps
    after making a decision
  • Avoids making a choice
  • Stays focused on making an appropriate career
  • Seeks information needed to make a career
  • Stays motivated even when there are challenges

Learning Theory of Career Counseling andPlanned
Happenstance Theory
  • Learning to promote students career and
    academic planning and facilitate their career

Planned Happenstance
  • The goal of planned happenstance theory is to
    help students to generate, recognize, and
    incorporate chance events into their career
    development (Mitchell, Levin, Krumboltz, 1999,
    p. 117)

Planned Happenstance Skills
  • Curiosity--exploring new learning opportunities
  • Persistence--exerting effort despite setbacks
  • Flexibility--changing attitudes and circumstances
  • Optimism--viewing new opportunities as possible
    and attainable
  • Risk taking--taking action in the face of
    uncertain outcomes
  • (Mitchell et al., 1999, p. 118)

Browns Values-Based Approach
  • Values are beliefs or standards used by students
    to evaluate their actions and those of others.
  • Identifying, clarifying, and prioritizing ones
    values can be helpful in the career
    decision-making process.

  • Sondra has so many options she does not want to
    be limited to just one area of interest. She has
    a high ACT, was very involved in high school, she
    was a school leader and had lots of community
    service hours. She enjoys art, drama and music,
    but does not know what she would do with it as a
    career. Her mother is a registered nurse and her
    father is an engineer. I find that during the
    enrollment appointment, her mother is very
    involved in Sandras decisions. Her parents have
    high expectations for Sandra and they suggest she
    keep her options open, but keep her classes in
    line with pre-med requirements just in case she
    decides to go into medicine.

  • John has always wanted to be a doctor. He did
    not do very well in high school because he said
    he was always bored. He had a 20 ACT and he said
    he did not take math or science his senior year
    in high school. John is not realistically
    evaluating his career choice. He may have to look
    for appropriate alternatives to explore.

  • Jennel is a young woman who does not have any
    idea what she wants to major in. She has an 18
    ACT, and she is not really prepared to start
    college level classes. She is a first generation
    college student and she leaves orientation
    overwhelmed and confused by university policies
    and procedures.

The challenge for advisors is to effectively use
career theories to understand and gain insight
into students experiences and lives to
facilitate their career development and
effectively prepare them for the future.

  • Gordon, V.N. (2006). Career advising An academic
    advisors guide. San Francisco Jossey-Bass.
  • Herr, E.L., Cramer, S.H., Niles, S.G. (2004).
    Career guidance and counseling through the
    lifespan Systematic approaches (6th ed.).
    Boston Allyn and Bacon.
  • Holland, J.L. (1997). Making vocational choices
    A theory of vocational personalities and work
    environments (3rd ed.). Odessa, FL PAR.
  • Miller, B., Woycheck, S. (2003). The academic
    advising implications of the Self-Directed Search
    and Hollands Theory A study of Kent State
    University exploratory students. NACADA Journal
    23(12), 37-43.
  • Mitchell, K.E., Levin, A.S., Krumboltz, J.D.
    (1999). Planned happenstance Constructing
    unexpected career opportunities. Journal of
    Counseling Development, 77, 115-124.
  • Niles, S.G., Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (2005). Career
    development interventions in the 21st century
    (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ Pearson
    Merrill Prentice Hall.
  • Reardon, R., Bullock, E. (2004). Hollands
    Theory and implications for academic advising and
    career counseling. NACADA Journal, 24(12),

  • Reardon, R.C., Lenz, J.G., Sampson, J.B., Jr.,
    Peterson, G.W. (2000). Career development and
    life planning A comprehensive approach. Belmont,
    CA Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
  • Reardon, R.C., Wright, L.K. (1999). The case of
    Mandy Applying Hollands theory and cognitive
    information processing theory. The Career
    Development Quarterly, 47, 195-203.
  • Sampson, J.B., Jr., Reardon, R.C., Peterson,
    G.W., Lenz, J.G. (2004). Career counseling
    services A cognitive information processing
    approach. Belmont, CA Brooks/ColeThomson

Online Resources
  • Career Interests Game, University of Missouri
    Career Center--
  • http//career.missouri.edu/students/explore/thecar
  • Self-Directed Search, an interest inventory based
    on Hollands theory (9.95)--
  • http//www.self-directed-search.com/
  • Holland Theory description, Career Key--
  • http//www.careerkey.org/asp/your_personality/holl
  • nds_theory_of_career_choice.asp
  • Career Key, an interest inventory based on
    Hollands theory (7.95)--
  • http//www.careerkey.org/

  • Career Directions Inventory, an interest
    inventory--The inventory is free and a
  • report of results is provided. For a fee, an
    enhanced report is provided.
  • http//www.careerinventory.com/
  • CareerZone--By clicking on Assess Yourself, one
    can determine ones Holland
  • code. After that, one can obtain a list of
    occupations congruent with ones
  • personality.
  • http//www.nycareerzone.org/
  • Career Decision-Making Tool--This is based on
    Cognitive Information Processing
  • Theory.
  • http//www.acrnetwork.org/cdmt/tool.htm
  • Guide to Career Decision Making/Choosing a
    Major--This is based on Cognitive
  • Information Processing Theory.
  • http//www.career.fsu.edu/student/current/choose_a
  • n_guide/index.html

  • ACT World-of-Work Map--Includes a
    counselor/advisor version and a student
  • version of the map.
  • http//www.act.org/wwm/about.html
  • Career Center Web sites--
  • Florida State University, http//www.career.fsu.ed
  • Rowan University Career and Academic Planning
    Center, http//www.rowan.edu/studentaffairs/cap/
  • University of Missouri-Columbia,
  • University of North Carolina-Wilmington,
  • University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
  • Virginia Tech, http//career.vt.edu/
  • Introduction to Career Development, Florida State
    University, Course Information
  • Syllabus--
  • http//www.career.fsu.edu/student/current/choose_a
  • tml

Contact Information
  • Ken Hughey
  • khughey_at_ksu.edu
  • 785-532-6445
  • Julie Hunt
  • jhunt_at_ksu.edu
  • 785-532-5480
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