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THE HEALING PROPERTIES OF FOOD

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Honours Bachelor of Science (University of Waterloo) ... Dietary, evolutionary, and modernizing influences on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE HEALING PROPERTIES OF FOOD


1
THE HEALING PROPERTIES OF FOOD
  • EcoCare 2009
  • Facilitator Ashley Smyth, RHN, NNCP, HBSc
  • 19 October 2009

2
FACILITATOR
  • ASHLEY SMYTH, RHN, NNCP, HBSc
  • Registered Holistic Nutritionist and
    professional member of the Canadian Association
    of Natural Nutritional Practitioners
  • Graduate of the Canadian School of Natural
    Nutrition
  • Honours Bachelor of Science (University of
    Waterloo)
  • Owner of Pure Vitality in Chatham, ON, offering
  • Nutritional consulting
  • Wellness plans and detoxification support
  • Meal planning and grocery store tours
  • Allergy testing

3
SEMINAR OVERVIEW
  • Today we will
  • Discuss the history of the human diet
  • Identify the leading causes of death in Canada
    diet
  • Scientific literature review versus improving
    diet for cardiovascular disease, cancer, and
    Type-2 diabetes
  • Discuss how we should be eating
  • Discuss eating locally and creating mindfulness
  • How do we get our patients on board with a
    healthier lifestyle?

4
THE HUMAN DIET AN OVERVIEW
  • In the beginning
  • 4 million years ago Australopithecus (bipeds)
  • diet mainly consisting of plant foods
  • possibly also small animals
  • 2 million years ago Homo habilis
  • changes in tooth characteristics as well as
    introduction of tools indicates a shift towards
    an omnivorous diet
  • majority of meat was most likely carrion left by
    predators
  • 1.5 million years ago Homo erectus (upright
    man)
  • stature and brain volume more like humans than
    apes
  • increasingly sophisticated hunting tools and
    first use of fire circa 500,000 years ago
    increased digestibility and nutritional value of
    meat ? brain development

5
THE HUMAN DIET AN OVERVIEW
  • In the middle
  • 200,000 years ago Homo sapiens
  • diet largely composed of gathered plants,
    supplemented with meat hunted by increasingly
    sophisticated hunting strategies
  • covered approximately 10 km per day in search of
    food
  • analyses on preserved skeletons indicate similar
    height to modern day man with no signs of serious
    nutritional deficiencies
  • isolated communities, such as the Kung San of
    the Kalahari Desert in Southern Africa, still
    follow this lifestyle, resulting in a consumption
    of over 100 different plant species, several
    different animal proteins, and sometimes insects
    ? virtually no cardiovascular disease, Type-2
    diabetes, or cancer is present

6
THE HUMAN DIET AN OVERVIEW
  • Present day
  • 10,000 to 12,000 years ago the dawn of
    agriculture
  • it is believed that climate change and
    subsequent temperature increase caused decline of
    available food sources, mainly game
  • wheat, corn, rice, and potato (in this order)
    were the first cultivated crops at 4 completely
    disparate regions of the world
  • milk was introduced as a food source as sheep,
    goats, and cows were domesticated 9,000 years ago
    ? 50 of worlds population are unable to digest
    milk due to loss of lactase upon adulthood
  • first time in history when food could be stored
    for future use and there was a steady supply of
    calories

7
DIETARY HABITS THROUGHOUT EVOLUTION
Adapted from Béliveau, R., and Gingras, D.
Eating Well, Living Well An Everyday Guide for
Optimum Health. McClelland Stewart Ltd.,
Toronto, 2009.
8
CHANGES IN THE HUMAN DIET
Source Eaton, S.B., et al. 1997. Paleolithic
nutrition revisited A twelve-year retrospective
on its nature and implications. European Journal
of Clinical Nutrition, 51 207-216.
9
LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH
Source Statistics Canada Online
www.statcan.gc.ca Statistics are for all ages,
both sexes in all of Canada
10
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
  • What does this include?
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Cerebrovascular accident
  • Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism
  • Rheumatic heart disease
  • Congenital heart defects
  • Peripheral artery disease

11
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
  • A DISEASE OF INFLAMMATION
  • Damage to heart and blood vessels
  • Fatty plaque High blood pressure
  • Reduces blood flow Plaque rupture
  • Thrombosis
  • Heart attack Stroke

12
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
  • THE ROLE OF CHOLESTEROL
  • precursor of bile acids and sex hormones
  • required for manufacture of cellular membranes
    and nerve sheaths
  • BUT cannot be transported easily in the blood
  • Tagged by lipoproteins
  • HDL LDL

13
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
  • THE ROLE OF CHOLESTEROL
  • HDL cholesterol ? transports excessive
    cholesterol from blood and tissues to liver to be
    metabolized and removed from body
  • possibly reduces inflammation in body
  • LDL cholesterol ? causes damage when excess is
    stored in the lining of blood vessels ? attacked
    by free radicals and oxidizes ? damages artery
    activates immune system to repair damage ?
    inflammation

14
HEART DISEASE PREVENTION
  • A Dietary Approach



















15
HEART DISEASE PREVENTION
  • Relation between cholesterol and carbohydrate
    source

Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
Stage 4
Source Winitz, M., et al. 1964. Effect of
dietary carbohydrate on serum cholesterol levels.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 108
576-579.
16
HEART DISEASE PREVENTION
  • Fruits, Vegetables, and Whole Grains
  • Significant reduction of heart disease with
    intake of
  • green vegetables
  • cruciferous vegetables
  • estimated that each daily portion of fruits and
    vegetables reduces risk of coronary diseases by
    4 and that by replacing white bread with whole
    grains can reduce the risk of heart disease by
    40!
  • provides protection with phytochemical compounds
    and antioxidants, fiber, vitamins and minerals
    (specifically folic acid and vitamins B12 and C)

17
HEART DISEASE PREVENTION
  • Fats and Cholesterol



















Adapted from Béliveau, R., and Gingras, D.
Eating Well, Living Well An Everyday Guide for
Optimum Health. McClelland Stewart Ltd.,
Toronto, 2009.
18
HEART DISEASE PREVENTION
  • How much fat?
  • many studies have demonstrated that incidence of
    heart disease and cholesterol levels isnt
    related to the amount of total fat, but the kind
    of fat consumed
  • examples include traditional diets of the
    populations of the Inuit and the island of Crete
  • Lyon Diet heart study (began in 1988)



















19
HEART DISEASE PREVENTION
You can live to be a hundred if you give up all
the things that make you want to live to be a
hundred Woody Allen



















20
HEART DISEASE PREVENTION
  • Its not all that bad!
  • 70 dark chocolate ? cacao polyphenols have been
    proven to dilate arteries (by releasing NO) and
    decrease platelet aggregation. Milk prevents the
    absorption of the polyphenols
  • Green tea ? studies have shown that green tea
    reduces mortality rates by 25 for coronary
    disease and 60 with stroke
  • Red Wine ? contains the powerful antioxidant
    resveratrol has been shown to restrict the
    formation of blood clots

21
CANCER
The most feared of all diseases Cell
division Initial mutation Pre-cancerous
cells Healthy body Unhealthy body Unfavourable
conditions Favourable Conditions Cells
destroyed Cancer
22
CANCER
What creates an unfavourable environment?
Source Béliveau, R., and Gingras, D. Eating
Well, Living Well An Everyday Guide for Optimum
Health. McClelland Stewart Ltd., Toronto, 2009.
23
CANCER
  • What creates an favourable environment?
  • Largest study ever conducted on the link between
    lifestyle choices and cancer American Institute
    for Cancer Research and Fonds Mondial de
    Recherche contre le Cancer (FMRC) Report on
    Foods, Nutrition, Physical Exercise and the
    Prevention of Cancer A Global Perspective
  • published in fall 2007
  • 500,000 studies evaluated
  • Evaluation of risk factors for 17 types of cancer

24
10 RECOMMENDATIONS BY FMRC
  • Stay as slim as possible, with a BMI between 21
    and 23
  • Be physically active for at least 30 minutes a
    day
  • Avoid soft drinks and keep consumption of
    calorie-rich foods to a minimum
  • Eat generous amounts of a variety of fruits,
    vegetables, legumes, and whole grains
  • Reduce consumption of red meat to 500 grams per
    week
  • Limit daily consumption of alcohol to 2 glasses
    for men, 1 for women
  • Limit consumption of salty pickled foods
  • Dont use cancer preventing supplements
  • Mothers should breast-feed their children for 6
    months
  • Cancer survivors should follow the
    recommendations given above

Adapted from Béliveau, R., and Gingras, D.
Eating Well, Living Well An Everyday Guide for
Optimum Health. McClelland Stewart Ltd.,
Toronto, 2009.
25
CANCER PREVENTION
Source Béliveau, R., and Gingras, D. Eating
Well, Living Well An Everyday Guide for Optimum
Health. McClelland Stewart Ltd., Toronto, 2009.
26
CANCER PREVENTION
Phytochemical plant compounds Pharmacological M
etabolic effects effects Anticancer
Cell Increased
Reduced cytotoxicity environment bioavailability
calorie intake Immuno- Anti-
Anti- Decrease modulator inflammatory angioge
nic in obesity
Source Béliveau, R., and Gingras, D. Eating
Well, Living Well An Everyday Guide for Optimum
Health. McClelland Stewart Ltd., Toronto, 2009.
27
CANCER PREVENTION
  • A dietary approach
  • Cruciferous vegetables ? high content of
    glucosinolates that act to increase our immune
    system reaction, as well as increasing free
    radicals that kill cancer cells
  • boiling causes a 75 loss of glucosinolate
    content
  • best steamed, microwaved, or stir-fried (al
    dente) ? no loss
  • Allium ? garlic, onions, chives, leeks
  • linked to sulphur compounds (eliminate toxic
    substances)
  • particularly helpful for stomach and colon
    cancer garlic also prevents cancer cell growth
  • Green tea ? rich source of catechins (1/3 of
    leaves weight) prevents microtumours from
    developing new blood vessels

28
CANCER PREVENTION
  • Citrus fruits ? anticancer effect probably
    linked to
  • monoterpenes ? block protein activity involved in
    tumour growth, as well as reducing tumours
    ability to invade adjacent tissue
  • Flavanones ? preserves blood vessel structure,
    preventing inflammation and depriving tumour of
    food
  • grapefruit compounds block the systems in the
    liver from eliminating anticancer molecules,
    increasing overall levels
  • Tomatoes ? anticancer effect probably due to
    lycopene
  • eat tomatoes cooked with some olive oil for max
    absorption

29
CANCER PREVENTION
  • Super fruits ? berries ? contain the polyphenols
    ellagic acid and delphinidin ? block angiogenesis
  • pomegranate ? high content of punicalin,
    punicalagin, and ellagic acid
  • antioxidant activity 3 times that of red wine or
    green tea
  • very helpful with prostate and lung cancer
  • Soy ? rich in phytoestrogens, specifically
    isoflavones
  • reduces risk of breast cancer only if consumed
    before puberty
  • not necessarily beneficial, could even increase
    cancer risk, in women who have already had or
    have breast cancer

30
CANCER PREVENTION
  • The role of inflammation
  • helps pre-cancerous cells develop into mature
    cancer cells by increasing DNA mutations caused
    by free radicals
  • Anti-inflammatory foods
  • Red wine ? resveratrol
  • Turmeric ? curcuma ? highest anticancer
    properties of all!
  • Ginger ? gingerol
  • Omega-3s ? produces DHA and EPA

31
CANCER PREVENTION
  • Immunomodulators
  • increase the ability of the immune system to
    identify and destroy any potentially harmful
    cells, including cancer cells
  • Foods as immunomodulators
  • Probiotics ? yogurt, fermented foods ?
    beneficial bacteria in the gut, specifically
    bifidobacteria, and lactobacillus acidophilus
  • increases immune function against foreign
    invaders
  • Mushrooms ? contain polysaccharides
  • lentinan in shiitake mushrooms increases
    leukocytic activity
  • blocks aromatase action ? beneficial for breast
    cancer

32
CANCER PREVENTION
  • Seaweed ? specifically kombu and wakame ? high
    content of
  • Fucoxanthin ? carotenoid family ? extremely high
    anticancer activity, specifically seen for
    prostate cancer (even higher than lycopene in
    tomatoes)
  • Fucoidan ? prevents growth of cancer cells
  • Cytotoxic activity as well
  • Reduces inflammation
  • Increases beneficial immune activity

33
TYPE-2 DIABETES
Global Incidence of Type-2 Diabetes
Source Lieberman, L.S. 2003. Dietary,
evolutionary, and modernizing influences on the
prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Annual Review of
Nutrition, 23 345-377.
34
PREVENTING TYPE-2 DIABETES
  • Adopting a healthy lifestyle can prevent up to
    90 of Type-2 diabetes cases!!!
  • Reduce simple sugars ? learn how to read food
    labels to find hidden sugar
  • In 2001, Canadians ate an average of 60 grams of
    sugar per day 12 teaspoons!
  • Look for the names sugar, sucrose, dextrose,
    fructose, corn
  • syrup, malt sugar, cane sugar/juice
  • 5 g 1 teaspoon
  • Use stevia, agave nectar, or xylitol as a
    sweetener

35
PREVENTING TYPE-2 DIABETES
  • Eat lower glycemic load foods ? calculated by
    multiplying the glycemic index (a measure of how
    a food increases blood sugar in comparison to
    pure glucose) by the amount of carbohydrates in a
    serving of food
  • Focuses on whole grains, vegetables, fruit, and
    legumes
  • In 2 major studies following health professionals
    over a span of 30 years (Nurses health study and
    Health professionals follow-up study) found that
    participants who ate the equivalent of a bowl of
    oatmeal and 2 pieces of whole wheat bread (7.5 g
    of whole grains) were 30 less likely to develop
    Type-2 diabetes than those who ate less than 2.5
    g per day

36
Source Foster-Powell, K., et al. 2002.
International table of glycemic index and
glycemic load values 2002. American Journal of
Clinical Nutrition, 76 5-56
37
PREVENTING TYPE-2 DIABETES
  • Make healthier fat choices ? certain saturated
    fats have been shown to indirectly cause insulin
    resistance (inflammation)
  • Omega-3 fats improve the insulin response of our
    organs, and oleic acid (olive oil) reduces
    inflammation, improving insulin response
  • Spices!
  • Cinnamon ? improves glucose tolerance, interferes
    with glycation products that harm blood vessels
  • Jamaican allspice, black pepper, and thyme ?
    block glycation
  • Turmeric ? reduce blood glucose, anti-inflammatory

38
HOW TO EAT
Source Marieb, E.N. Essentials of human anatomy
physiology, eighth edition. Pearson Education,
Inc., San Francisco, 2006.
39
HOW TO EAT
  • Do not eat big, heavy meals when you are stressed
  • Do not eat meals too late at night
  • Eat 5 smaller meals throughout the day
  • Eat with your family (unless they stress you out)
  • Eat at the dinner table
  • Take your time ? chew, chew, chew!
  • Eat food with a minimal ingredient list, or none
    at all
  • Eat food prepared with love!

40
WHY USE NUTRITION FOR HEALING?
  • Chimpanzee Example
  • Chimpanzees are able to choose specific foods,
    some that they would not normally eat, as
    effective treatments for parasites and injuries
    sustained from fighting
  • If chimps can do it, why cant we?
  • Cheap
  • Low incidence of side effects
  • Offers variety
  • Completely able to be personalized

41
FACING OPPOSITION
1 excuse for a patient not changing diet or
lifestyle IT RUNS IN MY FAMILY Genes load the
gun, but environment pulls the trigger. Dr.
David Heber (Director, UCLA Center for Human
Nutrition)
42
FACING OPPOSITION
  • studies on identical twins show that the risk of
    developing the same cancer is less than 15
  • adopted children whose adopted parents died of
    cancer ? 5 times cancer risk
  • if biological parents died of cancer ? no
    increased risk
  • Inuit in Canada eating the traditional diet high
    in fat had virtually no heart disease or
    atherosclerosis, but now have the highest rates
    of diabetes and heart disease when eating
    traditional western food
  • Japan has a very low incidence of breast and
    prostate cancer, but when Japanese people move to
    the US, their incidence becomes equal to that of
    an American

43
FACING OPPOSITION
  • 2 excuse for a patient not changing diet or
    lifestyle
  • I CAN JUST TAKE SUPPLEMENTS
  • supplements have been shown to have a decreased
    risk of certain cancers, CVD, and diabetes
  • have also been shown to increase risk in certain
    cases (breast cancer)
  • have none of the benefits of fiber
  • does not include social aspect of eating
  • to date, over 20,000 phytochemicals in food have
    been identified

44
FACING OPPOSITION
What your patients put in their mouth is one of
the things that they DO have control over
45
EATING LOCALLY CREATING MINDFULNESS
  • food is the one thing that every human being has
    in common
  • pay attention to what you are putting in your
    body ? if you cant pronounce it, dont eat it!
  • go to the local farmers market to see what is
    in season, whats fresh, and who is growing your
    food ? usually cheaper
  • what is in season usually indicates what your
    body needs for the climactic conditions around
    you ? light foods in summer, etc
  • fostering an attitude of appreciation for
    yourself and your children
  • take a minute before meals to appreciate how
    much work went into making this food ? easier
    when you know the farmer by name

46
WALKING INSTEAD OF RUNNING
  • start by increasing fruit and vegetable intake
    by 1 per day, increasing the total intake each
    week
  • drink more water by slowly diluting juice until
    entirely water
  • try green tea
  • start by making one entire meal from scratch ?
    Sunday dinners!
  • start a dinner time routine ? turn off the TV,
    stop reading a book, and just focus on the food
    in front of you
  • try one new food/fruit/vegetable per week
  • educate themselves ? take accountability and
    control for at least some portion of the state of
    their health
  • have patience? didnt get there overnight

47
Ashley Smyth, RHN, NNCPRegistered Holistic
Nutritionist85 Murray StChatham,
ON519.784.4731www.purevitality.ca
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