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Hieroglyphs

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Introduction. Part I. Hieroglyphs deciphered. a. The Rosetta Stone ... a. The Rosetta Stone ... The Rosetta Stone. British Museum, London. 7. b. Champollion ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hieroglyphs


1
Hieroglyphs
2
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Part I. Hieroglyphs deciphered
  • a. The Rosetta Stone
  • b. Champollion
  • Part II. How to read the hieroglyphs
  • a. The hieroglyphs
  • b. Alphabetic signs
  • c. Syllabic signs
  • d. Determinative signs
  • e. Numbers
  • Conclusion
  • References

3
Introduction
  • Hieroglyphs are pictures that were used to write
    the ancient Egyptian language
  • The language consisted of more then 750
    individual signs
  • Since the ancient language has never been heard,
    we are not sure how words were pronounced
  • The picture signs can be written from right to
    left from left to right or vertically, reading
    downwards
  • If they are facing right, the inscription is read
    from right to left

4
Part I. Hieroglyphs deciphered
  • The ancient Egyptian word for hieroglyphs,
    literally translated as language of the gods
  • Priests used hieroglyphs to write down prayers,
    magical texts, and texts related to life after
    death
  • When preparing their tombs, many people had
    autobiographies and hieroglyphic guides of the
    afterworld written on the surfaces of tomb walls
  • The Egyptians believed that these texts helped
    guide the dead through the afterlife
  • Civil officials used them to write royal
    documents of long-term importance, to record
    historical events

5
a. The Rosetta Stone
  • After the fall of ancient Egyptian civilization
    in 30 BC, the meaning of hieroglyphs remained a
    mystery for about 1,800 years
  • During the French occupation of Egypt from 1798
    to 1801, a group of French soldiers and engineers
    uncovered a large stone now known as the Rosetta
    Stone
  • It contains the same text written three different
    waysin hieroglyphs, in the demotic script, and
    in ancient Greek.
  • The stone was taken to Europe, where scholars
    translated the ancient Greek and used the
    information to decipher the other two texts

6
The Rosetta StoneBritish Museum, London
7
b. Champollion
  • In 1822, a French Egyptologist named Jean
    François Champollion figured out how to decipher
    hieroglyphic writing
  • He realized that the hieroglyphs that spelled
    "Ptolemy" were enclosed in a cartouche, so he was
    able to match it up to the Greek spelling
  • This discovery enabled him to equate the
    unfamiliar hieroglyphs with familiar Greek words
    and to translate the entire message
  • The writing was a message about Ptolemy V, who
    was ruling Egypt at the time

8
II. How to read the hieroglyphs
  • THERE are three forms of writing that were used
    to write the ancient Egyptian language
  • Hieroglyphs From the Greek meaning "sacred
    writing." this is the picture language that was
    used most often to decorate temples and monuments
  • Hieratic cursive form of writing, as script is
    to printed letters quicker to write since the
    picture quality of the language was reduced to a
    pattern of lines
  • Demotic means the people's writing shorthand
    version of the Hieratic script which was used
    during the Late Period

9
a. The hieroglyphs
  • Egyptian glyphs are divided into two groups
    phonograms, which are glyphs that represent
    sounds, and ideograms, which are glyphs that
    represent objects or ideas
  • The Egyptians constructed words by using a
    combination of the two types of glyphs
  • Readers must generally use both phonograms and
    ideograms to determine the significance of a word
    or phrase

10
b. Alphabetic signs
  • A single sound the Egyptians took most vowels for
    granted and did not represent them

11
c. Syllabic signs
  • represent a combination of two or three
    consonants

12
d. Determinative signs
  • A determinative is a picture of an object which
    helps the reader. if you have a name, Bob, and it
    is followed by the "man" glyph, you can assume
    that Bob is the name of a man
  • King
  • Man
  • Woman

13
e. Numbers
14
Conclusion
  • After the fall of ancient Egyptian civilization
    in 30 BC, the meaning of hieroglyphs remained a
    mystery for about 1,800 years
  • The work of deciphering the hieroglyphs went on
    after Champollions death and continues up to the
    present day, continually providing new
    information about life in ancient Egypt

15
References
  • http//members.aol.com/egyptnew/glyph.htmla
  • http//www.fnspo.cz/mmm/egypt/hiero/1.htm
  • http//www.rostau.org.uk/AEgyptian-L/
  • http//www.eyelid.co.uk/e-name.htm
  • http//www.neferchichi.com/hieroglyphs.html
  • http//www.neferchichi.com/godsinfo.html
  • http//www.neferchichi.com/pharaohs.html
  • http//encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.
    aspx?refid761573079
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