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U.S. in the 1970s

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Ronald Reagan. 1977-ERA passes 35 of 38 needed states ... Carter's reputation ruined in US, loses to Ronald Reagan. Iranians release hostages Jan 20, 1981 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: U.S. in the 1970s


1
U.S. in the 1970s
2
Women and Equality
  • 1972 Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
  • Equality of rights under the law shall not be
    denied or abridged by the United States or by any
    state on account of sex.
  • Passed Congress
  • Needed ratification by 38 of 50 states
  • Conservatives opposed
  • Draft women
  • Same sex marriage

3
Roe v Wade
  • 1973 Supreme Court case
  • Right to choose abortion within the first 3
    months of a pregnancy
  • Dividing Issue

4
Anti-feminism
  • Phyllis Schlafly
  • Worries over loss of status/responsibility of man
    as income-earner
  • Anti-Roe v Wade
  • New Right
  • Richard Nixon
  • Ronald Reagan

5
  • 1977-ERA passes 35 of 38 needed states
  • Had to be ratified before 1982-no other states
    sign
  • Women status improvements
  • 1970- 8 medical school grads, 5 law
  • 1992- 36 and 43
  • 1969-Women 3.5 elected state offices
  • 1996-25
  • 1975-19 Congresswomen
  • 1997-60

6
Nixon
  • New Federalism
  • Greater state control, less federal control
  • Revenue Sharing
  • State governments spent federal money how saw fit
    (to 1986)
  • Family Assistance Plan
  • Family of 4, no income-1,600 a year (8,800
    today)
  • Up to 4,000/year in supplemental
  • Job training, accept any reasonable work
    presented
  • House approved plan, Senate killed

7
Southern Strategy
  • Need the South in 1972 election
  • Appeal to hatred against Warren Court
  • Slow desegregation
  • There are those who want instant integration and
    those who want segregation forever. I believe we
    need to have a middle course between those two
    extremes.
  • Goes against Brown v. Board
  • NAACP sues

8
  • Opposes 1965 Voting Rights Act
  • Congress passes anyway
  • Opposed school busing
  • Supreme Court battles
  • Multiple attempts to fill 4 vacancies with
    conservative justices
  • Harry Blackmun, William H. Rehnquist, Lewis
    Powellconservative, but not always

9
Running the Country
  • Stagflation-rising inflation and unemployment
  • Deficit spending, W. Germ and Japan rising in
    trade, baby boomers inflate work-force,
    dependency on foreign oil
  • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
    (OPEC)
  • Wars in middle east, gas prices rise

10
Realpolitik
  • Henry Kissinger
  • Deal with communists
  • Dètente
  • Ease Cold War tensions

11
China
12
  • 1972- Beijing
  • Chinese government had not been recognized by
    U.S. since 1949
  • China, U.S. become tentative allies
  • Agree to settle disputes peacefully
  • Eventually reunite Taiwan with mainland

13
Nixon in Moscow
14
  • 1972-1st President to visit Soviet Union
  • Relations getting better
  • West Berlin given free access to west
  • East Germany officially recognized
  • SALT I Treaty
  • Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
  • Limit nuclear weapons

15
Election of 1972
  • George McGovern (Dem)
  • Richard Nixon (Rep)

16
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17
Vietnam
  • Kissinger negotiating with N. Vietnamese
  • Talks break off Dec 1972
  • Christmas Bombings
  • 11 days
  • 100,000 bombs
  • U.S. congress, China, USSR want to end war
  • January 27, 1973 Peace Agreement

18
Peace Agreement
  • U.S. troops leave by March 29, 1973
  • North Vietnamese troops stay in S. Vietnam
  • Cease-fire between N, S Vietnam

19
Broken
  • 1975, North invades South
  • US refuses to send soldiers
  • April, North Vietnamese take Saigon, South
    Vietnam surrenders

20
Vietnam
  • US-58,000 dead, 365,000 wounded
  • Vietnamese- 1.5 million dead
  • War spreads to Cambodia
  • Problems among Vietnam Vets
  • Congress passes War Powers Act 1973
  • President must notify Congress within 48 hours if
    deploy US forces without declaration of war

21
Cambodia
  • Civil War 1975
  • Pol Pot and Khmer Rouge
  • Cambodian Killing fields
  • 2 million die

22
Watergate
23
  • Oct 1973 Spiro Agnew resigns
  • Bribes as vice-president
  • Minority leader Gerald Ford nominated and
    confirmed V.P.
  • Nixon a tax-evader!
  • I am not a crook
  • Watergate attention in 1974
  • Discloses tapes
  • Aug 8,1974, Nixon resigns

24
Gerald R. Ford
  • Aug 8, 1974
  • Pardons Nixon
  • Inflation
  • 6-11
  • Call Americans to cut back on oil and gas usage
  • Cut Govt spending, raise interest rates
  • RECESSION

25
Ford vs Congress
  • Ford Republican, Congress Democratic
  • Ford vetoes Congressional bills on health,
    education, housing
  • Argue govt spending will only increase money
    problems
  • President 2 years50 vetoes
  • Inflation stabilizes, but does not greatly improve

26
Ford and Cambodia
  • Kissinger
  • Helsinki Accords
  • East-West Relations
  • 1975 Cambodians take Mayaguez
  • 2 Missiles/Send Marines to rescue crew
  • Save 39, 41 soldiers die
  • Mixed reactions

27
1976 Elections
  • Ford vs Jimmy Carter
  • Carter Gov. of Georgia, Born-again-Christian,
    Peanut Farmer, all around nice guy
  • Outsider

28
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29
Carter Administration
  • Nice guy, alienated President
  • Energy Crisis
  • Ask Americans to cut oil and gas
  • Proposals fought by oil-execs, gas producing
    states, automobile industry
  • National Energy Act
  • Tax gasoline
  • Tax credits for alternative energy
  • 1979, less oil consumption

30
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31
Carter and Human Rights
  • Cut Military aid to Argentina, Brazil, Nicaragua
  • Bureau of Human Rights
  • Anger among anti-communists

32
Panama Canal
  • 1977- Treaty to return Panama Canal Dec. 31, 1999
  • Divided public opinion

33
SALT II
34
  • Carter and Brezhnev June 1979
  • Limit production of nuclear missiles
  • Senate opposesweaken America
  • Dec 1979-USSR invades Afghanistan
  • Carter calls Brezhnev, deal is off

35
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36
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37
Middle East
  • Camp David Accords
  • Anwar el-Sadat (Egypt)
  • Menachem Begin (Israel)
  • Cease fighting since 1948
  • Re-draw boundaries
  • Egypt first ME country to recognize Israel as a
    state
  • Peace in Palestine fails

38
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39
Iran
  • US/Iran allies from 1953
  • US removes Mohammed Mossadegh
  • Nationalized Oil
  • British oil company, Anglo-Iranian Oil Company
    loses oil

40
  • Mohammad Reza Pahlavi put in as Shah
  • Corrupt government, western style
  • Muslims hate
  • Secret police, torture, jail, kill
  • AIOC returns, renamed British Petroleum

41
Ayatollah Ruhollah Knomeini
  • Jan 1979-revolution
  • New theocratic government based on the Quran

42
Problems
  • Carter allows shah to enter US for cancer
    treatment
  • Khomeini mad/Iranians mad
  • Nov 4, 1979, Iranian students attack US embassy,
    take 52 Americans hostage
  • Demand to return shah
  • Carter refuses

43
  • Attempts to rescue
  • Failed
  • Election year 1980
  • Carters reputation ruined in US, loses to Ronald
    Reagan
  • Iranians release hostages Jan 20, 1981
  • Insult to Carter

44
Environmentalism in 1970s
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