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Revolutionary War ... at Lexington and the America

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Revolutionary War ... at Lexington and the American Revolutionary War had begun ... and on July 14 a crowd stormed the Bastille to seize weapons and ammunition ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Revolutionary War ... at Lexington and the America


1
Democracy American and French Revolutions Theme
The effect of Enlightenment ideas on government
and society
  • Lesson 10

2
Enlightenment (Where we left off on Lesson 4)
Abbé Delille recites a poem in the salon of
Madame Geoffrin, site of many gatherings of the
Enlightenment philosophes
3
Impact of the Scientific Revolution
  • Suggested that rational analysis of behavior and
    institutions could have meaning in the human as
    well as the natural world
  • Increasingly, thinkers challenged recognized
    authorities such as Aristotelian philosophy and
    Christian religion and sought to explain the
    world in purely rational terms
  • The result was a movement known as the
    Enlightenment

4
John Locke (1632-1704)
  • Studied the relationship between the individual
    and the state
  • Wrote An Essay Concerning Human Understanding in
    1689
  • Largely anti-authoritarian
  • Opposition is both on the level of the individual
    person and on the level of institutions such as
    government and church

5
John Locke
  • Individuals should use reason to search after
    truth rather than simply accepting the opinion of
    authorities or being subject to superstition
  • Proportion assent to propositions to the evidence
    for them
  • There must be a distinction between the
    legitimate and illegitimate functions of
    institutions
  • Based on those distinctions, there is a
    corresponding distinction for the uses of force
    by those institutions.
  • By using reason to try to grasp the truth and by
    determining the legitimate functions of
    institutions, the individual and society will
    flourish materially and spiritually

6
John Locke
  • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) had described a social
    contract in which people in a state of nature
    ceded their individual rights to a strong
    sovereign in return for his protection
  • Locke offered a new social contract theory in
    which people contracted with one another for a
    particular kind of government, and that they
    could modify or even abolish the government
  • Great influence on Thomas Jefferson and the
    Declaration of Independence

7
Voltaire
  • Wrote Candide in 1759 in which he analyzes the
    problem of evil in the world and depicts the woes
    heaped upon the world in the name of religion
  • His battle cry against the Roman Catholic Church
    was ecrasez linfame (crush the damned thing)

8
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
  • Many Enlightenment thinkers condemned the legal
    and social privileges enjoyed by aristocrats and
    called for a society in which all individuals
    were equal before the law
  • In 1762, Rousseau wrote The Social Contract
    arguing that members of a society were
    collectively the sovereign
  • All individuals would participate directly in the
    formulation of policy and the creation of laws

9
American Revolution New Legislation
  • In the mid-18th Century, British colonists in
    North America seemed content with British rule,
    but in the mid-1760s things started to change
  • Trying to recover financial losses from the
    French and Indian War (1754-1763) and the Seven
    Years War (1756-1763), the British passed a
    series of new taxes on the colonies
  • Sugar Act (1764)
  • Stamp Act (1765)
  • Townsend Act (1767)
  • Tea Act (1773)
  • Other offensive legislation included the
    Quartering Act of 1765

10
American Revolution Colonial Response
  • The colonists responded with demands of no
    taxation without representation, boycotted
    British products, attacked British officials, and
    staged the Boston Tea Party (1773)
  • Consistent with Rousseau
  • In 1774, they organized the Continental Congress
    which coordinated the colonies resistance to
    British policies

11
American Revolution Declaration of Independence
  • On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress adopted
    The Unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united
    States of America (The Declaration of
    Independence)

12
American Revolution Declaration of Independence
  • all men are created equal, that they are endowed
    by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights,
    that among these are Life, Liberty, and the
    pursuit of Happiness
  • Governments derive their power and authority from
    the consent of the governed
  • When any government infringes upon individuals
    rights, it is the Right of the People to alter
    or abolish it, and to institute new Government
  • Declared the colonies to be Free and Independent
    States

13
Revolutionary War
  • Declaring yourself to be Free and Independent
    States and making it so were two different
    things
  • On April 18, 1775, British troops and colonial
    militia skirmished at Lexington and the American
    Revolutionary War had begun
  • By the rude bridge that arched the flood,
  • Their flag to April's breeze unfurled,
  • Here once the embattled farmers stood,
  • And fired the shot heard round the world.
  • --Ralph Waldo Emerson

14
Colonial Troops Aug 1776
  • 28,000 soldiers
  • Average soldier was 20 years old with less than a
    year of service
  • Muskets, bayonets, light field guns
  • Two or three ranks of infantry supported by light
    field guns
  • Used simplified British tactics (experience from
    Seven Years War)
  • No Navy
  • Great disparity in quality between militia and
    Continental Army
  • Many generals were imposed upon General George
    Washington by Congress or state governments

15
British Troops Aug 1776
  • 24,000 soldiers
  • Average soldier was 30 years old with 10 years
    service
  • Muskets, bayonets, light field guns
  • Two or three ranks of infantry supported by light
    field guns
  • Powerful Navy (30 warships, 400 transports)
  • More experienced, better led, more thoroughly
    disciplined and trained
  • General William Howe knew generals from their
    Seven Years War record

16
The Difference
  • What gave the colonists hope was the opportunity
    to be gained by courage, cause, the home court
    advantage, and patriotism
  • Unlike earlier European dynastic squabbles, the
    American Revolution was an ideological war that
    affected the population
  • Remember, officers and soldiers, that you are
    freemen, fighting for the blessings of liberty
    that slavery will be your portion and that of
    your posterity if you do not acquit yourselves
    like men.
  • George Washington

17
Trenton
  • The British defeated the colonists at Long Island
    in Aug 1776 and followed up their success with a
    series of landings on Manhattan Island
  • Compelled Washington to retreat, escaping finally
    over the Delaware River into Pennsylvania with
    about 3,000 men.
  • Howe then went into winter quarters.

18
Trenton
  • In December 1776, Washington determined to make a
    surprise attack on the British garrison in
    Trenton, a 1,400-man Hessian force
  • Took advantage of British being in winter
    quarters and in poorly defended, dispersed
    locations
  • Bad weather and limited visibility
  • Christmas had reduced British security
  • Hoped that a striking victory would lift the
    badly flagging American morale.
  • Reinforcements had raised Washingtons army to
    about 7,000

Continental Soldier by Don Troiani
19
Trenton
  • On Christmas night (December 25-26) Washington
    ferried about 2,400 men of across the ice-choked
    Delaware River at McConkeys Ferry above Trenton
    and then proceeded by two columns on different
    routes, converging at opposite ends of the main
    street in Trenton

20
Trenton
  • At 800 a.m. the colonists converged on Trenton
    in two columns, achieving complete surprise.
    After only an hour and a half of fighting, the
    Hessians surrendered.
  • Some 400 of the garrison escaped southward to
    Bordentown, N. J., when two other American
    columns failed to get across the Delaware in time
    to intercept them.
  • About 30 were killed and 918 captured. American
    losses were only 4 dead and about the same number
    wounded.

21
Cowpens
  • Nathanael Greene was commander in the Carolinas
    and Georgia
  • Only a little over 1,000 Continentals and bands
    of ill-disciplined militia against Cornwallis
    10,000 men
  • Had to create circumstances to achieve success

22
Cowpens
  • Greene divided his army into two divisions which
    he posted to the northwest and northeast of
    Cornwallis camp at Winnsboro
  • Allowed him to better feed his own men, sustain
    the militia, and harass the British
  • Tempted Cornwallis to divide his main body,
    making it more vulnerable
  • Cornwallis did this in Jan 1781, sending 1,100
    men (commanded by Tarleton) to attack Greenes
    western division (commanded by Daniel Morgan)

23
Cowpens
  • Americans suffered 6.2 losses (12 killed and 60
    wounded)
  • British suffered 90 losses
  • Cornwallis became obsessed with Morgan and turned
    to pursue him
  • Morgan retreated into Virginia
  • In a month Cornwallis had marched 225 miles
    without achieving decisive battle

Daniel Morgan
24
Yorktown
  • From Aug 21 to Sept 26, 1781 Washington and
    Rochambeau (French) marched their armies from New
    York to Virginia
  • Simultaneously, De Grasse (French) sealed off the
    Chesapeake with the Navy
  • Objective was to trap and defeat Cornwallis army
    on the York Peninsula

25
Yorktown
  • Battle would begin with two parallel siege lines
    followed by an assault
  • Allies had an overwhelming advantage in numbers
    (16,000 to fewer than 8,000)
  • On Oct 19, the British surrendered and in Sept
    1783 they formally recognized American
    independence

26
The United States
  • In 1787, Americans drafted the Constitution of
    the United States which created a federal
    government based on popular sovereignty
  • The Bill of Rights in particular stressed
    individual liberties such as freedom of speech,
    the press, and religion
  • However, not everyone was granted full political
    and legal equality, only white men of property
  • Equality for all Americans would be an on-going
    struggle for many years, but still the early
    understanding of freedom, equality, and popular
    sovereignty in America would have broad
    implications throughout the world
  • Remember Emersons shot heard round the world

27
French Revolution Ancien Regime
  • The Americans sought independence from British
    imperial rule, but they kept British law and much
    of the British social and cultural heritage
  • On the other hand, French revolutionaries sought
    to replace the ancien regime (the old order)
    with new political, social, and cultural
    structures

28
French Revolution Estates General
  • In May 1789, in an effort to raise taxes, King
    Louis XVI convened the Estates General, an
    assembly representing the entire French
    population through three groups known as estates

King Louis XVI
29
French Revolution Estates General
  • The first estate was about 100,000 Roman Catholic
    clergy
  • The second estate was about 400,000 nobles
  • The third estate was about 24 million others
    (serfs, free peasants, laborers)
  • In spite of these numerical discrepancies, each
    estate had one vote

ancien regime
30
French Revolution Estates General
  • The third estate demanded sweeping political and
    social reform, but the other two estates resisted
  • On June 20, 1789, the third estate seceded from
    the Estates General and declared itself the
    National Assembly

Marie Antoinette
31
French Revolution National Assembly
  • The National Assembly vowed not to disband until
    France had a written constitution
  • This assertion of popular sovereignty spread to
    Paris and on July 14 a crowd stormed the Bastille
    to seize weapons and ammunition
  • The garrison surrendered in the wake of great
    bloodshed
  • The attackers severed the commanders head and
    paraded it through the streets on a pike
  • Insurrections spread throughout France

Storming of the Bastille
32
French Revolution Declaration
  • In Aug 1789, the National Assembly issued the
    Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
  • Obviously influenced by the American Revolution
    and the Declaration of Independence
  • Proclaimed the equality of all men, declared that
    sovereignty resided in the people, and asserted
    individual rights to liberty, prosperity, and
    security

33
Reforms of the National Assembly
  • Reconfigured French society
  • Ended the fees and labor services the peasants
    owed their landlords
  • Seized church lands
  • Abolished the first estate and defined clergy as
    civilians
  • Required clergy to take an oath of loyalty to the
    state
  • Made the king the chief executive but deprived
    him of legislative authority (a constitutional
    monarchy)
  • Men of property could vote for legislators

The motto of the National Assembly was Liberty,
equality, fraternity
34
The Convention
  • Alarmed by the disintegration of monarchial
    authority, the rulers of Austria and Prussia
    invaded France to support the king and restore
    the ancien regime
  • The revolutionaries responded by establishing the
    Convention, a new legislative body elected by
    universal male suffrage
  • The Convention abolished the monarchy and
    proclaimed France a republic

35
The Convention
  • Drafted people and resources for use in the war
    through the levee en masse (universal
    conscription)
  • A move toward total war
  • Used the guillotine to execute enemies to include
    King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette in 1793
    for treason

36
Maximilian Robespierre (1758-1794)
  • Led the radical Jacobin party which believed
    France needed complete restructuring and used a
    campaign of terror to promote their agenda
  • Dominated the Convention from 1793-1794

37
Robespierre and the Jacobins
  • Sought to eliminate the influence of Christianity
  • Closed churches
  • Forced priests to take wives
  • Promoted a new cult of reason as a secular
    alternative
  • Devised a new calendar which recognized no day of
    religious observance
  • Between the summers of 1793 and 1794, the
    Jacobins executed 40,000 people and imprisoned
    300,000

"It is dreadful but necessary" ("Cest affreux
mais nécessaire"), from the Journal d'Autre
Monde, 1794.
38
The Directory
  • Many of the victims of the reign of terror were
    fellow radicals who had fallen out of favor with
    Robespierre and the Jacobins
  • In July 1794, the Convention arrested Robespierre
    and his allies, convicted them of treason, and
    executed them
  • A group of conservative men of property seized
    power and ruled from 1795 to 1799 under a new
    institution called the Directory
  • The Directory sought a middle way between the
    ancien regime and radical revolution but had
    little success
  • In Nov 1799,Napoleon Bonaparte staged a coup
    detat and seized power

39
Napoleon (1769-1821)
  • Was an officer under King Louis XVI and had
    become a general at age 24
  • In a campaign of 1796-1797, he drove the
    Austrians from northern Italy and established
    French rule there

40
Napoleon (1769-1821)
  • In 1799, he returned to France and joined the
    Directory, but when Austria, Russia, and Britain
    formed a coalition to attack France and end the
    Revolution, Napoleon staged a coup
  • He overthrew the Directory, imposed a new
    constitution, and named himself first consul
  • In 1802, he became consul for life and in 1804
    crowned himself emperor

41
Napoleon The Concordat
  • Brought stability to France
  • Made peace with the Catholic Church
  • Concluded the Concordat with the pope in 1801
  • France would retain the church lands seized
    during the Revolution, but France agreed to pay
    priests salaries, recognize Roman Catholic
    Christianity as the preferred faith of France,
    and extend freedom of religion to Protestants and
    Jews
  • Was a popular measure with people who supported
    the political and social goals of the revolution
    but didnt want to replace Christianity with the
    cult of reason

42
Napoleon Civil Code
  • In 1804,Napoleon established the Civil Code which
    further stabilized France
  • Affirmed the political and legal equality of all
    adult men
  • Established a merit-based society in which
    individuals qualified for education and
    employment because of talent rather than birth or
    social standing
  • Protected private property, even allowing
    aristocratic opponents of the Revolution to
    return to France and reclaim their property
  • Confirmed many of the moderate revolutionary
    policies of the National Assembly but removed
    many measures passed by the more radical
    Convention

43
Napoleon as Authoritarian
  • Limited free speech, routinely censoring
    newspapers
  • Established a secret police force and detained
    thousands of political opponents
  • Manipulated public opinion through systematic
    propaganda
  • Ignored elective bodies
  • Surrounded himself with loyal military officers
  • Set his family above and apart from the French
    people

Joseph Fouche, head of Napoleons secret police
44
End of Napoleons Empire
  • In 1812, Napoleon decided to invade Russia,
    believing that the Russians were conspiring with
    the British
  • Napoleon and his Grand Army of 600,000 soldiers
    captured Moscow, but the Russians refused to
    surrender
  • Instead, Russian patriots burned the city,
    leaving Napoleon without supplies or shelter

45
End of Napoleons Empire
  • Napoleon was forced to retreat
  • Defeated by General Winter
  • Only 30,000 soldiers made it back to France
  • The defeat in Russia emboldened a coalition of
    British, Austrian, Prussian, and Russian armies
    to converge on France
  • Forced Napoleon to abdicate his throne in April
    1814

An episode from the retreat from Russia, by
Nicolas-Toussaint Charlet
46
End of Napoleons Empire
  • The coalition restored the French monarchy and
    exiled Napoleon to the island of Elba, near
    Corsica
  • In March 1815, Napoleon escaped, returned to
    France, and reconstituted his army
  • This time the British defeated him at Waterloo
    and banished Napoleon to the remote island of St.
    Helena in the south Atlantic
  • He died in 1821

47
Other Impacts
  • The Enlightenment ideals and the American and
    French Revolutions also influenced
  • The Saint Domingue slave revolt (Lesson 5)
  • Simon Bolivar in South America (Lesson 5)
  • The abolition movement (Lesson 5)
  • The Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the
    Female Citizen
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton and womens rights
    movements

48
Compare and Contrast
49
Next
  • Part 1 Russian Revolution and Communism
  • Part 2 Fascism and National Socialism

Street demonstration in Petrograd, July 4, 1917
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