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European explorers were motivated by God, Glory and Gold in seeking new trade routes what do these t

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Title: European explorers were motivated by God, Glory and Gold in seeking new trade routes what do these t


1
European explorers were motivated by God, Glory
and Gold in seeking new trade routes what do
these three Gs refer to
  • spread of Christianity
  • gaining fame for European countries
  • bringing home riches

2
The average ship was 65 feet long. It was
versatile and had triangular sails for
maneuverability and square sails for power
  • caravel

3
An improved navigational technique which made it
easier to determine a ships location at sea a
brass circle with carefully adjusted rings marked
off in degrees eventually replaced by the
sextant
  • astrolabe

4
Two Chinese inventions that helped early European
explorers
  • magnetic compass
  • gunpowder

5
The Renaissance can be said to have played a part
in launching an age of exploration because it
encouraged a new spirit of __________ and
__________ the Renaissance gave people
confidence in their own abilities
  • adventure
  • curiosity

6
The European revival of art and learning (about
1300-1600) that introduced new ideas and values
  • Renaissance

7
The Renaissance began in the city-states of what
would later be known as this country
  • Italy

8
The Renaissance lasted from _____ to _____ AD
  • 1350
  • 1600

9
Renaissance thinkers were most often humanists
which meant that they focused on human __________
and __________
  • potential
  • achievements

10
Political rulers during the time of the
Renaissance and also supporters of the arts -
the __________ family
  • Medici

11
A religious reform movement begun by Martin
Luther when he wrote the 95 Theses against
selling pardons
  • Reformation

12
A member of a non-Catholic Christian church
  • Protestant

13
The religious treaty in which German princes
agreed that each ruler would decided his states
religion
  • Peace of Augsburg

14
A movement to reform the Catholic Church from
within
  • Catholic Reformation

15
A meeting of Catholic leaders (1545-1563) that
banned the selling of indulgences and helped
unify the Church
  • Council of Trent

16
An intellectual movement which people studies
classical texts and focused on human achievement
  • humanism

17
The concern with worldly, rather than spiritual,
matters it became the tone of Renaissance society
  • secular

18
A Church leader, merchant, or wealthy family that
provided financial support to artists
  • patron

19
A painting technique used by Renaissance painters
that shows three dimensions on a flat surface
  • perspective

20
The most famous playwright and poet of the
Elizabethan Age he wrote tragedies and comedies
in English
  • William Shakespeare

21
He developed a printing press (around 1440) the
Bible was the first full-sized book he printed
on it
  • Johann Gutenberg

22
A Church pardon that released a sinner from
performing the penalty imposed for sins
  • indulgence

23
A member of the religious group that grew from
Martin Luthers attempts to reform the Catholic
Church
  • Lutheran

24
To set aside, or void, a marriage, in the
Catholic Church, the pope could take such action
  • annul

25
The Calvinist doctrine that God has known since
the beginning of time who will receive salvation
  • predestination

26
Charles the Great, the Frankish king under whom
Germanic power, the Church, and Roman heritage
were united
  • Charlemagne

27
In feudalism, the person who received land from a
lord in exchange for military protection or other
services
  • vassal

28
A person in the Middle Ages, including most
peasants, who was bound to the land whatever was
produced belonged to the feudal lord
  • serf

29
A medieval lords estate it operated on a system
of economic arrangements
  • manor

30
The Black Death was brought to Europe on ships
that journeyed from this sea
  • Black Sea

31
This institution played the most important role
in uniting European culture during the Middle Ages
  • the Church

32
The medieval period in Europe (about 500-1500),
characterized by small kingdoms and church
influence
  • Middle Ages

33
A term used to distinguish worldly life and power
from the spiritual realm
  • secular

34
A male landowner in the feudal system of the
Middle Ages
  • lord

35
A grant of feudal land to a vassal in the Middle
Ages
  • fief

36
The mounted horseman who pledged to defend his
lords land in exchange for a feudal land grant
  • knight

37
A church tax paid to the village priest, which
was one-tenth of a peasant familys income
  • tithe

38
A form of government in which power rests with
citizens who have the right to vote for their
leaders
  • republic

39
The aristocratic branch of Romes government,
which had both legislative and administrative
functions
  • senate

40
Unchallenged ruler, known as the exalted one,
who stabilized Romes frontier and set up a civil
service
  • Augustus (Octavian)

41
Carpenter and preacher born in Bethlehem (about 6
to 4 BC) whose teachings led to a new religion
  • Jesus

42
The Roman emperor who credited a battle victory
to help from the Christian god he ended the
persecution of Christians
  • Constantine

43
A drastic drop in the value of money accompanied
by a rise in prices
  • inflation

44
In the early Roman republic, the group of wealthy
landowners who inherited most of the power
  • patrician

45
Common farmers, artisans, and merchants, who were
the majority of the population in the early
Roman republic the working class
  • plebeians

46
Conflict between __________ and __________ was a
problem throughout Romes history
  • patricians
  • plebians

47
Romes government after the overthrow of the last
monarch could be described as a move from
__________ to one run by __________
  • Republic
  • emperors

48
A series of wars between Rome and Carthage
between 264 and 146 BC
  • Punic Wars

49
Romes contributions to western civilization
three main ones
  • equal application of laws to all citizens
  • republican form of government
  • use of the arch and the dome in architecture

50
The period of peace and prosperity in Rome that
began in 27 BC and lasted for 207 years
  • Pax Romana

51
Characteristics of the Pax Romana would include
these four things
  • efficient government
  • efficient administration of the government
  • growth of the empire
  • peace throughout the empire

52
The exile of the Jews that began in AD 70, after
Jerusalem fell to the Romans and the Jewish
temple was destroyed
  • Diaspora

53
Originally called Byzantium, the city in the East
that became the new capital of the Roman Empire
in AD 330
  • Constantinople

54
A structure designed by the Romans to bring water
to cities and towns it used arches to span rivers
  • aqueduct

55
The legendary ten-year war fought by the
Mycenaeans against Troy during the 1200s BC the
subject of The Iliad
  • Trojan War

56
The blind storyteller who composed The Iliad
and other epics between 750 and 700 BC
  • Homer

57
The main political unit in ancient Greece a
city-state made up of a city and its surrounding
countryside
  • polis

58
Government in which citizens participate directly
in political decision making without
representatives
  • direct democracy

59
A pupil of Aristotle, he conquered lands from
Greece to the Indus Valley from 336 to 306 BC
  • Alexander the Great

60
A term for the blend of Greek, Egyptian, Persian
and Indian culture that emerged from Alexanders
conquests
  • Hellenistic

61
The Golden Age of Athens was a time period with
the greatest achievements in these two areas
  • arts and science

62
A fear which partly explains why democratic ideas
were expanded in ancient Greece
  • fear of rebellion among
  • the lower classes

63
These two Aegean civilizations came before the
Greeks
  • Minoans
  • Mycenaens

64
This geographic obstacle prevented the Greeks
from uniting under a single government
  • mountains

65
A government controlled by a small group of
noble, landowning families
  • aristocracy

66
A government ruled by a few wealthy and powerful
people
  • oligarchy

67
He developed a question-and-answer approach to
teaching and believed in absolute standards for
truth and justice
  • Socrates

68
The wars between Greece and the Persian Empire
that lasted from 490 to 479 BC
  • Persian Wars

69
The war between Sparta and Athens (431-404 BC)
that ended Athenian empire, wealth and power
  • Peloponnesian War
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