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UNIT 5 TEST HISTOLOGY AND HUMAN ORGANIZATION

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Vitamin E D. Skin lesions. Vitamin A E. Vision problems. Vitamin B2 F. ... 4. Vitamin E A. Fatigue numbness tingling in hands. 5. Vitamin A E. Vision problems ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: UNIT 5 TEST HISTOLOGY AND HUMAN ORGANIZATION


1
UNIT 5 TEST HISTOLOGY AND HUMAN ORGANIZATION
  • Review

2
Question
  • Identify the following tissue. Where in the body
    would
  • you find this tissue?

3
Answer
  • The following tissue is cuboidal epithelial
    tissue and it would be located in any gland in
    the body like the pancreas, thyroid, or adrenal
    gland

4
Question
  • Identify the following epithelial tissue.

5
Answer
  • The following tissue is pseudostratified ciliated
    columnar epithelial tissue found in the trachea
    of the respiratory tract.

6
Question
  • Identify the following epithelial tissue?

7
Answer
  • The following epithelial tissue is squamous
    epithelial found in the lungs, lining of hollow
    organs and our skin.

8
Question
  • What are 3 functions of the following tissue.

9
Answer
  • The function of the following tissue ADIPOSE is
  • Insulation
  • Long term energy storage
  • Protect organs
  • Myelin surrounding nerves
  • Androgens (testosterone and estrogen)

10
Question
  • What are 3 functions of the following tissue.

11
Answer
  • The following tissue is BONE and is used for
  • Protection of vital organs
  • Produce all blood components
  • Storage of minerals and fat soluble vitamins
  • Storage of fats
  • Support and structure and for muscle attachment

12
Question
  • Identify the following connective tissue. Where
    would
  • you find this tissue in the body?

13
Answer
  • The following tissue is cartilage and would be
    found in the trachea and between bones
    (vertebrae) also your ears and nose
  • are made up of
  • cartilage.

14
Question
  • Identify the following tissue. What are the three
    kinds
  • of cells in this micrograph?

15
Answer
  • The following tissue is BLOOD. The three
    distinct cells below are
  • RBCs for transport
  • of gases
  • WBCs for fighting
  • infections
  • Platelets for blood
  • clotting

16
Question
  • Identify the following tissue? How are these
    cells
  • designed for their function?

17
Answer
  • The following tissue nerve tissue made up of many
    neurons which have many branching axons and
    dendrites to increase surface area.

18
Question
  • Identify the following muscle tissue and explain
    where
  • in the body you would might find this tisue?

19
Answer
  • The following tissue is smooth muscle tissue and
    some organs made up of this tissue are
  • Urinary bladder
  • Venis and arteries
  • Stomach
  • Intestines
  • Rectum
  • Esophagus
  • Uterus

20
Question
  • Identify the following muscle tissue and describe
    how it is designed for its function

21
Answer
  • The following tissue is cardiac muscle tissue and
    it contracts involuntarily and never fatigues
    because it is made up of both smooth and skeletal
    muscle. .

22
Question
  • Identify the following muscle tissue and give
    another
  • name for this tissue? Name an organ made up of
    this
  • tissue

23
Answer
  • The following tissue is skeletal muscle tissue
    otherwise known as striated or voluntary muscle.
    It is found in all skeletal muscles like the
    triceps and biceps.

24
Question
  • Name 3 organs found in each of the following
    systems
  • ENDOCRINE
  • RESPIRATORY
  • IMMUNE

25
Answer
  • ENDOCRINE adrenal, pituitary, thyroid, pancreas
  • RESPIRATORY trachea, lungs, bronchi, bronchioles
  • IMMUNE spleen, appendix, tonsils, lymph nodes

26
Question
  • Why is the pancreas considered both an exocrine
  • gland and an endocrine gland?

27
Answer
  • The pancreas produces INSULIN and GLUCAGON
  • which are hormones and they go directly into the
  • blood stream so it is an endocrine gland and it
    also
  • produces DIGESTIVE ENZYMES and SODIUM
  • BICARBONATE which go through a duct directly
  • into the duodenum so it is considered an exocrine
  • gland

28
Question
  • Why is blood considered a tissue and skin is
  • considered an organ.

29
Answer
  • Blood is a tissue because it consists of many
    cells which combined carry out a specific
    function.
  • Skin is an organ because it is made up of several
    kinds of tissue like epithelial, muscle, nerve
    and connective tissue.

30
Question
  • What is the role of the following in digestion?
  • Peristalsis
  • Epiglottis
  • Sphincter
  • Emulsification
  • Lacteal

31
Answer
  • Peristalsis is muscular contractions to aid in
    the movement of food through the GI tract
  • Epiglottis prevents food from entering the
    trachea
  • Sphincter regulate food passing through the GI
    tract (valves)
  • Emulsification is done by the chemical bile which
    increases surface area of fats
  • Lacteal is in each villi and this is where fats
    are absorbed.

32
Question
  • Identify the following organs

33
Answer
  • Esophagus
  • Bile duct
  • Stomach
  • Pancreas
  • Intestine
  • Colon
  • Rectum
  • Appendix
  • Duodenum
  • Gall bladder
  • Liver

34
Question
  • What sphincter is found at the top of the stomach
    and which one is found at the bottom?

35
Answer
  • The CARDIAC SPHINCTER is located at the top of
    the stomach and PYLORIC SPHINCTER is located
    before the duodenum.

36
Question
  • What are four chemicals found in pancreatic
    juices and give the function of each.

37
Answer
  • The chemicals in pancreatic juices are
  • S- sodium bicarbonate which neutralizes the acid
    from the stomach raising the pH to 8.5
  • A -amylase is necessary for the chemical
    digestion of starch into maltose
  • L -lipase is used to break down fats into fatty
    acids and glycerols
  • T- trypsin (trypsinogen) is necessary for the
    hydrolysis of proteins (polypeptides) into
    peptides

38
Question
  • Give 5 functions of the liver.

39
Answer
  • The liver is the largest internal organ and is
    vital to our survival because of the many roles
    it has
  • Detoxifies the blood
  • Produces blood proteins
  • Heats our blood
  • Stores glucose as glycogen
  • Breaks down amino acids and blood cells
  • Produces urea from ammonia
  • Stores fat soluble vitamins and minerals
  • Produces bile for the emulsification of fats

40
Question
  • What is the enzyme and product for each of the
    following substrates (foods)?
  • a) starch
  • b) protein
  • c) fats
  • d) nucleic acids
  • e) maltose
  • f) sucrose
  • g) peptides

41
Answer
  • a) Starch -gt salivary and pancreatic amylase
    breaks down starch into maltose
  • b) Protein -gt pepsin and trypsin break down
    proteins into peptide chains
  • c) Fats -gt lipase breaks down fats into
    fatty acids and glycerol
  • d) Nucleic acids -gt are broken down by nuclease
    into nucleotides
  • e) Maltose -gt is broken down by maltase into
    glucose
  • f) Sucrose -gt is broken down by sucrase into
    glucose
  • g) Peptides -gt are broken down by peptidases
    into
  • amino acids

42
Question
  • What are the optimum pHs for each of the
    following enzymes?
  • a) salivary amylase
  • b) pepsin
  • c) trypsin
  • d) lipase
  • e) nuclease
  • f) peptidase
  • g) maltase

43
Answer
  • a) salivary amylase mouth pH of 7
  • b) pepsin stomach pH of 2
  • c) trypsin duodenum pH of 8
  • d) lipase duodenum pH of 8
  • e) nuclease duodenum pH of 8
  • f) peptidase small intestines pH of 8.5
  • g) maltase small intestines pH of 8.5

44
Question
  • What is the role of INSULIN and GLUCAGON in
    maintaining homeostasis?

45
Answer
  • Insulin lowers the sugar levels after you have
    just eaten a meal. The sugar is removed and
    stored in the liver as GLYCOGEN
  • Glucagon raises the sugar levels in the blood if
    you have not eaten in a while by breaking down
    the stored GLYCOGEN and releasing GLUCOSE into
    the blood stream.

46
Question
  • How is the small intestine designed for its
    fucntion when it comes to digestion and
    absorption?

47
Answer
  • The small intestine is perfectly designed for
  • DIGESTION because of its length, enzymes
    recieved in the duodenum and enzymes produced in
    the intestinal glands aid in digestion as well as
    mechanically mixing the food. Bile is also
    received in the duodenum to help increase surface
    area of fats.
  • ABSORPTION because the intestines is long 6-7
    meters, villi to increase surface area,
    microvilli (cuboidal cells) and capillary beds
    and lacteals in each villus.

48
Question
  • What are the three hormones which help to
    regulate digestion in the digestive tract? Give
    the function of each.

49
Answer
  • GASTRIN is produced in the stomach and stimulates
    the release of gastric juices.
  • CCK is released and targets the gall bladder and
    pancreas to release bile and enzymes.
  • SECRETIN stimulates the release of NaHCO3 to
    neutralize the acid chyme from stomach.

50
Question
  • Where in the villus are the following monomers
    absorbed?
  • a) amino acids
  • b) glucose
  • c) fatty acids
  • d) nucleotides

51
Answer
  • a) amino acids are absorbed into the
    capillaries
  • b) glucose is absorbed into the capillaries
  • c) fatty acids are absorbed into the lacteal
  • d) nucleotides are absorbed into the capillaries

52
Question
  • What are some factors that affect our metabollic
    rate?

53
Answer
  • Metabolic rate refers to an organisms ability to
    burn fuel (glucose) in the mitochondrion. Oxygen
    uptake or carbon dioxide output are used to
    measure metabolic rate. Resting metabolic rate is
    called your BMR. Basal metabolic rate
  • Factors that affect metabolic rate would be
  • 1. thyroxin from thyroid gland
  • 2. adrenalin from the adrenal gland
  • 3. exercise
  • 4. altitude
  • 5. age
  • 6. sex M or F
  • 7. weight
  • 8. lifestyle (smoking, diet)
  • 9. genetics

54
Question
  • Define homeostasis and give 3 examples of
    homeostasis in humans.

55
Answer
  • Homeostasis is the bodys ability to maintain
    internal balance which is essential for survival.
  • Some examples are
  • Blood sugar levels are constant at 0.1
  • Blood temperature is maintained at 37oC
  • Blood pressure is usually around 120/80 mmHg
  • The nervous systems and endocrine systems work
    together to maintain these levels at all times.

56
Question
  • Give two examples of positive feedback loops.

57
Answer
  • Positive feedback loops are important during
  • Breastfeeding and the birthing procedure.
  • When an infant begins to suck on the mothers
    nipple a hormone triggers a response which is
    interpreted by the brain and another hormone is
    released which increases the milk flow.
  • During labour the contractions become closer
    together and stronger as the fetus gets closer to
    delivery. This is the result of hormones between
    the fetus and mother

58
Question
  • Match the following vitamins with the side
    effects when the RDA is not met.
  • 1. Vitamin B1 A. Fatigue numbness tingling in
    hands
  • Vitamin D B. Bone deformities and rickets
  • Vitamin K C. Defective blood clotting
  • Vitamin E D. Skin lesions
  • Vitamin A E. Vision problems
  • Vitamin B2 F. Scurvy and gum disease
  • Vitamin C G. Beriberi, nerve disorder

59
Answer
  • 1. Vitamin B1 G. Beriberi, nerve disorder
  • 2. Vitamin D B. Bone deformities and rickets
  • 3. Vitamin K C. Defective blood clotting
  • 4. Vitamin E A. Fatigue numbness tingling in
    hands
  • 5. Vitamin A E. Vision problems
  • 6. Vitamin B2 D. Skin lesions
  • 7. Vitamin C F. Scurvy and gum disease

60
Question
  • Match the following organisms with the type of
    feeding
  • 1. Herbivore A. Python
  • 2. Carnivore B. deer
  • 3. Omnivore C. oyster
  • 4. filter (suspension) feeder D. tick
  • 5. substrate feeder E. otter
  • 6. fluid feeder F. spider
  • 7. bulk feeder G. earthworm

61
Answer
  • Match the following organisms with the type of
    feeding
  • 1. Herbivore B. deer
  • 2. Carnivore F. spider
  • 3. Omnivore E. otter
  • 4. filter (suspension) feeder C. oyster
  • 5. substrate feeder G. earthworm
  • 6. fluid feeder D. tick
  • 7. bulk feeder A. Python

62
The End
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