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Lecture IV: STALINISM AS A STATE SYSTEM

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Title: Lecture IV: STALINISM AS A STATE SYSTEM


1
Lecture IV STALINISM AS A STATE SYSTEM
  • In the framework of the course Crucial Issues of
    Russian Political History from the early XXth
    century up the present time
  • Sergey Verigin, Ass. Prof.
  • Petrozavodsk State University

2
Contents list
  • I. Fight for power in the Bolshevik Party after
    Lenins death. Stalins victory.
  • II. Regime of Stalins personal power. 1930s.

3
I. Fight for power in the Bolshevik Party after
Lenins death. Stalins victory. Historical
views of Stalins times.
  • Scientific analysis of Stalin's activity in
    Russian historiography began only during
    perestroika, at the end of 1980s. In first works
    dedicated to this problem, an assessment of
    Stalin, given at the XX Congress of the Communist
    Party (1956), was restored.  The essence of it
    was that together with positive moments of
    Stalin's policy, negative facts also took place,
    for example, Stalin's role in organizing mass
    repressions.
  • Then assessments of Stalin's activity similar to
    foreign ones (for example, made in works of Koen,
    Konkwest, Deutcher, Boffa, Vert and other) were
    given in the Soviets works of Aphanasyev,
    Gephter, Tsipko and others. A negative assessment
    of Stalin was consequently transferred to the
    period of his ruling, which was called Stalinism,
    totalitarianism of his administrative-command
    system.

4
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (1879-1953)
5
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (1879-1953)
  • Stalin's real surname is Dzhugashvili. He was
    born in Georgia and in 1888 was given to a local
    church school. He excelled there and received a
    scholarship which gave him a possibility to enter
    Tbilisi Theological Seminary in 1894 as a devour
    believer in Russian Orthodox maxims. But in 1899
    when he was just about to graduate he left
    Seminary and started revolutionary activities.
  • In 1903-04 Stalin was in Siberian exile for
    staging demonstrations in Georgia. In 1903, when
    Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party split
    into Bolsheviks and Menshevike he joined the
    former. Before the Revolution of 1917 he was
    several times arrested by imperial police and
    sent to exile, but always managed to escape from
    there, the last time right after the October
    revolution.
  • Although Stalin did not play a major role in the
    Octover revolt, he was included into the
    Bolshevik government as commissar of national
    affairs. Stalin was successful in the party
    struggle followed Lenin's death and by 1930
    seized the power in the Soviet Union getting rid
    of all his opponents and competitors. The years
    of Stalin's rule, especially 1937-38, cost the
    USSR thousands of lives. Stalin's mistakes in
    military preparations resulted in the heavy
    situation the Soviet Union found itself in the
    first two years of the Great Patriotic War. After
    the war Stalin was about to continue mass purges
    and only his death in 1953 stopped them.

6
Were there alternatives to Stalin?
  • In this discussion some Soviet historians
    acknowledged that Stalin's cult had been a
    natural consequence of socialism as a one-party
    system. There were a great deal of discussions if
    there had been any alternative to Stalinism in
    the Soviet society development. Some historians
    (for example, Latsis, Kozlov, Bord'ygov and
    others) tried to part Stalinism and Leninism, and
    to find out real alternatives to Stalinism in the
    USSR history of 1920s.

7
Were there alternatives to Stalin?
  • The possible continuation of a new economic
    policy (NEP) was considered to be another way
    out. Other historians (Klyachkin, Koginov and
    others) proved that there had been no
    alternatives to Stalinism in Russian history. The
    reasons of Stalin's victory were explained
    differently by a difficult international
    situation, Lenins mistakes (he didn't manage to
    stop Stalin). An opinion that Stalin was only
    Marx's and Lenin's student and he had realised
    their ideas in practice also explained the
    situation. That is, Stalinism was considered to
    be a continuation of Marxism.

8
Heterogeneity of the Communist party
  • The period of 1920s began for Soviet Russia with
    a severe social-political crisis not only in the
    society (we mentioned in previous lectures about
    people's dissatisfaction with "military communism
    policy"), but in the Communist (Bolsheviks) Party
    as well. There were a lot of different fractions
    and groups.
  • In 1921 a resolution "About the Party's unity"
    aimed against Bolsheviks Party's split was passed
    at the X Congress of the Russian Communist Party
    - RCP(b)".

9
Heterogeneity of the Communist party
  • When Lenin was alive this resolution was seldom
    used for the struggle against differently minded
    in the party. It didn't mean a cease in the
    discussions about country's and party's
    development. For example, in 1924-1925 Trotskys
    book "October's Lessons" concerning economic
    problems was discussed in the party.

10
Lev Trotskij
11
Preconditions for Stalinism
  • In the second half of 1920s Stalin used the
    resolution "About Party's unity" in party
    internal struggle. The result was the exclusion
    of Trotsky and his supporters, his comrades
    Kamenev, Zinovyev and then other Stalin's
    opponents, Bukharin and Rykov from the Bolshevik
    Party.  The political regime was tough when
    Lenin was alive in the beginning of 1920s.
  • In 1922 the Central Political Administrative
    Board (GPU - according to the Russian
    abbreviation) so was formed instead of VCiK. Its
    aim was to struggle against counterrevolution.
    The same year an entry of " counterrevolutionary
    crime" was included into the Criminal Code. Any
    action aimed at the overthrow of the Soviet Power
    was considered criminal. 

12
Preconditions for Stalinism
  • In 1922 some 47 famous socialist-revolutionaries
    were convicted according this article. This
    process had become the first important political
    process in the Soviet period. In the autumn of
    this year some 160 famous workers of culture and
    science disagreed with Bolshevik policy were
    deported. Such famous philosophers as Berdyaev,
    Bulgakov, Frank were among then. At the beginning
    of 1920s a political process over Mensheviks
    leaders of the party took place. Most of them
    were subjected to repression.
  • So, in 1922 Bolsheviks annihilated political
    opposition and one party system was formed. It
    had existed till the end of 1980s. Almost
    everything in the country now depended on a
    situation in the ruling Communist Party.

13
Lenins last days
  • In April 1922 Stalin was appointed as the General
    Secretary of the Central Committee of the RCP(b).
    He began to select personnel and to post them.
    The selected personnel were devoted to Stalin. 
  • Gradually, Lenin became aware of Stalin's danger
    to the future of the country and party. But he
    was seriously ill and since the end of 1922 he
    couldn't participate in country's governing. And
    at that very time Stalin began to put his plans
    into reality. 
  • In 1922-1923, at the end of his life, Lenin, who
    was seriously ill and had no ability to rule the
    country, wrote his last articles and letters,
    which were later called "political will".
  • Lenin wrote in those articles about future plans
    concerning the building of socialism in Russia
    strengthening of the ruling party unity,
    strengthening of the Workers and Peasants Union,
    etc. He emphasized the necessity to win peasants
    over to the Soviet power. 
  • But Communist party leaders couldn't understand
    the profundity of Lenin's ideas. They paid too
    much attention to the struggle for power.
    Trotsky, Stalin, Kamenev, Zinovyev, and Bukharin
    thought that each of them could replace Lenin.
    Their main aim was to defeat their political
    opponents . They hid Lenin's "Letter to the
    Congress", in which Lenin characterized every
    political leader, from the society.

14
Lenin's last days Vladimir Lenin and his wife
Nadezhda Krupskaja.
15
Anti-Trotsky coalition
  • On the eve of Lenin's death, the Thirteenth Party
    Conference published, on Stalin's motion, the
    decision empowering the Central Committee to
    expel Party members for factionalism. At the
    moment the leader died a new sanctity enveloped
    his every word and deed, including this decision,
    in which Lenin had taken part. Simultaneously
    decreed a new recruiting campaign, nominally with
    a view to strengthening the actual worker element
    in Party ranks. Actually Stalin, as general
    secretary, was able to bolster his own influence
    by guiding the Party machinery in selecting new
    members. In a few short weeks nearly a quarter of
    a million men and women were admitted in the new
    "Lenin enrollment."

16
Anti-Trotsky coalition
  • At the time of the XIII Party Congress in May
    1924, the economic situation was improving
    sufficiently to enable the triumvirs (Stalin,
    Zinoviev and Kamenev) to call their critics to
    account. Zinoviev openly attacked Trotsky and
    demanded that he retract his "errors." As Stalin
    had only shortly before opposed Zinoviev's demand
    for Trotsky's arrest, he found it wise to remain
    in the background.
  • The Congress was unmoved. It promptly took steps
    to discipline the Russian Troskyites, as well as
    dissidents in the other parties of the Comintern.

17
Anti-Trotsky coalition
  • Permanent Revolution
  • After the XIII Congress, as far as could be seen
    the chief antagonists were Trotsky on the one
    hand and Zinoviev and Kamenev on the other.
  • Trotsky restated his old theory of "permanent
    revolution," with its emphasis on the world
    leadership of the proletariat and its implicit
    challenge to the Leninist position on the role of
    the poor peasantry in building socialism.
    "October," said Trotsky, was the crucial stage in
    the history of the Party. "October" meant to him
    the time when Lenin adopted Trotsky's theory of
    permanent revolution--at least in the sense of
    rapid passage from the bourgeois to the socialist
    stage.

18
Anti-Trotsky coalition
  • "Socialism in one country
  • Stalin offered his theory of "Socialism in one
    country.
  • In January 1925 the Central Committee removed
    Trotsky from the War Commissariat, even though he
    remained in uneasy possession of a seat on the
    Politburo. This was the decisive blow. Although
    he was still not completely crushed, Trotsky
    receded to the background.
  • Although Trotsky was defeated, Zinoviev and
    Kamenev soon discovered that the victory was not
    theirs. In March 1925 the Fourteenth Conference
    of the Party accepted Stalin's theory of
    "socialism in one country," while Zinoviev and
    Kamenev paid little attention. Soon afterward
    Stalin was able to break up the triumvirate. Too
    late Zinoviev and Kamenev attacked Stalin's new
    theory. By the middle of 1925 he had found new
    allies in Bukharin, Rykov, and Tomsky, who
    accepted "socialism in one country."

19
Stalin vs. Kamenev and Zinovyev
  • Rykov had become Lenin's successor as chairman of
    the Council of People's Commissars. Tomsky was
    the leader of the Soviet trade-unions. Bukharin,
    the "Left" Communist of 1918, was now, like Rykov
    and Tomsky, on the "right" and the leader of
    those who felt that the NEP was a success, and
    while indeed socialism might be built in Russia.
    Zinoviev and Kamenev, on the contrary, were
    profoundly uneasy about the continuation of the
    NEP, but they had been abruptly thrust into the
    minority.
  • Zinoviev and Kamenev tardily recognized Stalin as
    the man from whom they had most to fear and
    carefully prepared an attack on him for the XIV
    Party Congress, to be held in December 1925.
  • However, the plan completely miscarried. As
    reconstituted just after the Congress, the
    Politburo had three new full members Molotov,
    Voroshilov, and Kalinin, all loyal of Stalin's.
    Stalin also added several supporters to the list
    of candidate members of the Politburo.

20
Lenin, Zinovev and Kamenev
21
Anti-Stalin coalition
  • In 1926 old opponents (Trotsky and his
    supporters) united with Zinov'év and Kamenev in
    their struggle against Stalin. A united
    opposition tried to win the majority of the party
    over its side and to organise illegal structures.
    But there was no unity among the opposition
    members. Being supported by obedient party
    members, Stalin managed to expel opposition
    leaders from the party and to send his main
    opponent, Trotsky, from Moscow. 
  • In his struggle against opposition Stalin broadly
    used the resolution "About Party's Unity", which
    prohibited factions and forced the minority to
    obey the majority. More often Stalin was
    supported by OGPU bodies (that is the State
    Political Administrative Board bodies). Stalin
    used this body in the struggle against his
    opponents.

22
Zinovev , Kamenev and Bukharin
23
Stalins getting rid of Bukharin. NEP policy
suspended
  • January 1929 - Trotsky was deported out of the
    USSR in accordance with Stalin's order. After the
    defeat of opponents headed by Trotsky and
    Zinovyev, Stalin didn't need Bukharin's support
    from the society. Since 1928 his disputes with
    Bukharin had been starting. (They were about the
    NEP).
  • At the end of 1927 - at the beginning of 1928
    there were serious problems with State grain
    procurements. Peasants, not satisfied with low
    prices on agricultural products, refused to sell
    bread. Bukharin considered that fact to be a
    contradiction of the NEP and urged to find a way
    out on the NEP basis - which is to reach
    understanding with peasants. As for Stalin, he
    considered this information to be a "kulak's"
    sabotage. He called upon for using extreme
    measures - bread confiscation.

24
Stalins getting rid of Bukharin. NEP policy
suspended
  • In 1928 Stalin also called upon to abandon the
    NEP and to begin a "big leap " - that is a forced
    industrial and agricultural development. Besides
    he called upon for a wider using of extreme
    measures. Bukharin and his supporters (Rykov - a
    chairman of the SPK of the USSR and Tomsky - a
    Soviet Trade Union leader) tried to protect the
    NEP, they were against extreme measures. Bukharin
    understood that such measures in economy would
    lead to extreme measures in politics. Bukharin's
    struggle against these measures meant a struggle
    against the formation of Stalin's individual
    power.

25
Stalins getting rid of Bukharin. NEP policy
suspended
  • But forces were not equal. The party apparatus
    supported Stalin. He seemed a guarantee of
    stability and secured privileges to its members.
    Besides that, Bukharin called upon for the
    realization of reforms, which would it not be
    effective at once.
  • In 1929 Stalin managed to discredit Bukharin and
    his supporters, accusing them of the "right wing
    group". In the autumn of 1929 Bukharin's group
    failed. Stalin becomes the only leader in the
    Communist Party.

26
II. Regime of Stalin's personal power. 1930s
First processes and formation of the camp system
  • All these events accelerate a process of
    discontinuance of the NEP, and a formation of the
    administrative - command system. Stalin and his
    supporters fabricated a number of processes in
    1930 - a process over the so-called Provision
    (Promyshlennaj) party, and in 1931 a mensheviks
    process. Since the beginning of 1930s closed
    trials followed by extra-judicial punishments
    were organized. The so-called "Troika"s (that is
    groups made up of 3 members) were formed for
    judicial proceedings. 
  • Party and State leaders, heads of the District
    Department of the GPU were the members of the
    troikas. At first they accused "kulaks" only, but
    then intelligentsia as well. Since the number of
    convicted persons increased, at the verge of
    1920s 1930s a reorganization of reformatory
    institutions was carried out. Camps were their
    main structures. In 1930 they were transferred to
    the OGPU. A Central Camp Management (GULAG),
    headed by Yagoda, was organized.

27
Central Camp Management (GULAG) an ordinary
working day of GULAGs settlers
28
Toughening of Stalins regime
  • In the early1930s Stalin toughened his regime. A
    new term "people's enemy" was used for the first
    time in a resolution of the Central Executive
    Committee and the People's Commissars Council of
    the USSR of August 7, 1932.
  • People's enemies could be sentenced to capital
    punishment or 10 years of imprisonment with
    property confiscation.
  • In December 1932 a passport regime was
    introduced in the country, which had been earlier
    prohibited by the Soviet government in 1923. 
  • In March 1933 OGPU bodies got a right to shoot
    people without trial and investigation.
  • At last, on December 1, 1934, the day of Kirov's
    assassination (Kirov was a leader of Leningrad
    Bolsheviks), "the Law of the Procedure of
    Management of Affairs concerning the organisation
    of acts of terrorism" was adopted

29
Sergey Kirov
30
Repressions
  • Repression was intensifying at the time when the
    USSR Constitution was adopted in 1936. The Soviet
    Propaganda announced it to be the most democratic
    in the world. The Constitution parts concerning
    people rights, principles of legal proceedings
    were nothing more than a mockery in 1930s.
  • The following reasons of the 1930s repressions
    can be mentioned 
  • - the necessity to replace as quickly as
    possible people, who got used to work in the
    democratic atmosphere of the NEP, by people
    devoted to Stalin's regime
  • - the possibility to explain economic and
    political crises at the end of 1920th by the
    activity of saboteurs and spies
  • - the method to force the population work
    effectively without any economic stimulus.

31
Repressions
  • Enemy of People
  • No segment of society was left untouched
    during the purges. Article 58 of the legal code,
    listing prohibited "anti-Soviet activities", was
    applied in the broadest manner. Initially, the
    execution lists for the enemies of the people
    were confirmed by the Politburo. Over time the
    procedure was greatly simplified and delegated
    down the line of command. People would inform on
    others arbitrarily, to attempt to redeem
    themselves, or to gain small retributions. The
    flimsiest pretexts were often enough to brand
    someone an "Enemy of the People", starting the
    cycle of public persecution and abuse, often
    proceeding to interrogation, torture and
    deportation, if not death.

32
Regime of Stalins personal power. Great Purges
of 1935-38. 
  • By the end of 1929 Stalin's victory was absolute.
    The whole political system of the USSR had
    changed.  The regime of Stalins personal power
    was formed.
  • The years of 1935-1938 were the top years of
    Stalin's repression. Within this period three
    large political processes over famous political
    leaders were carried out. A possible opposition
    to Stalin in the Red Army was defeated. There
    were purges among industrial leaders and in
    social institutions. The repression was on a
    large-scale. At the end of 1930s the number of
    imprisoned persons in the USSR was about 10-40
    million people.
  • It was at the end of 1930s when Stalin's cult
    reached its acme. His name was associated with
    numerous successes in the USSR economy. His
    authority was unshakeable he had no adversaries
    worth mentioning. He was really very popular with
    the Soviet people.

33
Regime of Stalins personal power. Great Purges
of 1935-38
  • The results of the purges
  • - At least 681,692 people were executed
    during 193738 alone, and only accounting for the
    execution lists signed personally by Stalin from
    archives of NKVD.
  • - The exact total of persons affected
    remains uncertain and depends on how the count is
    made, especially depending on the time period
    considered and whether deaths related to the
    Gulag and transportation losses are included.
    Following Kirov's exploited death, it has been
    said that roughly 1.7 million people were
    arrested over the following decade, with nearly
    700,000 executed.
  • One of Russia's leading human rights
    groups, the Memorial Society, has released a list
    of 1,345,796 names of people who fell victim to
    Soviet political repressions.

34
Literature to the topic 4
  • Adam B. Ulam. Stalin the man and his era.
    London allen Lane, Viking, 1973. 760p.
  • Adam B. Ulam. Stalin the man and his era. New
    York Viking Press, 1973 London Allen Lane,
    1974. 760p.
  • Alan Wood. Stalin and Stalinism. ?London, New
    York Routledge, 1990. 68p. map. bibliog.
    (Lancaster Pamphlets).
  • Alex de Jonge. Stalin and the shaping of the
    Soviet Union. London Collins, 1986. 560p.
    bibliog.
  • Armstrong, J. The politics of totalitarianism
    the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1934
    to the present. New York Random House, 1961.
  • Avtorkhanov, A. Stalin and Soviet Communist
    Party. - Munich, 1959.
  • Bazili Nikolaj. Russia under Soviet rule twenty
    years of Bolshevik experiment. London, 1938.
  • Beloff, Max. The foreign policy of Soviet Russia
    1929-1941. vol.1 1929-1936. London Oxford Univ.
    Press, 1947-1949.
  • Beloff, Max. The foreign policy of Soviet Russia
    1929-1941. vol.2 1936-1941. London Oxford Univ.
    Press, 1947-1949.
  • Belov, F. A history of Soviet collective farm.
    New York Frederick A. Praeger, Inc., 1955.
  • Bergson, A. The real national income of Soviet
    Russia since 1928. Cambridge Harvard University
    Press, 1961.

35
Literature to the topic 4
  • Bernard Pares. Russia.London Penguin Books,
    1940. 256p.
  • Boris Souvarine. Stalin a critical survey of
    Bolshevism. ?New York Longmans Green, 1939.
    690p.
  • Bullock Alan. Hitler and Stalin parallel lives.
    London, 1993.
  • Carmichael Joel. Stalins masterpiece the show
    trials and purges of the thirties the
    consolidation of the Bolshevik dictatorship.
    London, 1976.
  • Carr Edward. A history of Soviet Russia. London,
    1950-1978. vol. 1-14.
  • Carr, Edward Hallett. A history of Soviet Russia.
    London Macmillan, 1950-1978.
  • Carr, Edward Hallett. German-Soviet relations
    between the two World wars, 1919-1939. Baltimore,
    1951.
  • Carr, Edward Hallett. German-Soviet relations
    between the two World wars, 1919-1939. Baltimore,
    1951.
  • Carrére d?Encausse, H. The great challenge
    nationalities and the Bolshevik state, 1917-1930.
    ? New York, Holmes and Meier, 1992.
  • Conquest Robert. Power and policy in the USSR
    the struggle for Stalins succession 1945-1960.
    New York, 1967.
  • Conquest, R. Kolyma the Arctic death camps.
    ?London Basingstoke, England Macmillan, 1978.
    255p. 2 maps. bibliog.
  • Conquest, R. The Great terror A Reassessment. -
    New York, 1990.

36
Literature to the topic 4
  • Conquest, R. The Great Terror Stalins Purge of
    the Thirties. -New York, 1971.
  • Conquest, R., The great terror. London, 1968.
  • Dallin David. The new Soviet empire. New Haven,
    1951.
  • Daniels, R. The conscience of the revolution
    communist opposition in Soviet Russia. -
    Cambridge, Mass., 1960.
  • Daniels, R. The conscience of the revolution
    Communist opposition in Soviet Russia. Cambridge
    Harvard University Press, 1960.
  • Davies. R. The industrialization of Soviet
    Russia. London, Basingstoke, England Macmillan,
    1980, 1989. 3 vols. bibliog.
  • Deutscher Isaac. The unfinished revolution
    Russia 1917-1967. ?London, 1967.
  • Deutscher, I. Stalin a political biography.
    Harmondsworth, 1966.
  • Deutscher, I. Stalin A political biography. -
    New York, 1949. 2nd ed., 1966.
  • Deutscher, I. The unfinished revolution Russia
    1917-1967. London, New York Oxford University
    Press, 1967. vi115p. (George Macaulay Lectures,
    Cambridge, 1967).
  • Dmitri Volkogonov, edited and translated from the
    Russian by Harold Shukman. London Weidenfeld
    Nicolson, 1991. 642p.
  • Dunmore, T. The Stalinist command economy the
    Soviet state apparatus and economic policy,
    1945-53. London Basingstoke, England Macmillan,
    1980. 176p. bibliog.

37
Literature to the topic 4
  • Edited by G. R. Urban. Stalinism its impact on
    Russia and the world. Cambridge, Massachusetts
    Harvard University Press, 1986. 454p.
  • Edited by Robert C. Tucker. Stalinism essays in
    historical interpretation. New York W. W.
    Norton, 1977. 332p. notes.
  • Erickson, J. The Soviet high command a
    military-political history, 1918-1941. New York
    St. Martins Press, 1962.
  • Erickson, J. The Soviet High Command a
    military-political history, 1918-1941. London
    Macmillan, 1962. xv889p. 12 maps.
  • Fedoroff, D. White. The growth of the Red Army. ?
    Princeton, New Jersey Princeton University
    Press, 1944. 486p.
  • Fischer, G. Soviet opposition to Stalin.
    -Cambridge, Mass., 1952.
  • Fischer, G. Soviet opposition to Stalin a case
    study in World War ??. - Westport, Conn., 1970.
  • Getty, J. A. Origins of the great purges the
    Soviet communist party reconsidered, 1933-1938.
    ?Cambridge, 1985.
  • Graeme Gill. Stalinism. Basingstoke, England
    London Macmillan, 1990. 83p. bibliog. (Studies
    in European History).
  • H. Montgomery Hyde. Stalin the history of a
    dictator. ?London Hart-Davis, 1971. 679p.

38
Literature to the topic 4
  • Heller, M. and Nekrich, A. Utopia in power a
    history of the USSR from 1917 to the present.
    London, Hutchinson, 1986.
  • Hindus, V. Red bread collectivization in a
    Russian village. Foreword by R. G. Suny. -
    Bloomington, Ind., 1988.
  • Ian Grey. Stalin, man of history. London
    Weidenfeld Nicolson, 1979.
  • Isaac Deutscher. Stalin a political biography.
    Harmondsworth, England Pelican, 1966. 2nd ed.
    648p. bibliography.
  • Issac Deutscher. Stalin a political biography.
    London, New York Oxford University Press, 1967.
    2nd ed. xvi661p.
  • J. N. Westwood. Russia, 1917-1964. ?London
    Batsford, 1966. 208p. 2 maps.
  • Jasny, N. Soviet industrialization, 1928-1952.
    Chicago University of Chicago Press, 1961.
  • Kennan, G. Russia and the West under Lenin and
    Stalin. New York Scarborough, Ontario New
    American Library, 1960. 384p. notes.
  • Kershaw, I. Stalinism and nazism dictatorships
    in comparison. Cambridge, 1996.
  • Kim, Maksim Pavlovic. Kul?turnaja zizn v SSSR
    chronika. Moskva Nauka, 1975-1981.
  • Laird, R. Collective farming in Russia a
    political study of Soviet kolkhozy. Lawrence
    University of Kansas Publications, 1958.

39
Literature to the topic 4
  • Lelcuk V. A short history of Soviet society.
    Moscow, 1971.
  • Leon Trotsky, edited and translated from the
    Russian by Charles Malamuth. Stalin an appraisal
    of the man and his influence. London MacGibbon
    Kee, 1968. New ed. 516p.
  • Lionel Kochan. The making of modern Russia.
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    Harcourt, Brace World, 1962. 171p.

40
Literature to the topic 4
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    York Oxford Univ. P., 1993.
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    recognition Soviet Russia in world Affairs,
    1917-1939. ?Stockholm, 1996.
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    from above, 1928-1941. New York, London Norton,
    1990. 707p. bibliog.

41
Literature to the topic 4
  • Robert Conquest. Stalin Breaker of nations.
    ?London Weidenfeld Nicolson, 1991. 346p.
    bibliog.
  • Robert H. McNeal. Stalin man and ruler.
    ?Basingstoke, England Macmillan in association
    with St. Antony?s College, Oxford, 1988. 389p.
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  • Robert Payne. The rise and fall of Stalin.
    ?London W. H. Allen, 1966. 767p. bibliog.
  • Ronald Hingley. Joseph Stalin man and legend.
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  • Roy A. Medvedev, translated by A. D. P. Briggs.
    Nikolai Bukharin, the last years. ?New York,
    London W. W. Norton, 1980. 176p.
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    and consequences of Stalinism. ?New York
    Columbia University Press Oxford Oxford
    University Press, 1989. 2nd ed. 903.
  • Schapiro Leonard. The Communist party of the
    Soviet Union. ?New York, 1960.
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    Thomas P. Whitney (vols 1 2) and H. T. Willetts
    (vol. 3). The Gulag archipelago, 1918-1956 an
    experiment in literary investigation. London
    Collins/Fontana, 1974, 1978. 3 vols. map.
  • Stephen F. Cohen. Bukharin and the Bolshevik
    Revolution a political biography 1888-1938.
    Oxford, New York, Toronto, Melbourne Oxford
    University Press, 1971. 495p. bibliog.

42
Literature to the topic 4
  • Treadgold, D. Twentieth-century Russia. ?Chicago,
    Illinois Rand McNally, 1971. 3rd ed. 563p.
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    ?Chicago Rand McNally, 1964.
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    his influence. - New York, 1941.
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    dictatorship the Red Army and the Soviet
    socialist state, 1917-1930. ? Ithaca, New York
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  • Viola Lynne. Peasant rebels under Stalin
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    resistance. ?New York, 1996.
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  • Walter Laqueur. Stalin the glasnost revelations.
    ?London, Sydney, Wellington Unwin Hyman, 1990.
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  • Wheatly, Dennis. Red Eagle the story of the
    Russian Revolution and of Klementy Efremovich
    Voroshilov. ?London, 1938.
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