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World History to 1500 AD: SOL Review

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We were the first monotheists (people who only believe in one God). We are: The Hebrews (Jews) ... It is one of the oldest social patterns known to man. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World History to 1500 AD: SOL Review


1
World History to 1500 AD SOL Review
  • People, Places, and Terms to know for the WHI SOL
    Test

2
What am I?
  • I emerged in Africa between 100,000 and 400,000
    years ago.
  • I migrated from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and
    then the Americas.
  • My name literally means thinking man because of
    my highly evolved 1500cc brain.

3
I am
  • Homo Sapiens-sapiens

4
What is it?
  • This lifestyle was how humans existed until the
    development of agriculture.
  • This lifestyle depended largely on the
    availability of wild plants and animals.

5
It is
  • A Hunter-Gatherer Society

6
Who am I?
  • I study past early human life and its changes.
  • I study past cultures by locating and analyzing
    human remains, fossils, and artifacts.
  • I use such tests as carbon dating to analyze
    fossils and artifacts.

7
I am
  • An Archaeologist

8
What am I?
  • I am an archaeological site in England.
  • I am an example of architecture that was begun
    during the New Stone Age and finished during the
    Bronze Age.

9
I am
  • Stonehenge

10
What am I?
  • I originated during the New Stone Age.
  • I am often times called the Neolithic
    Revolution.
  • I led to the first permanent settlements.

11
I am
  • Agriculture

12
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13
What are we
  • We provided rich soil (silt) in which the
    earliest farmers first planted crops.
  • We provided protection from invasion by nomadic
    peoples.
  • We are often times referred to as Cradles of
    Civilization.

14
We are
  • The First 4 River Valley Civilizations

15
What am I
  • I became popular because early agricultural
    peoples worshipped forces of nature, such as the
    sun, the rain, etc.
  • I was the reason people created temples to
    multiple gods, gave sacrifices and offerings, and
    persecuted people who believed differently.
  • I was a common characteristic of MOST every early
    religion.
  • I literally mean worship of many gods.

16
I am
  • Polytheism

17
What is it
  • It is a characteristic of MOST early governments.
  • It is the reason many early leaders were
    worshipped as gods themselves.
  • It is a system where the leaders of the
    government are also the leaders of the religion.

18
It is
  • Theocracy

19
Where am I
  • I am the earliest of all permanent civilizations.
  • I am in the modern day country of Iraq.
  • My name means middle of two rivers.

20
I am
  • Mesopotamia

21
What is it
  • It is an area located on the Tigris and Euphrates
    floodplain.
  • It spread from the Persian Gulf to the
    Mediterranean Sea.
  • It is in the shape of an upside down moon, and I
    am one of the few good places to farm in the
    Middle East.

22
It is
  • The Fertile Crescent

23
What is it?
  • It is the first river valley civilization in
    Africa.
  • It is the civilization that rose around the Nile
    River floodplain.
  • It has been called The Gift of the Nile.

24
It is
  • Egypt

25
Where is it?
  • It is located on a sub-continent in South Asia.
  • It is actually found in modern Day Pakistan as
    well as in India.
  • It rose around the Indus River.

26
It is
  • India

27
Where is it?
  • It is the river valley that rose in far east
    Asia.
  • It became the oldest continuous society in the
    world.
  • It rose along the banks of the Huang He River.

28
It is
  • China

29
Who are we?
  • We settled between the Mediterranean Sea and the
    Jordan River Valley in the Middle East.
  • We followed our leader, the prophet Abraham.
  • We were the first monotheists (people who only
    believe in one God).

30
We are
  • The Hebrews (Jews)

31
Who were we?
  • We were an ancient kingdom in Africa, located on
    the Nile River.
  • We were contemporaries of the Egyptians, and
    shared several cultural similarities.
  • We were also called Nubians.

32
We are
  • The Kingdom of Kush
  • (a.k.a. Nubia)

33
What is it
  • It was one of the first written law codes.
  • It was the first written moral and religious law.
  • It was given to the Jews, by Moses, from Yahweh
    (God).

34
It is
  • The 10 Commandments

35
What is it
  • It was one of the oldest known written law codes.
  • It is best summed up by the phrase an eye for an
    eye.
  • It was written on a big black rock and placed in
    the center of town, for all to read and know, by
    the leader Hammurabi.

36
It is
  • The Code of Hammurabi

37
What is it
  • It is one of the earliest social patterns known
    to man, and immerged from a rigid social system.
  • It was based on warfare and debt.
  • In ancient times, it was NOT based on race, as in
    modern times.

38
It is
  • Slavery

39
What is it
  • It is one of the oldest social patterns known to
    man.
  • It was the most common form of leadership
    succession in the ancient world, including Egypt,
    Mesopotamia, India, and China.
  • It is power that is passed from father to son.

40
It is
  • A Dynasty

41
What is it
  • It was made possible by a surplus of food,
    brought about by a need for goods to trade.
  • It was increased by trade on rivers and seas.
  • It was the economic idea underlying the barter
    system.

42
It is
  • Specialization of Labor
  • - doing one thing for a living, such as making
    hammers, and then bartering (trading them) for
    other goods that you need (like chickens).

43
Who am I
  • I am a prophet for Judaism, Christianity, and
    Islam.
  • I made a covenant with Yahweh, to worship only
    Him, and in exchange, my people would receive
    land along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea,
    and we would become a great nation.
  • I am the founder of Judaism.

44
I am
  • Abraham

45
Who am I
  • I am a prophet of Judaism, Christianity, and
    Islam.
  • I led the Jews out of exile in Egypt in the
    Biblical Book of Exodus.
  • I was the one who went up on Mount Sinai and came
    down with the 10 Commandments.

46
I am
  • Moses

47
What is it
  • It is the period during which the Torah was
    written.
  • It was ended by King Cyrus of Persia when he
    conquered The Jewish Kingdom
  • It is the scattering of the Jews into slavery
    by the Neo-Babylonians (a.k.a. The Chaldeans).

48
It is
  • The Jewish Diaspora

49
What is it
  • To be considered an adult in Judaism, you must
    memorize and recite it, word for word.
  • It makes up the first half of the Christian
    Bible.
  • It is the written records and beliefs of the
    Hebrew people.

50
It is
  • The Torah

51
What am I
  • It was different from most other religious
    practices at the time, which often made people
    persecute those who practiced me.
  • It was first practiced by the Hebrews.
  • It literally means belief in one God.

52
I am
  • monotheism

53
What are they
  • They were the earliest forms of writing, often
    times used to keep agricultural records.
  • They eventually evolved into phonograms (symbols
    that represent sounds)
  • They are pictures that represent ideas.

54
They are
  • Pictograms

55
What is it
  • It evolved from pictograms into the first
    phonograms.
  • It was the first written language in the
    Mesopotamian kingdom of Sumer.
  • It was written on clay tablets with a stick
    called a stylus.

56
It is
  • Cuneiform

57
What was it
  • It was the 1st Empire of Mesopotamia.
  • It was the Empire that gave the world the 1st
    writing, the plow, the first walled cities, and
    many other innovations.
  • It was the empire that gave the world the Epic of
    Gilgamesh.

58
It is
  • Sumer (Sumaria)

59
What is it
  • It is a Sumerian form of architecture.
  • It is a stepped pyramid, that was used for prayer
    and sacrifice to the gods.
  • Every Sumerian town had one, and they were
    dedicated to the chief god of that particular
    city.

60
They are
  • ziggurats

61
What is it
  • It was the 2nd great empire of ancient
    Mesopotamia. They conquered the Sumerians.
  • They were the kingdom that gave the world the
    Code of Hammurabi, the worlds first written law
    code.

62
It is
  • Babylon

63
What is it
  • It was a Mesopotamian empire known for its
    cruelty and militarism in ruling its people.
  • It was the empire of the great leader
    Ashurbanipal, who often bragged of his torture of
    peoples whom he conquered.
  • It was the home of one of the greatest libraries
    in ancient times, housed at its capital of
    Nineveh.

64
It is
  • The Assyrian Empire

Library and palace at Nineveh
65
Who were they
  • They were the Mesopotamian empire that revived
    the capital of Babylon, thus giving them the name
    neo-Babylonians.
  • They were the empire of Nebuchadnezzar, the king
    who built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and the
    Tower of Babel.
  • They were the empire that enslaved the Jews and
    scattered them in what came to be known as the
    Jewish Diaspora.

66
They were
  • The Chaldeans (a.k.a. The
    neo-Babylonians)

67
What is it
  • It is an empire that arose from the Plateau of
    Iran.
  • It was a powerful empire, however it ruled using
    tolerance of local leaders, customs and
    religions.
  • It functioned by using a huge bureaucracy to
    administer its lands.
  • It was the empire that helped commerce and
    warfare by building a Royal Road.

68
It is
  • The Persian Empire

69
What is it
  • It evolved from pictograms into the early
    phonograms.
  • It was the first written language in the African
    kingdom of Egypt.
  • It was written on a reed called papyrus.

70
I am
  • Hieroglyphics

71
What is it
  • It was discovered by an expedition sent to Egypt
    by Napoleon Bonaparte.
  • It had three types of writing on me…
    hieroglyphics, demotic, and Greek.
  • It was used by Champollion to translate
    hieroglyphics, and unlock the secrets and history
    of Egypt.

72
It is
  • The Rosetta Stone

73
Who am I
  • I am worshipped as the God Horace while I am
    alive, and the God Osirus in death.
  • My title literally means Great house of the
    King.
  • I am the dynastic leader of Egypt, who was
    mummified and placed in a pyramid.

74
I am
  • A Pharaoh

75
Who am I
  • I was a the powerful Pharaoh that began the Old
    Kingdom (a.k.a. The Age of Pyramids).
  • I united upper and lower Egypt into one Empire.
  • I am also known as Menes.

76
I am
  • Narmer (a.k.a. Menes)

77
Who am I
  • I was a Pharaoh during the Age of Empire (a.k.a.
    The New Kingdom) in Egypt.
  • I increased Egypts prestige and power in the
    Mediterranean Basin by expanding trade.
  • I was a woman, yet dressed using the traditional
    male outfit of the pharaoh, including the beard.

78
I am
  • Hatshepsut

79
Who am I
  • I was a powerful Pharaoh of Egypt.
  • I was the Pharaoh who was believed to have
    confronted Moses in the Biblical book of Exodus.

80
I am
  • Ramses II

81
What is it
  • It was created by the Phoenicians.
  • It was the first writing system to be based
    entirely on phonograms (symbols that represent
    specific sounds).
  • You still use a version of it every time you
    write a letter.

82
It is
  • The first alphabet

83
Who are we
  • We came through the Khyber Pass in the Hindu Kush
    Mountains.
  • We invaded classical India, bringing with us our
    books of law and a rigid ideas about society.

84
We are
  • Indo-Aryans

85
What is it
  • It was brought to India by the Indo-Aryans who
    came through the Khyber Pass in the Hindu Kush
    Mountains.
  • It was a rigid social order, where your place in
    society was determined by the job your father
    did.
  • It was rejected by Buddhists.
  • It was a system from which you had to work your
    way up, and out, through a series of death and
    re-birth.

86
It is
  • The Caste System

87
What is it?
  • It is a concept central to Hinduism and Buddhism.
  • It incorporates the idea of KARMA- that your next
    life will be determined by your actions in this
    life.
  • It is a belief in a cycle of death and rebirth.

88
It is
  • Reincarnation

89
Who am I
  • I was born in a part of India that is in
    present-day Nepal. I left my home to seek
    enlightenment.
  • I taught about the 4 Noble Truths and the
    Eightfold Path to Enlightenment.
  • I am the founder of Buddhism.

90
I am
  • Siddhartha Gautama (a.k.a. The Buddha)

91
What is it
  • It is the language of the Aryans.
  • It is the language of the Vedas.
  • It is the language associated with ancient India.

92
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93
It is
  • Sanskrit

94
What are they
  • They are one of the two key ideas of Siddhartha
    Gautama (The Buddha).
  • They state that desire binds us to our cycle of
    reincarnation.
  • They point us to the things we must do in order
    to release ourselves from reincarnation.

95
They are
The Four Noble Truths of Buddhism
96
What are they
  • They are one of the two key ideas of Siddhartha
    Gautama (The Buddha).
  • They specifically state the things a Buddhist
    must do and have in order to end the cycle of
    reincarnation.
  • They represent the 8 things one to become a
    Buddha.

97
The Eightfold Path to Enlightenment
98
Who am I
  • I was a Prince in the Mauryan Dynasty of India.
  • I was a great warrior who renounced violence, and
    became a man of peace.
  • I spread the teachings of Buddhism to China, and
    the rest of Asia, by sending out missionaries.

99
I am
  • Asoka

100
What is it
  • It was a period in India that lasted from 320-550
    AD.
  • It is a period is characterized by tremendous
    accomplishments in the areas of government,
    drama, poetry, art and philosophy.
  • It is referred to as the Golden Age of India.

101
It is
  • The Gupta Dynasty

102
What am I
  • I was built by Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi.
  • I spread hundreds of miles across Northern China.
  • I was built to keep out invaders from the North
    (Mongols).

103
I am
  • The Great Wall of China

104
Who am I
  • Civil service tests were developed in China based
    on my teachings.
  • My teachings include a belief that humans are
    good, people should respect their elders, a code
    of politeness, and an emphasis on education.
  • My Chinese name is Kung Fu Tze.

105
I am Confucius
The 5 Basic Relationships 1. ruler to subject
2. father to son 3. husband to wife 4.
brother to brother 5. friend to friend
106
What is it
  • It is the trade route that facilitated trade from
    China to as far away as Rome.
  • Paper, porcelain (china), and silk were the main
    products that were traded on it.
  • Buddhism was spread along it from India to China
    by missionaries.

107
It is
  • The Silk Road

108
What is it
  • It is a philosophy created by Lao Tzu (a.k.a.
    Laozi).
  • It emphasize a simple life, and being in harmony
    with nature.
  • It literally mean the Way.

109
It is
  • Taoism (a.k.a. Daoism)

Lao Tzu (a.k.a. Laozi)
110
What is it
  • It was the idea that drove the dynastic cycle in
    China.
  • It was the idea that if the Dynasty (ruling
    family) in China lost the favor of Elders in
    Heaven, that their rule would come to an end.
  • It was believed to end the rule of a corrupt
    Chinese Dynasty with natural disasters and
    rebellion by the people.

111
It is
  • The Mandate of Heaven

112
What is it
  • It is both a symbol of Buddhism, and a symbol of
    Taoism.
  • It represents balance and opposites in the world
    for both Buddhism and Taoism.

113
It is
  • The Yin and the Yang (Yin/ Yang)

114
Who am I
  • I was a famous Greek who wrote about the Trojan
    Wars.
  • I wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey.
  • I was a blind poet.

115
I am
  • Homer

116
What is it
  • It is a polytheistic (worshipping many gods)
    religion.
  • It was used to explain nature and natural
    phenomena, as well as human qualities and life
    events.
  • It is still used often in western literature,
    art, and architecture.

117
It is
  • Greek Mythology

118
Gods Goddesses
119
What is it
  • It was a Greek city-state.
  • It was located on the part of the Greek peninsula
    known as Attica.
  • It favored learning, art, and science over
    warfare and conquest.
  • It was the birthplace of democracy.

120
It is
  • Athens

121
What is it
  • It was a Greek city-state, located on the part of
    Greece called Peloponnesus.
  • It was ruled by an oligarchy (rule by small
    group), and had a rigid social structure.
  • It was militaristic and aggressive- favoring
    combat and simplicity to learning and art.

122
It is
  • Sparta

123
What is it
  • It was a series of wars fought between 499 and
    449 B.C.
  • It left the Greeks in control of the Aegean
    basin.
  • It was the only time Athens and Sparta ever
    united together in combat.

124
It is
  • The Persian Wars

125
What was it
  • It was a battle during the Persian Wars during
    which the Athenians defeated the Persians.
  • It was a battle that saw the 1st invasion by the
    Persian King Darius turned away on the shore of
    Greece.
  • It was the namesake for a very famous sporting
    event.

126
It was
  • The Battle of Marathon

127
What was it
  • It was a famous battle fought during the Persian
    Wars.
  • It took place in Northern Greece, at the
    Hellespont (where Greece touches Asia).
  • It was where 300 Spartan soldiers fought
    thousands of Persian soldiers in a narrow valley
    pass, in order to slow their advance into Greece.
    Every Spartan soldier was eventually killed.

128
It was
  • The Battle of Thermopylae

129
What was it
  • It was the battle during the Persian Wars where
    the Persian King Xerxes was forced to watch as
    his forces were defeated.
  • It was a naval battle, during which large Persian
    ships were drawn into a narrow strait where they
    could not maneuver, then destroyed by the
    smaller, faster, Greek ships.
  • It was the last time Persia would try to invade
    and conquer the Greeks.

130
It was
  • The Battle of Salamis

131
What was it
  • It is often referred to as the Periclean Age.
  • It occurred during the peaceful period between
    the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars.
  • It was a period that occurred in Greece during
    which Greek culture arose to become one of the
    foundations of Western Civilization. the period
    is characterized by tremendous accomplishments in
    the areas of government, drama, poetry, art and
    philosophy.

132
It was
  • The Golden Age of Greece.

133
What is it
  • It is one of the most recognized buildings in the
    entire world to this day.
  • It stands on the Acropolis of Athens.
  • It is a temple dedicated to Athena.

134
It is
  • The Parthenon

135
Who am I
  • I ruled Athens during its Golden Age (between the
    Persian and Peloponnesian Wars).
  • I rebuilt Athens after the destruction of the
    Persian Wars, including the Parthenon.
  • I formed a military alliance (called the Delian
    League) with other Greek city-states that became
    a powerful Athenian Empire, that threatened the
    Spartans so much that they formed their own
    alliance (The Peloponnesian League).

136
I am
  • Pericles

137
Who am I
  • I lived from 484 to 425 BC, and I wrote the
    history of the Persian Wars.
  • I often times included intervention by the gods
    in my writings.
  • I am considered by many to be the father of the
    study of history.

138
I am
  • Herodotus

139
Who am I
  • I was one of the earliest historians.
  • I wrote an account of the Peloponnesian War.
  • I differed from my predecessors in that I did not
    include intervention from the gods in my
    historical accounts.

140
I am
  • Thucydides

141
Who am I
  • I was among the first men to observe and record
    data about sickness and treatment.
  • Doctors to this day still take an oath bearing my
    name before they are allowed to practice
    medicine.
  • I am considered by many to be the father of
    modern medicine.

142
I am
  • Hippocrates

143
Who am I
  • I was a famous Greek playwright.
  • I wrote Oedipus and Antigone, among other works.
  • Like Aeschylus and Euripides, I wrote tragedies.

144
I am
  • Sophocles

145
Who am I
  • Although I never wrote anything myself, I am
    considered to be one of the greatest philosophers
    of all time… some would even call me the father
    of philosophy.
  • I challenged people to question authority and to
    know themselves.
  • I was eventually executed for corrupting youth
    with my teachings

146
I am
  • Socrates

147
Who am I
  • I founded the Academy in Athens, an institution
    devoted to research and instruction in philosophy
    and the sciences.
  • I wrote a book called The Republic, about
    government and leadership.
  • I was the man who recorded the teachings of
    Socrates.

148
I am
  • Plato

149
Who am I
  • I was a pupil of Plato.
  • I wrote many works concerning art, philosophy,
    and politics. I founded a school called the
    Lyceum.
  • I was the tutor of Alexander the Great.

150
I am
  • Aristotle

151
Who am I
  • I was put in charge of the artistic elements of
    the rebuilding of Athens under Pericles.
  • I constructed the massive statues of Zeus at
    Olympia, and Athena in the Parthenon, neither of
    which stand today in their original form.
  • I was the most famous sculptor of the Golden Age
    of Greece.

152
I am
  • Phidias

153
What was it
  • These were a series of wars fought from 431-404
    B.C.
  • These wars were fought for control of the Greek
    world between the Athens and the Delian League
    and Sparta and the Peloponnesian League.
  • These wars resulted in the slowing of cultural
    advances and politics in Greece, so much so that
    they were eventually conquered by neighboring
    Macedonia.

154
It was
  • The Peloponnesian Wars

155
What is it
  • It is a small country that sits to the north of
    Greece.
  • It easily conquered Greece because the
    Peloponnesian Wars weakened them greatly.
  • It was ruled by Phillip II.

156
It is
  • Macedonia

Philip II
157
Who am I
  • I established an empire that extended from Greece
    down to Egypt, and as far east as the Indus River
    Valley.
  • Through trade and war, I blended elements of
    Greek culture (Hellenic culture) with elements of
    African and Eastern culture, to form Hellenistic
    culture.
  • I conquered the entire known world by the age of
    33, and was never defeated in battle.

158
I am
  • Alexander the Great
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