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Dia 1

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It is used for content packaging and is endorsed by the US government as a means ... Both IMS Content Packaging and Meta-Data are core elements, and are utilised in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dia 1


1
To SCORM or Not to SCORM
What is the question?
2
Introduction
  • RNLAF is a HIGH-TECH organization
  • Presently numbering 13.000 dedicated professional
    military and civilian personnel
  • Major reorganizations took and take place
  • Increasing demand on education and training
  • Changes in society
  • Changes in educational system
  • Complex systems
  • Decreasing number of potential candidates

3
Training in the RNAF
  • Integration of a number of smaller schools in one
    Training School
  • In this school both military and professional
    training is conducted.
  • Some problems
  • Students received a big blob of training.
  • Training focused on knowledge transfer.
  • Outdated training material
  • Decline in the quality of maintenance personnel
  • Conclusion the system needed to be changed
  • Task oriented training

4
Reaction of the RNLAF
  • Just-in-time / just-enough training
  • Re-design of initial training pyramid approach

Practical exam
OJT
Skill based training
Practical period
Civil training
5
Mixed Mode (Blended) Learning
  • Shift towards decentralization of learning
  • Introduction of Learning Technology
  • E-learning a subset of Blended Learning
  • Benefits
  • reduces costs
  • experts are accessible
  • reduces time,
  • consistency of content and delivery
  • flexibility and collaboration.

6
Constraints
  • Hardly any COTS technical courseware available
  • Transformation of traditional organization to a
    blended organization creates a lot of turmoil
  • High costs are involved (content generation, LMS,
    LCMS etc)
  • Piece-meal engineering approach to minimize the
    risk's
  • Dont do it all in once
  • Become a Smart Buyer

7
Central Elements of RNLAF Mixed Mode Learning
  • Explicit instructional design model The Four
    Components Instructional Design Model (4C/ID)
  • Learning tasks
  • Supportive information
  • Just-in-time Information (JIT)
  • Part-task Practice
  • 4C/ID model is for RNLAF a refinement of ISD
    approach
  • 4C/ID model is problem centered
  • Training should be competency based
  • Training should be based on international
    standards

8
The RNLAF Learning Environments
9
Performance-based training Group Learner Mixed
Mode
Performance- based training Group Learner Mixed
Mode Coaching Small Groups
OJT
ITC
repository
Knowledge- based training Single Learner Model
Training Mixed Mode Coaching Small Groups
ANYTIME ANYPLACE
10
SCORM vs Learning Design
11
SCORM
  • A high-level framework from the US Advanced
    Distributed Learning Initiative (ADL). It is used
    for content packaging and is endorsed by the US
    government as a means to verify educational
    content and services
  • Both IMS Content Packaging and Meta-Data are core
    elements, and are utilised in various context
    ('application profiles') within SCORM

12
IMS Learning Design
  • LD
  • Designed to describe the full learning process
    within a particular context
  • Represent a generic and flexible markup language
    capable of expressing different pedagogic
    processes
  • LD specification based on EML (Educational
    Modelling Language) at the Open University of the
    Netherlands (OUNL) since 1996

13
SCORM vs Learning Design
  • SCORM
  • Single learner approach
  • Self paced learning (cbt/web-based)
  • Transmission model (pedagogical model)
  • No support of collaboration
  • Directed at specific systems or situations
  • Focused at Web-based delivery only
  • Sequence navigation within content
  • Mass produced, page turning activities
  • Offer oriented
  • A safety-net is necessary
  • LEARNING DESIGN
  • Single or multi-learner
  • Play/ act hierarchy activity based
  • Constructivist learning
  • Learner is part of a group
  • Interaction with other systems possible
  • Blended learning
  • Roles and actors within a learning context
  • Task/job related
  • Demand oriented

14
Integration with SCORM
  • Using Learning Design (LD), it is possible to
    create reusable Learning Activity Sequences which
    may (or may not) include Learning Objects.
  • From this perspective, SCORM can be "plugged in"
    to a Learning Activity Sequence to provide a rich
    way of delivering adaptive content (which would
    be a "Learning Activity" of its own).
  • LD can provide a way of describing other
    multi-user Learning Activities which may be
    wrapped around Learning Activity that uses SCORM
    content.

15
RNLAF Distributed Learning Projects
16
Projects
  • F-16 MAINTENANCE TRAINING
  • ATTP
  • MTTP

APACHE MAINTENANCE TRAINING
  • 4C/ID AND SCORM PROJECTS
  • SHOWCASE F-16
  • CIS
  • AIR POWER
  • 4C/ID, SCORM AND LEARNING DESIGN
  • AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
  • MTTP

LMS TESTING
17
F-16 Maintenance Training
18
ATTP MTTP developed in cooperation with the
RNOAF
19
Background
  • Introduction of competence-based training
  • Less specialist mechanics, more assistant
    mechanics
  • Policy (LE-JAR 147 en 66)
  • JAR A
  • JAR B1
  • JAR B2
  • JAR C

20
F-16 Maintenance Training (Old)
  • Military training
  • Basic maintenance
  • Type course (theoretical)
  • Training on the Job
  • The student received a blob of training
    sufficient for the total career

21
F-16 Maintenance Training (New)
  • Basic JAR A at civil training school
  • Military training
  • Type course (just enough, just in time)
  • Theoretic
  • Practical
  • Ability assessment

22
F-16 Maintenance Training
  • Avionics Technician Training Package (ATTP)
  • Mechanic Technician Training Package (MTTP)
  • Will be combined in TTP

23
Description of ATTP
  • Classroom training
  • Electronic classroom with computer-assisted
    training
  • Computer-based training
  • Emulation
  • Computer-managed instruction (LMS)
  • Troubleshooting exercises
  • Editing of faults

24
Synthetic Maintenance Environment
25
Task Oriented Training in TTP (4C/ID)
26
The Importance of Emulation
27
F-16 Emulation
  • Emulation Reliable and valid representation of
    system
  • Appears to be very powerful training technology

28
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29
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30
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31
Lessons Learned ATTP
  • Even when development is outsourced, a lot of SME
    hours are needed
  • Need for strong didactical approach, otherwise
    training becomes loosely coupled
  • Because of emulation task-oriented approach is
    more effective
  • SOR should be more explicit

32
MTTP Combine SCORM, LD and 4C/ID
33
CIS Training
  • Distributed training
  • Design based on 4C/ID
  • Problem oriented

34
Lesson Introduction
35
Voice Overs
36
Drill and Practice
37
Example of Case Out of Area Radio System 4C/ID
Learning Task
38
Replaying Cases (1)
39
Replaying Cases (2)
40
Air Power
  • Distributed training
  • Design based on 4C/ID
  • Problem oriented

41
Airpower History CD Version
42
Airpower History Introduction Lesson
43
Air Traffic Control Course
  • Combination of learning design and SCORM
  • Integration of 4C/ID and distributed training

44
Where Are We Now? and… Where Are We Heading To?
45
  • (Inter)national learning environments and
    developments will give us direction
  • On The Job training.
  • ADL as the central technology
  • Reduction of the cost of training development

46
The Next Steps
  • Lessons learned further implemented in changing
    existing courses as well as setting up new
    training courses
  • Establishing a Public Private Partnership (PPP)
    between Government bodies, civil industry and
    schools/universities
  • Continue to use Piece-meal engineering as key
    to success
  • Build-up of own knowledge base
  • Outsource non-core activities

47
FINAL CONCLUSIONS
  • The introduction of blended learning is a
    long-term project, continuation and expertise are
    critical
  • Introduce Knowledge Management
  • Piece-meal engineering important because of
    rapidly changing environment
  • Commitment of management essential
  • Instructor support is critical role change
  • Flexibility and adaptability are important

48
UTOPIA
IMS
Culture
LMS/CMS
Bilities……...
Organisation
Civil training
Technology
school
Simulation
OJT
Mixed Mode Learning
SCORM
Simple sequencing
Stand-up training
Instructor
ISD
Pedagogy
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