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Chapter 11 Group Influence and Opinion Leadership

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11 - 1. Chapter 11. Group Influence and Opinion Leadership. By Michael R. Solomon ... Costumes hide our true identities and encourage deindividuation. 11 - 19 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 11 Group Influence and Opinion Leadership


1
Chapter 11Group Influence and Opinion Leadership
By Michael R. Solomon
Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Being Sixth
Edition
2
Opening Vignette Zachary
  • Does Zachary meet your mental stereotype for a
    Harley Davidson owner?
  • Why does Zachary desire to have more Harley
    stuff?
  • How do Zachs fellow RUBs influence his
    purchases?
  • What benefits does Zach enjoy from his
    association with other Harley owners?

3
Harley Owners Group
4
Reference Groups
  • Reference Group
  • An actual or imaginary individual or group
    conceived of having significant relevance upon an
    individuals evaluations, aspirations, or
    behavior
  • Three ways reference groups influence consumers
  • Informational
  • Utilitarian
  • Value-Expressive
  • Some people are more influential than others in
    affecting consumers product preferences.

5
Relative Reference GroupsInfluence on Purchase
Intention
Figure 11.1
6
When Reference GroupsAre Important
  • Social Power
  • The capacity to alter the actions of others
  • Referent Power
  • When consumers imitate qualities by copying
    behaviors of a prominent person they admire.
  • Information Power
  • Able to influence consumer opinion by virtue of
    their (assumed) access to the truth
  • Legitimate Power
  • Granted to people by virtue of social
    agreements, sometimes conferred by a uniform

7
Expert Power
  • A physician has expert power, and a white coat
    reinforces this expertise by conferring
    legitimate power.

8
When Reference GroupsAre Important (cont.)
  • Expert Power
  • Derived from possessing specific knowledge about
    a content area
  • Reward Power
  • When a person or group has the means to provide
    positive reinforcement
  • Coercive Power
  • Influencing a person by social or physical
    intimidation

9
Types of Reference Groups
  • Reference Group
  • Any external influence that provides social cues
  • Normative Influence
  • The reference group helps to set and enforce
    fundamental standards of conduct.
  • Comparative Influence
  • When decisions about specific brands or
    activities are affected.

10
Discussion Question
  • Marketers often portray products being used in
    groups that represent favorable reference groups
    to the target market.
  • What type of message does this ad convey? What
    type of influence is this ad designed to exert on
    its target audience?

11
Brand Communities and Tribes
  • Brand Community
  • A set of consumers who share a set of social
    relationships based upon usage or interest in a
    product.
  • Brandfests
  • Consumer Tribe
  • A group of people who share a lifestyle and who
    can identify with each other because of a shared
    allegiance to an activity or product.
  • Tribal Marketing
  • To link ones product to the needs of a group as
    a whole.

12
Products as a Way to be Popular
  • Many products, especially those targeted to young
    people, are often touted as a way to take the
    inside track to popularity. This Brazilian ad
    lets us know about people who dont like a
    certain shoe.

13
Membership vs. AspirationalReference Groups
  • Aspirational Reference Groups
  • Comprise idealized figures such as successful
    business people, athletes, or performers.
  • Membership Reference Group
  • Ordinary people whose consumption activities
    provide informational social influence.
  • Propinquity Physical nearness.
  • Mere Exposure Liking persons or things simply as
    a result of seeing them more often (mere exposure
    phenomenon)
  • Group Cohesiveness The degree to which members
    of a group are attracted to each other and value
    their group membership.

14
Match.com
15
Positive Versus NegativeReference Groups
  • Avoidance Groups
  • Groups that consumers purposely try to distance
    themselves from
  • Nerds
  • Druggies
  • Preppies
  • The motivation to distance oneself from a
    negative reference group can be as powerful or
    more powerful than the desire to please a
    positive group

16
Positive Reference Groups
  • This recruiting ad presents a compelling role
    model for young women contemplating a career in
    the armed forces.

17
Consumers Do it in Groups
  • Deindividuation
  • A process in which individual identities become
    submerged within a group.
  • Social Loafing
  • People do not devote as much to a task when their
    contribution is part of a larger group effort
  • Risky Shift
  • Group members are willing to consider riskier
    alternatives subsequent to group discussion
  • Diffusion of Responsibility
  • As more people are involved in a decision, each
    individual is less accountable for the outcome

18
Deindividuation
  • Costumes hide our true identities and encourage
    deindividuation.

19
Consumers Do it in Groups (cont.)
  • Value Hypothesis
  • Riskiness is a culturally valued characteristic
    to which individuals feel pressure to conform
  • Decision Polarization
  • Whichever direction the group members were
    leaning toward before discussion becomes more
    extreme subsequent to discussion
  • Home Shopping Parties
  • Capitalize on group pressures to increase sales

20
Home Shopping Parties
  • Women at a home Tupperware party.

21
Group Influences
  • Group pressure often influences our clothing
    choices.

22
Conformity
  • Conformity
  • A change in beliefs or actions as a reaction to
    real or imagined group pressure.
  • Norms
  • Informal rules that govern behavior.
  • Factors Influencing the Likelihood of Conformity
  • Cultural Pressures
  • Fear of Deviance
  • Commitment
  • Principle of Least Interest
  • Group Unanimity, Size, and Expertise
  • Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence
  • Role-relaxed consumers

23
Social Comparison
  • Social Comparison Theory
  • Asserts that people look to the behavior of
    others to increase the stability of their
    self-evaluation
  • Co-oriented peer A person of equivalent standing
  • Resisting Conformity
  • Independence Being oblivious or indifferent to
    the expectations of others
  • Anticonformity Defiance of the group is the
    actual behavior
  • Reactance The negative emotional state that
    results when we are deprived of our freedom to
    choose

24
Word of mouth
rumours
25
Word-of-Mouth Communication
  • Word-of-Mouth (WOM)
  • Product information transmitted by individuals to
    individuals.
  • Negative WOM and the Power of Rumors
  • Negative WOM Consumers weigh negative info from
    other consumers more heavily than they do
    positive comments

26
Discussion Question
  • This ad for a video game says, Conformity
    Bytes!, but then captions, Join the
    Revolution! Why?
  • Does this ad encourage independence or
    anticonformity?

27
Word-of-Mouth
  • The U.S. Postal Service hopes to create a buzz
    via word of mouth.

28
Rumors
  • Hoaxkill.com is a Web site dedicated to tracking
    hoaxes and debunking product rumors.

29
The Transmission of Misinformation
Figure 11.2
30
Changing Information
  • Serial Reproduction
  • Technique to examine the phenomenon that
    information changes as it is transmitted among
    consumers
  • Assimilation Distortions tend to follow a
    pattern from ambiguous to conventional to fit
    with existing schemas
  • Leveling Details are omitted to simplify
    structure
  • Sharpening Prominent details are accentuated

31
Cutting-Edge WOM Strategies
  • Virtual Communities
  • Virtual Community of Consumption A collection of
    people whose online interactions are based upon
    shared enthusiasm for and knowledge of a specific
    consumption activity.
  • Multi-user Dungeons (MUD)
  • Rooms, rings and lists (e.g. chat rooms)
  • Boards
  • Blogs (weblog)

32
Multi-User Dungeons
33
Four Types of VirtualCommunity Members
  • Tourists
  • Lack strong social ties to the group
  • Minglers
  • Maintain strong social ties, but are not
    interested in the central consumption activity
  • Devotees
  • Express strong interest in the activity, but have
    few social attachments to the group
  • Insiders
  • Exhibit both strong social ties and strong
    interest in the activity

34
Virtual Communities
Figure 11.3
35
Guerrilla Marketing
  • Guerrilla Marketing
  • Promotional strategies that use unconventional
    locations and intensive word-of-mouth campaigns
    to push products.
  • Brand Ambassadors
  • Viral Marketing
  • Refers to the strategy of getting customers to
    sell a product on behalf of the company that
    creates it.

36
Guerrilla Marketing Ads
  • Ads painted on sidewalks are one form of
    guerrilla marketing.

37
Opinion Leadership
  • The Nature of Opinion Leadership
  • Opinion Leaders People who are knowledgeable
    about products and whose advice is taken
    seriously by others.
  • Homophily The degree to which a pair of
    individuals is similar in terms of education,
    social status, and beliefs.
  • How Influential Is an Opinion Leader?
  • Generalized Opinion Leader Somebody whose
    recommendations are sought for all types of
    purchases.
  • Monomorphic An expert in a limited field.
  • Polymorphic An expert in many fields.

38
Opinion Leaders Market Shoes
  • Opinion leadership is a big factor in the
    marketing of athletic shoes. Many styles first
    become popular in the inner city and then spread
    by word-of-mouth.

39
Types of Opinion Leaders
  • Innovators
  • Early purchasers
  • Innovative Communicators
  • Opinion leaders who also are early purchasers
  • Opinion leaders also are likely to be opinion
    seekers
  • The Market Maven
  • Describes people who are actively involved in
    transmitting marketplace information of all
    types.
  • The Surrogate Consumer
  • A person who is hired to provide input in
    purchase decisions.

40
Cool hunters and mavens
  • Maven - unpaid enthusiasts who initiate
    discussions with consumers and respond to
    requests for information
  • neighbourhoods mavens
  • professional mavens (critics, reviewers,
    correspondents)
  • celebrity mavens (Beckham)
  • modern consumers need maverns to
  • seek relevant information
  • provide a trustworthy recommendation
  • decide which is best
  • examples
  • Blair Witch Project
  • Harry Potter

http//www.sharperimage.com
http//www.NewConsumer.co.uk/
Lewis and Bridger 2000
41
Perspectives on theCommunications Process
Figure 11.4
42
Fashion Opinion Leaders
  • Fashion opinion leaders tend to be knowledgeable
    about clothing and highly motivated to stay on
    top of fashion trends.

43
Identifying Opinion Leaders
  • Self-designated Opinion Leaders
  • Sociometric Methods
  • Trace Communication patterns among members of a
    group.
  • Referral Behavior
  • Network Analysis Focuses on communication in
    social systems
  • Referral Network
  • Tie Strength The nature of the bond between
    people.
  • Bridging Function Allows a consumer access
    between subgroups.
  • Cliques Subgroups

44
Revised Opinion Leadership Scale
Figure 11.5
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