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## Comparing the Effectiveness of Three Unique Research Based Tutorials for Introducing Newtons Second

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### ... of. Three Unique Research Based. Tutorials for Introducing ... Does the manner in which Newton's Second Law is introduced affect student learning outcomes? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Comparing the Effectiveness of Three Unique Research Based Tutorials for Introducing Newtons Second

1
Comparing the Effectiveness ofThree Unique
Research BasedTutorials for IntroducingNewtons
Second Law
• Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science
in Teaching
• Mindi Kvaal Anderson
• May 19, 2009

2
Acknowledgments
• Committee
• Warren Christensen
• Eric Pandiscio
• Paul Wlodkowski
• Others
• Trevor Smith
• Katrina Black
• Jeff Hawkins

3
Newtons Second Law
• ?Fma

4
Newtons Second Law
• ?Fma
• The Major Ideas

5
Newtons Second Law
• ?Fma
• The Major Ideas
• Acceleration as change in motion caused by the
net force of an object

6
Newtons Second Law
• ?Fma
• The Major Ideas
• Acceleration as change in motion caused by the
net force of an object
• Superposition of forces

7
Student Difficulties with NSL
• Students cannot identify forces on at rest
objects (Minstrell 1982)
• Students confuse velocity and acceleration
(Trowbridge and McDermott 1981)
• Students associate force with velocity not
acceleration (Thornton 1998)
• Students believe constant force is required for
constant motion (Dykstra 2002)

8
Tutorials in Introductory Physics
• University of Washington (TIP)
• Investigate the at rest condition and uses free
body diagrams
• Resolve difficulties tutorial

9
Activity Based Tutorial
• University of Maryland (ABT)
• Investigates velocity and acceleration using
frictionless carts and computer graph outputs
• Resolve difficulties tutorials

10
Open Source Tutorial
• University of Maryland (OST)
• Investigates velocity in a vertical motion
situation
• Refine intuitions tutorial

11
Research Question
• Does the manner in which Newtons Second Law is
introduced affect student learning outcomes?

12
Research Setting
• PHY 111 Fall 2008
• Tutorials twice weekly
• Split into 3 groups
• 3 different NSL tutorials
• Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation Pre and
Post-Test
• Final Examination Question

Thornton and Sokoloff (1998)
13
The FMCE
• 47 question multiple choice questionnaire probes
Newtonian thinking
• Analyze in 7 clusters
• 4 clusters involve NSL
• Force Sled
• Reversing Direction
• Force Graphs
• Acceleration Graphs

Smith Wittmann (2009)
14
Final Examination Question
• 3 part question
• At rest condition (TIP tutorial)
• Motion with acceleration (ABT tutorial)
• Motion without acceleration (OST tutorial)

15
Final Examination Question Dropped
• Results inconclusive
• All groups performed poorly
• No significant difference between groups
• Final examination results not used for analysis

16
Summary of All FMCE Data
• 72 matched data points
• TIP 16
• ABT 34
• OST 22
• Normalized gain

17
FMCE Misconception Pattern
• Constant velocity requires constant force
• (Consistent answers to FMCE 2, 14, 17)

18
FMCE Misconception Example
__2. Which force would keep the sled moving
toward the right at a steady
(constant) velocity?
19
FMCE Misconception Example
__2. Which force would keep the sled moving
toward the right at a steady
(constant) velocity?
Constant velocity requires constant force
20
FMCE Misconception Example
__2. Which force would keep the sled moving
toward the right at a steady
(constant) velocity?
Correct application of NSL
21
FMCE Misconception Pattern
• Constant acceleration requires changing force
• (Consistent answers to FMCE 1, 4, 16)

22
FMCE Misconception Example
__1. Which force would keep the sled moving
toward the right and speeding up at a
23
FMCE Misconception Example
__1. Which force would keep the sled moving
toward the right and speeding up at a
Constant acceleration requires changing force
24
FMCE Misconception Example
__1. Which force would keep the sled moving
toward the right and speeding up at a
Correct application of NSL
25
Groups Identical Before Instruction
26
Does 1 Hour of Tutorial Make a Difference?
27
Possibly
28
Overall Gains
• Significant differences
• TIP tutorial performed better than ABT
• TIP gains significant

29
Force Sled Cluster
• Significant differences
• TIP tutorial performed better than ABT
• TIP gains significant

30
Reversing Direction Cluster
• No significant differences
• No significant gains by any tutorial group.

31
Force Graphs Cluster
• No significant differences
• 50 of 72 students had gains of zero
• TIP group, 5/16 had gains

32
Acceleration Graphs Cluster
• No significant differences
• 37 of 72 students had gains of zero

33
Summary
• TIP group had the largest gains both overall and
in all four NSL clusters.
• In only 2 cases were those gains significantly
different from either the ABT or OST groups.

34
Conclusion
• Students whose tutorial focused on the at rest
condition showed slightly betterlearning gains
on the FMCE
• Confounding Factors that underlies data
• Sample size
• Tutorial homework
• TA preparation