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Beginning 14501750

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European kingdoms gain power ... Collection of Turkish Tribes from Asia Minor ... 3. Pirates. 4. Decline of Silk Road. 5. Inept Rulers. Rise of Qing Dynasty ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Beginning 14501750


1
Beginning 1450-1750
  • Main Topics
  • World becomes global!
  • Maritime trade dominates the world
  • European kingdoms gain power
  • Labor systems transformed
  • Gunpowder Empires emerge in Middle East and Asia

2
The Ottoman Empire
  • Collection of Turkish Tribes from Asia Minor
  • 1453 Conquered Constantinople and collapsed the
    Byzantine Empire
  • From Constantinople (later Istanbul) they would
    launch raids against the Balkans of Europe
  • Suleiman the Magnificent led control of land on
    three continents (Southwestern Europe, Middle
    East, and North Africa)
  • Siege of Vienna (1530) turning point of Ottoman
    expansion and European unity to fight the Muslim
    invaders!

3
Ottoman Empire Continued
  • They used civil service and bureaucracy to
    maintain a multiethnic empire for 600 years
    (1299-1922)
  • The Sultan was the absolute ruler
  • Got wealth from controlling the Dardanelles and
    Black Sea control
  • Great army of mounted and foot soldiers used
    Janissaries Balkan Christian boys captured and
    trained into the army
  • Slaves were used as labor

4
Ottoman Empire again
  • Most Turks were Sunni Islam, however there were
    Orthodox Christians and Jews that made up large
    part of the empire
  • Culture was extremely diverse due to trade
    connections and diversity of land
  • The merchant class was important
  • Women had more equality than most areas,
    including the right to own property.

5
HOLY COW the Mughal Empire!
  • Continuation of the Delhi Sultanate
    descendents of the Mongol invaders (hence Mughal)
  • Land included modern day India, Pakistan, and
    Afghanistan
  • Strong military required high taxes
  • Military service was rewarded with land grants
    upset regional rulers
  • Muslim authority over Hindus Akbar married a
    Hindu woman and tried to reconcile with the
    majority Hindi population
  • Sikhism emerges in some areas a combination
    of Islam and Hinduism
  • Limited trade
  • The Taj Mahal was built during this time. It is
    an Islamic building

6
TOKUGAWA JAPAN
  • Gunpowder Empire in Japan
  • Tokugawa organized the daimyos (regional lords)
    and the Shoguns into one unified powerful family
  • Emperor still honored as ceremonial leader
  • Tent government under Emperor settled in Edo
    (modern day Tokyo) and ruled by alternate
    attendance daimyos must spend every other year
    the Tokugawa shoguns court
  • Daimyos now have limited time to focus on armies
    back home (same way Louis XIV controlled the
    French nobles in European history)

7
Tokugawa Continued
  • Tokugawa had less patience with Christian
    missionaries from the west than the Chinese did
  • Japanese idea of Europeans based on Spanish
    conquest of the Philippines a fate they did not
    want to share
  • 1630s the Shogunate closed Japan by
    forbidding all Japanese from going abroad and
    expelling Europeans from Japan
  • Feared Europeans and daimyos would form alliance
    to over take Tokugawa control

8
Ming Dynasty in China
  • Ming Emperors ruled China until Mid-1600
  • Even in decline, the cultural brilliance and
    economic achievements continued
  • Problems that factored in decline
  • Hard to control borders
  • Armies expensive to maintain
  • Transportation and communication issues

9
End of Ming Dynasty
  • 1. Climatic Change weather turned colder
    affected agriculture and health created famine
    caused rebellions to occur
  • 2. Nomadic Invasions Mongols invaded with help
    of Tibet instituted the Dalai Lama or
    universal teacher of Tibetan Buddhism Japan
    also attacked Korea (a Chinese tributary state)
  • 3. Pirates
  • 4. Decline of Silk Road
  • 5. Inept Rulers

10
Rise of Qing Dynasty
  • The Manchus finally overthrew the Ming in 1644
  • Ming had originally asked the Manchus to help
    fight off the Mongols
  • They did and then attacked the Ming when they
    were done!!
  • Called themselves the Qing (pure) b/c they saw
    themselves as restoring China to glory
  • Qing Dynasty ruled China until 1911

11
Qing Dynasty
  • Borrowed from Chinese culture
  • Ex. Mandate of Heaven
  • Kept their ethnic identity
  • Forbid intermarriage of Manchu and Chinese
  • Forbid Chinese from learning the Manchurian
    language
  • Required Chinese men to shave their heads and
    grow long queues at the back of their heads as a
    sign of submission!

12
Question from Video(copy now)
  • Describe the historical figures and
  • circumstances that led to the High
  • Renaissance.
  • Identify major works by Raphael, Leonardo da
    Vinci, and Michelangelo,.
  • Identify the contributions these artists
  • brought to the world of visual arts.

13
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14
Scientific Revolution
  • Key People Copernicus, Galileo, Francis Bacon,
    William Harvey
  • Movement Ideals
  • World explained through natural laws instead of
    superstition Sun was center of universe
    Scientific Method Question traditional church
    practices and teachings
  • Diffusion Throughout Europe and American colonies

15
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16
Enlightenment
  • Key People John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau,
    Thomas Hobbes, Voltaire
  • Ideas Natural Rights life, liberty, property
    right of people to protest and overthrow the
    government Freedom of speech, press, religion
  • Diffusion Europe and American Colonies

17
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