Terrestrial Ecology Program - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Terrestrial Ecology Program PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 269364-NGViN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Terrestrial Ecology Program

Description:

Terrestrial Ecology Program – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:164
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 61
Provided by: SAICO
Learn more at: http://cce.nasa.gov
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Terrestrial Ecology Program


1
Terrestrial Ecology Program
Diane E. Wickland William Emanuel 1 May 2008
2
The NASA Mission Goals
To pioneer the future in space exploration,
scientific discovery, and aeronautics research.
Strategic Goal 3 Develop a balanced overall
program of science, exploration, and aeronautics
consistent with the redirection of the human
spaceflight program to focus on exploration
Sub-goal 3A Study Earth from space to advance
scientific understanding and meet societal needs.
3
CCE Focus Area Goals Objectives
  • Quantify global land cover change and terrestrial
    and marine productivity, and improve carbon cycle
    and ecosystem models.
  • Three objectives are identified for Carbon Cycle
    and Ecosystems research
  • Document and understand how the global carbon
    cycle, terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and
    land cover and use are changing
  • Quantify global productivity, biomass, carbon
    fluxes, and changes in land cover and
  • Provide useful projections of future changes in
    global carbon cycling and terrestrial and marine
    ecosystems for use in ecological forecasting and
    as inputs for improved climate change
    predictions.

4
Terrestrial Ecology Program
  • Goal The goal of NASAs Terrestrial Ecology
    research is to improve understanding of the
    structure and function of global terrestrial
    ecosystems, their interactions with the
    atmosphere and hydrosphere, and their role in the
    cycling of the major biogeochemical elements and
    water.
  • Science Questions
  • How are global ecosystems changing?
  • How do ecosystems, land cover and biogeochemical
    cycles respond to and affect global environmental
    change?
  • What are the consequences of land cover and land
    use change for human societies and the
    sustainability of ecosystems?
  • How will carbon cycle dynamics and terrestrial
    and marine ecosystems change in the future?

5
Terrestrial Ecology Program Research Topics
  • Carbon Cycle Science
  • Terrestrial Primary Productivity
  • Ecosystem Response to Change (including
    Disturbance and Recovery Processes)
  • North American Carbon Program (NACP)
  • Large Scale Biosphere - Atmosphere Experiment in
    Amazonia (LBA)
  • Land-Atmosphere Interactions (physical
    chemical)
  • Remote Sensing Science / Biophysics of Remote
    Sensing
  • Integrated Biogeochemical Cycles
  • Other habitats human health, ecosystem
    services, fire, biodiversity, agricultural
    impacts/responses, invasive species

6

Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in
Amazônia (LBA)
  • LBA is an international, multi-disciplinary
    cooperative research program led by Brazil. NASA
    leads the U.S. participation in LBA, working in
    close partnership with the Brazilian leaders and
    scientists. (1998 present).
  • LBA research is focused on producing new
    knowledge about the - climatological,
    ecological, biogeochemical, and hydrological
    functions of Amazônia, - impact of land use
    change on these functions - interactions
    between Amazônia and the Earth system. LBA is
    the largest cooperative international scientific
    project ever to study the interaction between
    tropical forests and the atmosphere.
  • NASA completed its field contribution in 2006.

The Amazon region of South America as viewed by
MODIS on NASAs Terra satellite.
The Amazon region of South America as viewed by
MODIS on NASAs Terra satellite.
7
LBA-ECO
LBA-ECO is NASAs Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems
Focus Area contribution to LBA. LBA-ECO
research (1998-2008) focuses on this science
question How do tropical forest conversion,
regrowth, and selective logging, influence carbon
storage, nutrient dynamics, trace gas fluxes, and
the prospect for sustainable land use in
Amazônia?
8

LBA Achievements and Results (as of
Summer, 2006)
  • Discovered that forests green-up, are more
    productive, and store more carbon in the dry
    season. Light limitations in the wet season
    constrain productivity more than water
    limitations do in the dry season.
  • Discovered that in the wet season, cloud cover
    and rain in the western Amazon resemble oceanic
    conditions. These green ocean conditions are
    controlled by natural particulate emissions from
    the vegetation.
  • Developed new remote sensing methodologies to
    detect and quantify selective logging in the
    Amazon and quantify its effect on carbon budgets.
  • Developed a Brazilian early warning system for
    deforestation (DETER) based on NASA MODIS
    technology.
  • Developed a model (now operational in Brazil at
    CPTEC) using satellite fire detections to predict
    the transport of smoke.
  • Produced 1154 research publications, including 8
    Special Issues.
  • Trained 932 students, including 241 Ph.D.s.

9
LBA Synthesis Integration Phase
  • Continued collaboration between Brazilian and U.
    S. scientists on LBA data analysis and
    interpretation, including
  • Synthesis of carbon research results that will
    quantify the Amazons carbon budget, addressing
    interannual variations and whether it is a carbon
    source or sink.
  • An integrated analysis of the meteorological
    conditions, ecological, economic, and social
    effects of the 2005 drought and forest fires in
    Western Amazônia.
  • Analyses of remote sensing data on natural and
    anthropogenic disturbances to constrain the
    temporal and spatial variations in forest
    turnover and stream biogeochemistry.
  • A rich, and well-documented archive of LBA data
    and data products will be publicly available for
    a wide variety of uses. It continues to be
    challenging to get investigators to make data
    delivery a priority.
  • Continuation of training and education
    activities.

http//www.lbaeco.org
10
North American Carbon Program (NACP)
  • The NACP has three overarching goals
  • Develop quantitative scientific knowledge,
    robust observations, and models to determine the
    emissions and uptake of CO2, CH4, and CO, the
    changes in carbon stocks, and the factors
    regulating these processes for North America and
    adjacent ocean basins
  • Develop the scientific basis to implement full
    carbon accounting on regional and continental
    scales
  • Support long-term quantitative measurements of
    sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 and CH4, and
    develop forecasts for future trends

A major step toward implementing the NACP was
achieved with the publication of The North
American Carbon Program (NACP) in 2002.
11
NACP Questions
  • What is the carbon balance of North America and
    adjacent oceans? What are the geographic
    patterns of fluxes of CO2, CH4, and CO? How is
    the balance changing over time? (Diagnosis)
  • What processes control the sources and sinks of
    CO2, CH4, and CO, and how do the controls change
    with time? (Attribution/Processes)
  • Are there potential surprises (could sources
    increase or sinks disappear)? (Prediction)
  • How can we enhance and manage long-lived carbon
    sinks ("sequestration"), and provide resources to
    support decision makers? (Decision support)

12
North American Carbon Program (NACP) Integration
The NACP will quantify the magnitudes and
distributions of carbon sources and sinks,
explain the processes controlling them, and
produce a consistent analysis of North Americas
carbon budget.
Observations
Dynamic Maps
Model-Data Fusion

Decision Support
Diagnostic Models
Field Studies
Predictive Models
NACP is a CCSP Interagency Collaboration
Observations Experiments ? Science Results ?
Estimates Uncertainties
13
Remote Sensing in the NACP
Net Change in Soil Carbon (30 m) 1991 2000
Leaf Area Index (5 km) June 26 July 3,
2006 MODIS data
R. Nemani, NASA ARC
0
3
6
T. West, ORNL
Landsat inventory data.
U.S. Carbon Biomass 2000 SRTM data
Disturbance Regrowth Dynamics
Aboveground Biomass
1972 2006 Landsat Data Forest inventory
data Ecosystem carbon models
Basal-Area Weighted Height
S. Goward, Univ MD J. Masek G. Collatz, GSFC
J. Kellndorfer, Woods Hole Research Inst.
14
North American Carbon Program Issues
  • NACP Science Plan and CCRI NACP element call for
    a near-term integrated analysis of North
    Americas carbon budget and a capacity to
    continue this into the future.
  • Eight agencies are working together to address
    NACP goals.
  • NASA depends on the scientific data and research
    results of these partner agencies to achieve NACP
    goals.
  • Expectations about products and time frames
    differ substantially.
  • NASA expects substantial progress by 2010.
  • Other agencies, particularly those that limit
    their research to the U.S. and neighboring
    countries, have a far longer-term view.
  • Agencies with long-term, in situ monitoring
    responsibilities, particularly NOAA, USDA, and
    DOE, implement key NACP elements only as budgets
    and agency priorities permit.
  • CCIWG is looking into the possibility of
    re-scoping NACP plans, and NASA is adapting its
    participation in the NACP to better insure that
    important results involving NASA remote sensing
    and analyses are achieved within the expected
    time frame while also meeting other agencies
    needs for remote sensing data products over the
    longer term.  

15
Terrestrial Ecology Program Unique Role
  • NASA Terrestrial Ecology leads in providing
    remote sensing data, remote sensing data
    analysis, and modeling also
  • we are a champion for the global, synoptic
    perspective
  • we are a major player in ecosystem, carbon
    cycle, and biogeochemical cycle model
    development, both diagnostic and prognostic
  • we, rather uniquely, are able to organize and
    support focused field campaigns and other large,
    highly coordinated projects

16
Primary External Interfaces
  • Interagency
  • CCSP Carbon Cycle Science (CCIWG)
  • CENR Subcom. on Ecological Systems
  • DOE (NACP, AmeriFlux, Carbon Modeling, ORNL DAAC)
  • USDA (Joint Working Group, LBA, Fire, NACP,
    Forest Cover, field studies)
  • USGS (Landsat/LDCM, GLMDS, EDC DAAC, invasive
    species, NACP)
  • NOAA (NPP/NPOESS, NACP)
  • International
  • LBA Brazil
  • NACP Canada-Mexico-U.S. collaboration and
    cooperation with EU
  • IGBP/IHDP/WCRP Global Carbon Project, Global
    Land Project
  • CEOS, IGOS-P, GTOS, GOOS, IGOL
  • ESSP, GEOSS

17
Recent Reviews and Advice
  • Visiting Committee Reviewed NASA Earth Science
    Division in December 2007
  • Noted there is a need for a compelling new vision
    to motivate and justify Earth Science (as Earth
    System Science did in the past 2 decades)
  • Recommended NASA prepare ideas for a new
    initiative that could be ready to implement by a
    new Presidential Administration
  • Noted that NASAs Earth Science Division is
    seriously understaffed for the work it is doing
    and identified a few critical areas
  • NASA Advisory Councils Earth Science
    Subcommittee last met in January 2008
  • Recommended a study as to why Earth Science
    missions cost so much more than Space Science
    missions
  • Recommended studies of DESDynI and ICESat-II
    mission configurations to address
    incompatibilities
  • Recommended steps be taken to reduce the time to
    implement new research awards

18
New Strategic Planning
  • NASA Earth Science Division is likely to begin a
    new round of strategic planning soon
  • U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP)
  • New national assessment and CCSP Research
    Strategy update to be released in May 2008 (to
    comply with court orders)
  • New CCSP Research Strategy to be developed in
    2009 IWGs working on building blocks now
  • CCIWG discussing a new, updated A U.S. Carbon
    Cycle Science Plan with its CCSSG
  • An Ocean Research Priority Plan is being
    developed by the Joint Subcommittee on Ocean
    Science and Technology (JSOST)

19
New Questions for the Focus Area?
  • Coming soon from the CCE MOWG . . .

20
New Questions for the Focus Area?
  • Science Themes for Understanding and Managing
    Ecosystems Key Questions
  • Disruption of the carbon, water and nitrogen
    cycles
  • Changing land and marine resource use
  • Changes in disturbance cycles

- Suggestions from Decadal Survey
21
CCE Budget Issues
  • ESD RA budget (one line for all research program
    elements) continues to decline some other budget
    lines that support research are declining, and
    others are stable or increasing
  • This year Earth Science received a budget
    increase to begin work on the Decadal Survey
    missions new starts for SMAP and ICESat-II and
    funds to study and advance toward implementation
    of others (these funds came at the expense of
    NASAs space science divisions . . .)
  • Full cost accounting implementation at NASA civil
    service Centers continues to complicate program
    management
  • Congressionally mandated recission of unobligated
    FY2007 funds in December, 2007
  • New NASA focus on early commitment and obligation
    of funds
  • FY2007 funds to be obligated by end of March 2008
    (or lost)
  • FY2008 funds to be nearly all obligated by Sept.
    30, 2008, but . . . that means much earlier for
    most of us!
  • ? obligation occurs when funds are awarded on a
    contract or grant at the Centers, they do not
    obligate until the PI acts to spend them
  • It is very likely that attention will turn back
    to costing soon some of the things we do to get
    funds obligated could come back to bite in the
    form or uncosted carryover. . .

22
Aligning CCE Research with Missions
  • With a strong focus on space-based measurements
    and a shrinking budget for research, we are
    increasingly challenged to achieve a reasonable
    mix of investments in analysis of data from
    existing missions, preparing scientifically for
    future missions, conducting field programs and
    campaigns, and research to answer global change
    questions that covers the breadth of science
    needed to address our goals and engage our
    community.
  • We depend heavily on other NASA programs for
    support of data and information systems, data
    record production, technology development,
    airborne platforms and some instruments, and
    other infrastructure necessary to enable the
    scientific research we fund. Priorities in these
    areas are evolving and resources are constrained.
  • Achieving the right balance is a continual
    challenge, and given that we are experiencing
    difficulties with our missions in development and
    facing interesting challenges in responding to
    the Decadal Survey, there is a lot at stake.

23
New Processes for Research Management in NASA
Science Mission Directorate
  • SARA Web site
  • NSPIRES enhancements, and move to totally
    electronic procurement packages
  • 4-year awards as a new norm
  • Proposal Handling / Peer review Process Changes
  • Budgets no loner redacted for peer review (ROSES
    2008)
  • Only Panel Consensus or Summary Review provided
    to proposers as feedback/documentation of the
    peer evaluation
  • More standardized procedures in how peer reviews
    are run

24
Recent Events and Milestones
  • Research Opportunities in ROSES-2007
  • Carbon Cycle Science
  • Terrestrial Ecology (Structure/PFT, Integrative
    Studies, Advanced Models)
  • Land Cover and Land Use Change
  • Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry (pending)
  • Decision Support through Earth Science Research
    Results (DECISIONS)
  • New Investigator Program (pending)
  • Advancing Collaborative Connections for Earth
    System Science
  • ROSES-2008 Released (LCLUC, TE (tbd), OBB,
    Biodiversity, DECISIONS, Applications Feasibility
    Studies, AIST)
  • OCO on schedule for December 2008 launch
  • NPP launch revised to June 2010 (OMPS Limb, CERES
    added)
  • New starts for SMAP and ICESat-II and funds for
    other decadal survey mission studies
  • New Web site for CCE Focus Area
    http//cce.nasa.gov/ (suggestions for
    improvements welcome)

25
Carbon Cycle Ecosystems Announcing Our New
Web Site
  • Please visit our new Focus Area Web site at
  • http//cce.nasa.gov/
  • (Comments and suggestions for improvements are
    welcome!)
  • A new Terrestrial Ecology Web Site linked to the
    one above is being planned for the near future.
    Ideas are welcome!

26
CCE Upcoming Meetings
  • CCE Management Operations Working Group (MOWG)
    to meet Apr. 17-18, 2008 (Greenbelt)
  • CCE Joint Science Workshop April 28-May 2, 2008
    (UMUC)
  • LBA/GEOMA/PPBio Scientific Conference November
    17-21, 2008 (Manaus)
  • NACP Investigators Workshop February 17-20, 2009
    (San Diego)
  • ASCENDS and HyspIRI Workshops soon . . .

27
Terrestrial Ecology Issues to Discuss
  • Breakout Discussions Issues Opportunities in
    the Context of our Science

28
A Terrestrial Ecology Annual Meeting?
  • To cultivate a stronger sense of community
  • To engage TE researchers in some problem solving
    and priority setting for the program
  • To exchange research results
  • Other?
  • If so, we think an organizing committee that
    includes scientists participating in the TE
    research program would be a good idea. Ideas,
    volunteers?
  • Lets discuss in the wrap-up session. . .

29
Measurements for the Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems
Focus Area
  • Measurements are dominating current NASA
    priorities and activities they present both our
    greatest problems and opportunities
  • Delays in both NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP)
    and Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM)
  • Performance issues with NPPs VIIRS for ocean
    color
  • Launch this year of the Orbiting Carbon
    Observatory (OCO)
  • Identifying our Earth System Data Records (or
    Climate Data Records) and how to support them
  • Preparing to implement the NRCs Earth Science
    Decadal Survey recommendations for new
    measurements

30
CCE Focus Area Missions in Development
  • Key missions now in development to address these
    objectives
  • Well-calibrated and validated systematic
    observations of moderate-resolution ocean color,
    vegetation biophysical properties, fire, and land
    cover as well as high-resolution land cover are a
    critical foundation.
  • The National Polar Orbiting Environmental
    Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project
    (NPP) and
  • Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM)
  • ?The focus area depends on the continued
    availability of these climate-quality systematic
    observations.
  • The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) will
    measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations and
    advance our ability to locate and quantify
    regional carbon sources and sinks by dramatically
    increasing the number of global measurements over
    what can be provided with ground-based
    networks and aircraft.

31
Terrestrial Ecology Issues to Discuss
  • Decadal Survey Recommended Missions Terrestrial
    Ecology

32
CCE Focus Area Priority New Missions from the
NRC Decadal Survey
  • Measurements of vegetation height and profiles
    of three-dimensional ecosystem structure to
    estimate aboveground biomass and carbon stocks to
    characterize species habitats and biodiversity
    DESDynI, ICESat-II, LIST
  • Well-calibrated measurements of the coastal
    ocean that allow discrimination and
    quantification of dissolved and particulate
    organic matter, phytoplankton pigments, and
    sediments to deduce the fate of carbon in the
    coastal ocean ACE, GEO-CAPE
  • Measurements of plant groups with important
    ecological and physiological functions (e.g.,
    nitrogen-fixing species, invasive species, plants
    with differing photosynthetic pathways or growth
    rates) to be used to improve models and develop
    more refined land cover analyses. HyspIRI
  • Advanced, high resolution measurements of
    atmospheric profiles of carbon dioxide and
    methane to further refine our ability to quantify
    global sources and sinks. ASCENDS
  • Others of interest soil moisture (SMAP),
    lakes/wetlands (SWOT), cold land process (SCLP),
    . . .

33
NRC Decadal Survey Missions

34
Vegetation 3-D Structure DESDynI

Challenges Learning how to use InSAR in
combination with lidar building the community
partnerships.
35
Plant Physiology and Functional Types HyspIRI

36
Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide ASCENDS

Challenges Being ready scientifically so soon
after OCO addressing policy needs for accuracy
with well-characterized uncertainties.
37
Other Key Recommendations of NRC Decadal Survey
  • Continuity of existing data records in there
    (e.g., land cover also implement re-baselined
    NPOESS and GOES), but not addressed fully (was
    not in their charge)
  • Also recommendation to NASA to develop a strategy
    for long-term observations distinct from what is
    needed for numerical weather prediction . . .
  • Airborne science should be restored and unmanned
    aerial vehicles (UAV) increasingly factored into
    the plan for Earth Science
  • Science questions/rationale posed in panel
    chapters (for CCE land-use change, ecosystem
    dynamics, biodiversity)
  • Venture class missions (100-200M) for more
    frequent launch opportunities and to demonstrate
    innovative ideas and higher-risk technologies
    also training future leaders

38
Importance of NRC Decadal Survey
  • Senior NASA managers are accustomed to using NRC
    Decadal Survey recommendations as the science
    communitys definitive statement on what
    space-based observations are of highest
    scientific priority for the nation and expect to
    implement them as resources and technical
    realities permit.
  • Other measurements, missions, or science,
    lacking the imprimatur of a Decadal Survey, are
    not likely to be considered.
  • Suggestions that a Decadal Survey recommendation
    may not represent the highest priorities of the
    scientific community are likely to be perceived
    as a rationale for not pursuing any new
    observations for that scientific area at least
    until an new scientific consensus has been
    achieved and vetted through the NRC.

39
Terrestrial Ecology Issues to Discuss
  • Data Records Terrestrial Ecology

40
Climate Data Records
  • A climate data record is a time series of
    measurements of sufficient length, consistency,
    and continuity to determine climate variability
    and change. (NRC, 2004)
  • The NRC further segmented satellite-based CDRs
    into
  • fundamental CDRs (FCDRs), which are calibrated
    and quality-controlled sensor data that have been
    improved over time, and
  • thematic CDRs (TCDRs), which are geophysical
    variables derived from the FCDRs, such as sea
    surface temperature and cloud fraction.

41
Earth System Data Records
  • Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) are
    observations of a parameter of the Earth system
    optimized to meet requirements to address Earth
    science questions and to provide for
    applications.
  • Low level and high level products are involved in
    ESDRs
  • Higher level products depend on products such as
    reflectance and vegetation index.
  • Hierarchical organization is useful
  • Need to derive priority from the importance of
    the end use
  • Explicit attention to error, uncertainty, and
    precision is required in definition and
    production.
  • Issue of consistency between user sub-groups and
    ESDRs important for the modeling community
  • Need to consider what will be needed to create
    the retrospective data record (e.g.,
    re-processing)

42
Earth System Data Records
  • The Focus Area has a long list of candidate
    CDRs/EDRs
  • SeaWiFS and MODIS data products
  • Landsat data products
  • REASoN data products
  • New MEaSUREs data products
  • Some RA sponsored data products
  • How do we decide which are CDRs/ESDRs?
  • What level of support is required for each
    (calibration, validation, accessibility, multiple
    versions/formats, scheduled reprocessings)?
  • Is periodic review of quality and use desirable,
    and if so, how should this be done?
  • How much of this is NASAs job after the NASA
    mission(s) has ended?

43
Terrestrial Ecology Issues to Discuss
  • Field Campaigns Terrestrial Ecology

44
Terrestrial Ecology Field Campaigns
  • TE has a long history of sponsoring major field
    campaigns that have kept the program vital,
    trained our next generation of researchers, and
    addressed both important remote sensing
    challenges and science questions.
  • FIFE
  • BOREAS
  • Supporting role in HAPEX-MOBHILY, HAPEX-Sahel,
    EFEDA
  • LBA-ECO
  • More focused multi-sensor airborne campaigns
  • Mac-Europe, several hydrological, COBRA
  • What should be next? What type of coordinated
    program focused on a single question or set of
    issues would most advance our science and program?

45
LBA Scaling Strategy
100 - 10,000 kmPan-Amazonian Region
1 - 100 kmStudy Areas(e.g., Para, Rondônia)
1 kmFlux Tower Sites
1 - 10 m Process Study PlotsValidation Sites
Validation Sites Process Study Plots
46
Terrestrial Ecology Discussion Topics
  • Function, including vegetation physiology,
    biogeochemistry
  •  
  • Vegetation structure
  • Disturbance (fire and others)
  • Ecosystem services
  •  
  • Ecosystem climate Interactions

47
Breakout Co-Chairs
  • Function, including vegetation physiology,
    biogeochemistry-- Xiangming Xiao, Steve Prince 
  • Vegetation structure-- Marc Simard, Sassan
    Saatchi
  • Disturbance (fire and others) -- Mark Chopping,
    Richard Houghton 
  • Ecosystem services-- Randy Wynne, Stephen Ogle 
  • Ecosystem climate Interactions-- Randy Kawa,
    Jeff Richey

48
  • END

49
  • Backup Slides

50
NASA Focus Areas Climate Change Science Program
(CCSP) Research Elements
NASA
CCSP
Climate Variability Change Atmospheric
Composition Land Use/Land Cover Change Global
Carbon Cycle Ecosystems Global Water
Cycle Human Contributions Responses
  • Climate Variability Change
  • Weather
  • Atmospheric Composition
  • Carbon Cycle Ecosystems
  • Water Energy Cycle
  • Earth Surface Interior

51
The NASA Mission Goals
To pioneer the future in space exploration,
scientific discovery, and aeronautics research.
Strategic Goal 3 Develop a balanced overall
program of science, exploration, and aeronautics
consistent with the redirection of the human
spaceflight program to focus on exploration
Sub-goal 3A Study Earth from space to advance
scientific understanding and meet societal needs.
52
Other Key Recommendations of NRC Decadal Survey
  • Continuity of existing data records in there
    (e.g., land cover also implement re-baselined
    NPOESS and GOES), but not addressed fully (was
    not in their charge)
  • Also recommendation to NASA to develop a strategy
    for long-term observations distinct from what is
    needed for numerical weather prediction . . .
  • Airborne science should be restored and unmanned
    aerial vehicles (UAV) increasingly factored into
    the plan for Earth Science
  • Science questions/rationale posed in panel
    chapters (for CCE land-use change, ecosystem
    dynamics, biodiversity)
  • Venture class missions (100-200M) for more
    frequent launch opportunities and to demonstrate
    innovative ideas and higher-risk technologies
    also training future leaders

53
Climate Data Records Earth System Data Records
  • A climate data record is a time series of
    measurements of sufficient length, consistency,
    and continuity to determine climate variability
    and change (NRC, 2004). The NRC further
    segmented satellite-based CDRs into
  • fundamental CDRs (FCDRs), which are calibrated
    and quality-controlled sensor data that have been
    improved over time, and
  • thematic CDRs (TCDRs), which are geophysical
    variables derived from the FCDRs, such as sea
    surface temperature and cloud fraction.
  • Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) are
    observations of a parameter of the Earth system
    optimized to meet requirements to address Earth
    science questions and to provide for applications.

54
Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems
Knowledge of the interactions of global
biogeochemical cycles and terrestrial and marine
ecosystems with global environmental change and
their implications for the Earths climate,
productivity, and natural resources is needed to
understand and protect our home planet.
  • Important Concerns
  • Potential greenhouse warming (CO2, CH4) and
    ecosystem interactions with climate
  • Carbon management (e.g., capacity of plants,
    soils, and the ocean to sequester carbon)
  • Productivity of ecosystems (food, fiber, fuel)
  • Ecosystem health and the sustainability of
    ecosystem goods and services
  • Biodiversity and invasive species

NASA provides the global perspective and unique
combination of interdisciplinary science,
state-of-the-art Earth system modeling, and
diverse synoptic observations needed to document,
understand, and project carbon cycle dynamics and
changes in terrestrial and marine ecosystems and
land cover.
55
Integrated global analyses
Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems Roadmap
Human-Ecosystems-Climate Interactions (Model-Data
Fusion, Assimilation) Global Air-Sea Flux
Sub-regional sources/sinks

T
Funded
High-Resolution Atmospheric CO2
Unfunded
Process controls errors in sink reduced
Southern Ocean Carbon Program, Air-Sea
CO2 Flux
Partnership
Models w/improved ecosystem functions
T Technology development
Physiology Functional Types
T
Reduced flux uncertainties coastal carbon
dynamics
Coastal Carbon
Field Campaign
Reduced flux uncertainties global carbon
dynamics
Global Ocean Carbon / Particle Abundance
Goals Global productivity and land cover change
at fine resolution biomass and carbon fluxes
quantified useful ecological forecasts and
improved climate change projections
Vegetation 3-D Structure, Biomass, Disturbance
T
Terrestrial carbon stocks species habitat
characterized
CH4 sources characterized and quantified
Global CH4 Wetlands, Flooding Permafrost
Knowledge Base
Global Atmospheric CO2 (OCO)
Regional carbon sources/sinks quantified for
planet
N. American Carbon Program
N. Americas carbon budget quantified
Effects of tropical deforestation quantified
uncertainties in tropical carbon source reduced
Land Use Change in Amazonia
2002 Global productivity and land cover
resolution coarse Large uncertainties in
biomass, fluxes, disturbance, and coastal events
Models Computing Capacity
Process Understanding
Case Studies
Improvements
P
Land Cover (Landsat)
LDCM
Land Cover (OLI)
Systematic Observations
Ocean Color (SeaWiFS, MODIS)
Ocean/Land (VIIRS/NPP)
Ocean/Land (VIIRS/NPOESS)
Vegetation (AVHRR, MODIS)
Vegetation, Fire (AVHRR, MODIS)
IPCC
IPCC
2010
2012
2014
2015
2008
2002
2004
2006
Global C Cycle
Global C Cycle
NA Carbon
NA Carbon
56
Vegetation 3-D Structure DESDynI

Challenges Learning how to use InSAR in
combination with lidar building the community
partnerships.
57
Plant Physiology and Functional Types HyspIRI

58
Aerosol Cloud Properties, Ocean
Biogeochemistry ACE

Challenges cost, need for coincident aerosols,
ocean chemistry
59
Short-Duration, Focused Ocean Color GEO-CAPE

Challenges extremely limited spatial and
spectral scope
60
Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide ASCENDS

Challenges Being ready scientifically so soon
after OCO addressing policy needs for accuracy
with well-characterized uncertainties.
About PowerShow.com