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Psychological Disorders

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... behavioral and psychological symptoms that cause significant personal distress, ... unexpected travel away from home, extensive amnesia, and identity ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychological Disorders


1
Chapter 14
  • Psychological Disorders

2
Psychopathology

3
  • The scientific study of the origins, symptoms,
    and development of psychological problems

4
Psychological disorders

5
  • A pattern of behavioral and psychological
    symptoms that cause significant personal
    distress, impairs the ability to function in one
    or more important areas of daily life, or both

6
DSM-IV-TR

7
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
    Disorders, Fourth Edition Text Revision
  • Describes the specific symptoms and diagnostics
    guidelines for different psychological disorders

8
Anxiety

9
  • an unpleasant emotional state characterized by
    physical arousal and feelings of tension
    apprehension, and worry

10
Anxiety Disorders

11
  • A category of psychological disorders in which
    extreme anxiety is the main diagnostic feature
    and causes significant disruptions in the
    persons cognitive, behavioral, or interpersonal
    functioning

12
Generalized Anxiety Disorder

13
  • An anxiety disorder characterized by excessive,
    global and persistent symptoms of anxiety

14
Panic Attack

15
  • A sudden episode of extreme anxiety that rapidly
    escalates in intensity

16
Panic disorder

17
  • An anxiety disorder in which the person
    experiences frequent and unexpected panic attacks

18
Phobia

19
  • An irrational fear triggered by a specific object
    or situation

20
Specific Phobia

21
  • An anxiety disorder characterized by an extreme
    and irrational fear of a specific object or
    situation that interferes with the ability to
    function in daily life

22
Agoraphobia

23
  • An anxiety disorder involving the extreme and
    irrational fear of experiencing a panic attack in
    a public situation and being unable to escape

24
Social Phobia

25
  • An anxiety disorder involving the extreme and
    irrational fear of being embarrassed, judged or
    scrutinized by others in social situations

26
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

27
  • An anxiety disorder in which chronic and
    persistent symptoms of anxiety develop in
    response to an extreme physical or psychological
    trauma

28
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

29
  • An anxiety disorder in which the symptoms of
    anxiety are triggered by intrusive , repetitive
    thoughts and urges to perform certain actions

30
Obsessions

31
  • Repeated, intrusive, and uncontrollable
    irrational thoughts or mental images that cause
    extreme anxiety and distress

32
Compulsions

33
  • Repetitive behavior or mental acts that are
    performed to prevent or reduce anxiety

34
Mood Disorders

35
  • A category of mental disorders in which
    significant and chronic disruptions in mood is
    predominant symptom, causing impaired cognitive,
    behavioral, and major physical functioning

36
Major Depression

37
  • A mood disorder characterized by extreme and
    persistent feelings of despondency,
    worthlessness, and hopelessness, causing impaired
    emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physical
    functioning

38
Dysthymic Disorder

39
  • A mood disorder involving chronic, low-grade
    feelings of depression that produce subjective
    discomfort but do not seriously impair the
    ability to function

40
Seasonal Affective Disorder

41
  • A mood disorder in which episode of depression
    typically recur during the fall and winter and
    remit during the spring and summer

42
Bipolar Disorder

43
  • A mood disorder involving periods of
    incapacitating depression alternating with
    periods of extreme euphoria and excitement

44
Manic Episode

45
  • A sudden, rapidly escalating emotional state
    characterized by extreme euphoria, excitement,
    physical energy, and rapid thoughts and speech

46
Cyclothymic Disorder

47
  • A mood disorder characterized by moderate but
    frequent mood swings that are not severe enough
    to qualify as bipolar disorder

48
Personality Disorder

49
  • Inflexible, maladaptive patterns of thoughts,
    emotions, behavior, and interpersonal functioning
    that are stable over time and across situations
    ,and deviate from the expectations of the
    individuals culture

50
Paranoid Personality Disorder

51
  • A personality disorder characterized by a
    pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of the
    motives of others without sufficient basis

52
Antisocial Personality Disorder

53
  • A personality disorder characterized by a
    pervasive pattern disregarding and violating the
    rights of others

54
Borderline personality disorder

55
  • A personality disorder characterized by
    instability of interpersonal relationships,
    self-image, and emotions, and marked impulsively

56
Dissociative Experience

57
  • A break or disruption in consciousness during
    which awareness, memory, and personal identity
    become separated or divided.

58
Dissociative Disorders

59
  • A category of psychological disorders in which
    extreme and frequent disruptions of awareness,
    memory, and personal identity impair the ability
    to function

60
Dissociative amnesia

61
  • A dissociative disorder involving the partial or
    total inability to recall important personal
    information

62
Dissociative Fugue

63
  • A dissociative disorder involving sudden and
    unexpected travel away from home, extensive
    amnesia, and identity confusion

64
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

65
  • A dissociative disorder involving extensive
    memory disruptions along with the presence of two
    or more distinct identities, or personalities

66
Schizophrenia

67
  • A mental disorder in which the ability to
    function is impaired by severely distorted
    beliefs, perceptions, or thoughts

68
positive Symptoms

69
  • In schizophrenia, symptoms that reflect excesses
    or distortions of normal functioning, including
    delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized
    thoughts and behavior

70
Negative Symptoms

71
  • In schizophrenia, symptoms that reflect defects
    or deficits in normal functioning, including flat
    affect, algoia, and avolition

72
Delusion

73
  • A falsely held belief that persist in spite of
    contradictory evidence

74
Hallucinations

75
  • A false or distorted perception that seems
    vividly real to the person experiencing it.

76
Dopamine hypothesis

77
  • The view that schizophrenia is related to, and
    may be caused by, excess activity of the
    neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain
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