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PowerPoint Presentation The Science of Early Childhood Development

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JULIUS B. RICHMOND FAMRI PROFESSOR OF CHILD HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT ... Source: Hart & Risley (1995) Adverse Childhood Experiences and. Adult Cardiovascular Disease ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation The Science of Early Childhood Development


1
A Science-Based Framework for Early Childhood
Policy
JACK P. SHONKOFF, M.D. JULIUS B. RICHMOND FAMRI
PROFESSOR OF CHILD HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT DIRECTOR
, CENTER ON THE DEVELOPING CHILD HARVARD
UNIVERSITY
Governors Summit on Early Childhood Hartford,
CT January 15, 2008
2
The Importance of Viewing the Needs of Children
in a Broad Context
The healthy development of all children benefits
all of society by providing a solid foundation
for economic productivity, responsible
citizenship, strong communities, and a secure
nation.
3
Data to Think About
4
Disparities in Early Vocabulary Growth
1200
College Educated Parents
Working Class Parents
600
Cumulative Vocabulary (Words)
Welfare Parents
200
16 mos.
24 mos.
36 mos.
Childs Age (Months)
Source Hart Risley (1995)
5
Adverse Childhood Experiences andAdult
Cardiovascular Disease
3.5
3
2.5
Odds Ratio
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1
2
3
4
5,6
7,8
ACEs
Source Dong et al, 2004
6
Building an Integrated Science of Early
Childhood Development
Convergence of findings from neuroscience,
developmental psychology, molecular biology,
economics, and program evaluation research.
7
Core Concepts of Development
Brains are built over time, neural circuits are
wired in a bottom-up sequence, and the capacity
for change decreases with age. The interaction
of genes and experience shapes the architecture
of the developing brain, and the active agent is
the serve and return nature of childrens
relationships with the important adults in their
lives.
8


Brains and Skills are Built Over Time
9
Early Childhood Adversity Can Influence a Range
of Lifelong Outcomes
Research on the biology of stress helps explain
some of the underlying reasons for differences in
learning, behavior, and physical and mental
health.
10
Positive Stress
A necessary aspect of healthy development that
occurs in the context of stable, supportive
relationships. Brief increases in heart rate and
mild changes in stress hormone levels.
Tolerable Stress
Stress responses that could disrupt brain
architecture, but are buffered by supportive
relationships. Allows the brain an opportunity to
recover from potentially damaging effects.
11
Toxic Stress
Strong, prolonged activation of the bodys stress
response systems in the absence of the buffering
protection of adult support. Can damage
developing brain architecture and create a short
fuse for the bodys stress response systems,
leading to lifelong problems in learning,
behavior, and both physical and mental health.
12
Implications for Policy and Practice
13
There Are No Magic Bullets
  • Positive relationships and quality learning
    experiences can be promoted both at home and
    through a range of evidence-based parent
    education, family support, early care and
    education, and intervention services.
  • Positive relationships and quality learning
    experiences can be promoted both at home and
    through a range of evidence-based parent
    education, family support, early care and
    education, and intervention services.

A balanced approach to emotional, social,
cognitive, and language development will best
prepare children for success in school and later
in the workplace.
14
Effectiveness Factors for Early Care and
Education Programs for Children From Birth to Age
5
  • Qualified and well-compensated personnel
  • Small group sizes and high adult-child ratios
  • Language-rich environment
  • Developmentally appropriate curriculum
  • Safe physical setting
  • Warm and responsive adult-child interactions

15
Science Points Toward a 3-Tiered Approach to
Reducing Disparities
Basic health services and early care and
education available to all children.
Broadly targeted interventions such as income
supports and early enrichment for children in
poverty.
Narrowly targeted, specialized services for
children experiencing tolerable or toxic stress.
16
Maximizing Return on Investment
The basic principles of neuroscience and human
capital formation indicate that later remediation
will produce less favorable outcomes than
preventive intervention. Low cost services
that have little impact are a waste of money.
Responsible investments focus on effective
programs that are staffed appropriately,
implemented well, and improved continuously.
17
Cost/Benefit for Two Early Childhood
Programs(Dollars returned for each dollar
invested)
16.14
18
Total Return per 1 Invested
16
14
Returns to Society
12
11.35
4 x
Returns to Individuals
10
4.10
6
Crime-cost savings
0.16
1.55
4
Special education, welfare, income taxes
1.5 x
2.28
2
3.24
1.57
Increased earnings
Perry Preschool (through age 40)
Abecedarian Project (through age 21)
18
Key Elements of a Successful Early Childhood
Policy Agenda
Investing in the development and retention of
a skilled early childhood workforce. Planning
broadly from pregnancy to kindergarten, and
looking beyond education and health care.
Leveraging the power and sustainability of
bipartisanship and public-private sector
partnerships.
19
www.developingchild.harvard.edu www.developingchil
d.net
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