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OSHA Alliance Program Construction Roundtable: DfS Workgrou

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OSHA Alliance Program Construction Roundtable: DfS Workgroup Members ... Solution: Develop and promote 10-hour and 30-hour OSHA courses for design professionals. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: OSHA Alliance Program Construction Roundtable: DfS Workgrou


1
Design for Construction SafetyLee Anne
JillingsU.S. Dept. of Labor-OSHAJohn W.
Mroszczyk, PhD, PE, CSPNortheast Consulting
Engineers, Inc.Marvin Oey, PhD, PEASCE
Construction Institute
2
OSHA Alliance Program Construction
RoundtableDesign for Safety Workgroup
  • Purpose of Alliance Roundtables
  • Success of Construction Roundtable Design for
    Safety (DfS) Workgroup
  • Next Steps for DfS Workgroup

3
OSHA Alliance Program Construction Roundtable
DfS Workgroup Members
  • American Society of Civil Engineers-Construction
    Institute
  • American Society of Safety Engineers
  • Independent Electrical Contractors
  • ADSC International Association of Foundation
    Drilling
  • Laborers Health and Safety Fund of North America

4
DfS Workgroup Members, continued
  • Mason Contractors Association of America
  • National Fire Protection Association
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety
    Health
  • Sealant, Waterproofing and Restoration Institute
  • Washington Group International

5
DfS Workgroup Products
  • DfS PowerPoint presentation
  • Presentations at National Conferences
  • 2 to 4 hour course for design professionals
    (under development)
  • 10 hour OSHA Outreach Training Program (under
    development)
  • www.designforconstructionsafety.org

6
Designing for Construction Safety (DfCS) What
is it?
  • An extension of DfS to cover construction
    projects
  • Recognizes construction site safety as a design
    criterion
  • The process of addressing construction site
    safety and health in the design of a project

7
U.S. Construction Accident Statistics1
  • Nearly 200,000 serious injuries and 1,200 deaths
    each year
  • 7 of workforce but 21 of fatalities
  • Construction has one of the highest fatality
    rates of any industry sector
  • 1 Bureau of Labor Statistics-2005



8
Typical Construction Project Arrangement
  • Project owner separately contracts with a
    Architect/Engineer and with a general contractor,
    prime contractor, construction manager, program
    manager or owners agent
  • Above entities may subcontract out some or all of
    the work to specialty trade contractors
  • Project owners occasionally contract with a
    design-build firm to perform both design and
    construction



9
Root Causes for Construction Accidents1
  • Inadequate construction planning
  • Lack of proper training
  • Deficient enforcement of training
  • Unsafe equipment
  • Unsafe methods or sequencing
  • Unsafe site conditions
  • Not using safety equipment that was provided
  • 1 Toole, Construction Site Safety Roles, 2002



10
Accidents Linked to Design1,2
  • 22 of 226 injuries that occurred from 2000-2002
    in Oregon, WA and CA
  • 42 of 224 fatalities in US between 1990-2003
  • In Europe, a 1991 study concluded that 60 of
    fatal accidents resulted from decisions made
    before site work began
  • 1 Behm, Linking Construction Fatalities to the
    Design for Construction Safety Concept, 2005
  • 2 European Foundation for the Improvement of
    Living and Working Conditions



11
Where Do Design Professionals Fit In?
  • Considering safety issues during the design stage
  • Designing out anticipated hazards



12
Considering Safety During Design Offers the Most
Payoff1
High
Conceptual Design
Detailed Engineering
Procurement
Construction
Ability to Influence Safety
Start-up
Low
Project Schedule
1 Szymberski 1987
13
What Types of Design Decisions?
  • IBC paragraph 704.11.1 requires that a parapet
    wall be at least 30 inches high
  • OSHA 1926 Subpart M requires a
  • 42 inch guardrail or other fall protection
  • If the design professional specifies a
  • 42 inch high parapet wall, fall protection
    would not be required

14
DfCS Process1
1 Gambatese
15
Barrier Designers' Fear of Liability
  • Barrier Fear of undeserved liability for worker
    safety.
  • Solution Clearly communicate the DfCS
    initiative does NOT suggest designers should be
    held responsible for construction accidents.
  • Solution Develop revised model contract language
    and legislation that encourage DfCS.
  • Solution Propose legislation is facilitate
    designing for construction safety without
    inappropriately shifting safety duties and
    liability onto designers.

16
Barrier Increased Designer Costs Associated
with DfCS
  • While DfCS results in decreased total project
    life cycle costs for the owner, DfCS processes
    will increase both direct and overhead costs for
    designers.
  • Increased direct costs will result from more time
    spent on many design tasks.
  • Increased overhead costs will result from
    providing safety training and perhaps increased
    insurance premiums.
  • Solution Educate owners that they must be
    willing to pay slightly higher design fees to
    save themselves money in the long run.

17
Barrier Designers' Lack of Safety Expertise
  • Barrier Few design professionals possess
    sufficient expertise in construction safety.
  • Solution Promote including construction safety
    in construction, engineering and architectural
    curricula.
  • Solution Develop and promote 10-hour and
    30-hour OSHA courses for design professionals.

18
DfCS Examples Prefabrication
Concrete Wall Panels
Concrete Segmented Bridge
Steel stairs
19
DfCS Examples Anchorage Points
20
DfCS ExamplesRoofs
Upper story windows and roof parapets
Skylights
21
DfCS Examples Steel Design
  • Avoid hanging connections design to bear on
    columns instead using safety seats
  • Require holes in columns for tie lines 21 and
    42 above each floor slab
  • Specify shop welded connections instead of bolts
    or field welds to avoid dangerous positions
    during erection
  • Consider approximate dimensions of connection
    tools to prevent pinches or awkward assemblies

National Institute of Steel Detailing and Steel
Erectors Association of America. Detailing Guide
for the Enhancement of Erection Safety. 2001
22
Example of the Need for DfCS
  • Worker electrocuted when his drill rig got too
    close to overhead power lines.
  • Design engineer specified groundwater monitoring
    wells were to be dug directly under power lines.
  • Engineer could have specified wells be dug away
    from power lines and/or better informed the
    employer of hazard posed by wells proximity to
    powerlines through the plans, specifications, and
    bid documents.

23
Other DfCS Design Examples
  • Design underground utilities to be placed using
    trenchless technology1
  • Specify primers, sealers and other coatings that
    do not emit noxious fumes or contain carcinogenic
    products2
  • Design cable type lifeline system for storage
    towers3
  • 1 Weinstein, Can Design Improve Construction
    Safety, 2005
  • 2 Gambatese, Viability of Designing for
    Construction Worker Safety, 2005
  • 3 Behm, Linking Construction Fatalities to the
    Design for Construction Safety Concept, 2005

24
DfCS Practices Around the Globe
  • Designers first required to design for
    construction safety in the United Kingdom in 1995
  • Other European nations have similar requirements
  • Australia also leading in DfCS
  • http//www.ascc.gov.au/ascc/HealthSafety/SafeDesi
    gn/Understanding/

25
DfCS Tools
  • Construction Industry Institute database
  • www.construction-institute.org/scriptcontent/more/
    rr101_11_more.cfm
  • United Kingdom Health Safety Executive designer
    guides
  • www.hse.gov.uk/construction/designers/index.htm
  • CHAIR
  • www.workcover.nsw.gov.au/Publications/OHS/SafetyGu
    ides/chairsafetyindesigntool.htm
  • OSHA Website
  • www.osha.gov

26
Summary
  • Designing for safety can improve safety and
    health on construction sites
  • Many countries require or promote designing for
    safety
  • A number of national organizations are working to
    create tools, eliminate barriers and facilitate
    adoption of this important process in the United
    States

27
  • Questions?
  • Comments?
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