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THE NORTH PACIFIC COAST CHAPTER 16: PART 1

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Oregon's population - strong New England heritage ... Largest city of the North Pacific Coast - late 1800s. Founded as a logging center. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE NORTH PACIFIC COAST CHAPTER 16: PART 1


1
THE NORTH PACIFIC COAST (CHAPTER 16 PART 1)
2
INTRODUCTION
  • The North Pacific Coast has also been labeled as
    "Ecotopia."
  • Strongly subjected to a Maritime influence and
    dominated by rugged terrain
  • Relatively isolated from the rest of North
    America, much to the satisfaction of its
    inhabitants
  • The region is mapped on page 367.

3
NORTH PACIFIC COAST
4
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
  • CLIMATE
  • The region of heaviest annual precipitation
    amounts on the continent
  • Average precipitation 75 inches/year is common.
  • 150 inches/year is the norm on the western side
    of the coastal ranges.
  • Parts of Vancouver Island receives about 230
    inches/ year
  • Winter precipitation exceeds summer amounts
    throughout the region.

5
PRECIPITATION PATTERNS
6
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
  • CLIMATE (continued)
  • Abundant rainfall supports tremendous tree growth
    in areas such as the Olympic Peninsula.
  • Orographic Rainfall (precipitation that results
    when moist air is lifted over a topographic
    barrier) is the dominant source of precipitation
    in the region.

7
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
  • TOPOGRAPHY
  • The Coast Ranges-Oregon and Washington
  • Reach elevations of 4,000 feet
  • Responsible for the rain shadow effect (see map
    on page 368).
  • Further inland are the rugged Cascades
  • Extend north into British Columbia
  • Merge with the Insular Mountains, and are known
    as the Coast Mountains

8
PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROVINCES
9
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
  • TOPOGRAPHY (continued)
  • Mt. McKinley is located at the region's northern
    extremity
  • 20,320 feet in elevation- the highest point in
    North America
  • The mountain's vertical rise (in excess of 18,000
    feet) is the highest in the world.
  • The St. Elias Mountains in Canada are the world's
    highest coastal mountains
  • Mt. Logan reaches a height of 19,700 feet.

10
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11
SETTLEMENT PATTERNS
  • AMERICAN INDIANS
  • Pre-European population of the area - relatively
    large
  • Based on a simple hunting and gathering economy
  • Depended largely on deer and salmon, and
    supplemented by berries, roots, and shellfish
  • Large concentrations of Indians were found along
    the coast, particularly in coastal valleys.
  • Some tribes constructed large dugout canoes of
    cedar and became notable seafarers.
  • The Puyallups are one of the few remaining tribes
  • Fairly well known because of recent legislation
    granting them salmon rights

12
SETTLEMENT PATTERNS
  • EUROPEANS
  • Russians were the first Europeans to establish
    settlements along the coast.
  • Initially established settlements during the late
    1700s
  • Consisted mainly of fur-trading posts ranging
    from Southeast Alaska to Northern California.
  • U.S./Canadian boundary _at_ 49? North -1846
  • Alaska was purchased from Russia in 1867 for the
    paltry sum of 7.2 million dollars.
  • Oregon's population - strong New England heritage
  • Washington - large number of people with
    Scandinavian roots

13
SETTLEMENT PATTERNS
  • MAJOR CITIES TODAY
  • VANCOUVER
  • Canada's third largest city
  • More than 1.2 million people
  • Planners expect the city to double is size within
    30 years.
  • Vancouver serves as the western outlet for
    Interior Canada.
  • Canada's busiest port, focused on wood products
    and wheat that is destined for Asian markets.

14
VANCOUVER
15
SETTLEMENT PATTERNS
  • MAJOR CITIES TODAY (continued)
  • SEATTLE
  • Largest city of the North Pacific Coast - late
    1800s
  • Founded as a logging center.
  • Since WWI, it has been the home of Boeing
    Aircraft
  • Sometimes referred to as the world's largest
    "company town," as Boeing had 103,000 employees
    during the 1960's.
  • Employment at Boeing subsequently fell to about
    50,000 by the early 70s
  • Rebounded in the 1980s, providing more than
    106,000 jobs by the end of the decade.
  • Today, a middle-class city, appealing by any
    survey.

16
SEATTLE
17
SETTLEMENT PATTERNS
  • MAJOR CITIES TODAY (continued)
  • PORTLAND
  • Serves as the agricultural focus and shipment
    point for western grain.
  • Food processing and the manufacturing of wood
    products are key industries to the city.
  • Boasts a more diversified economy than Seattles.

18
REGIONAL ECONOMY
  • FORESTRY
  • British Columbia produces 45 of Canada's timber.
  • Washington, Oregon, and California account for
    more than 50 of the U.S. total.
  • Douglas Fir is the species that is currently of
    prime importance.
  • Although the region's first major industry,
    forestry was not nationally important until the
    early 1900s.
  • Current cutting techniques include "selective
    cutting," "shelterwood cutting," and "clear
    cutting".
  • Japan has been a major market for North America
    timber, especially from Alaska and British
    Columbia.

19
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20
REGIONAL ECONOMY
  • FORESTRY (continued)
  • Controversy surrounds the use of "clear cutting"
    and the harvesting of Northern California
    redwoods, the world's tallest (and among the
    oldest) trees.
  • A target for preservationists, the Redwood
    National Park was established in the late 1960s.
  • POWER AND DAMS
  • The plentiful precipitation and rugged topography
    of the area provides hydroelectric potential
    unmatched anywhere in North America.
  • The rivers of Oregon and Washington account for
    over 40 of the U.S.'s hydroelectric potential.

21
REGIONAL ECONOMY
  • POWER AND DAMS
  • Columbia River has the greatest power generating
    potential in the region
  • A flow volume greater than the Mississippi River
  • A drop of nearly 1,000 feet during the course of
    its 750 mi route from U.S./Canadian border to the
    sea.
  • Grand Coulee - the region's largest dam
  • Completed in 1933, and ten more dams have since
    been constructed downstream.
  • Recent addition of new generators at Grand Coulee
    Dam have tripled its capacity
  • The world's largest single power producer.

22
REGIONAL ECONOMY
  • POWER AND DAMS
  • Cheap power has succeeded in attracting a number
    of heavy power-using industries to the region,
    similar to scenarios with the TVA or Niagara
    River Project.
  • No dams are permitted in Hell's Canyon
  • World's deepest gorge, cut by the Snake River
    between Oregon and Idaho
  • This section of the Snake was classified as a
    "Wild and Scenic River" in 1975.

23
AGRICULTURE
  • Most of the region's crops are grown for local
    markets.
  • Impacts of transferability intervening
    opportunity
  • Producing areas and products
  • Willamett River Valley- forage crops, dairy
    products, and strawberries
  • Puget Sound Lowlands (Washington)- dairy products
    and peas
  • Yakima and Wenatchee Valley- apples via
    irrigation from the streams and rivers of the
    Cascades
  • "Hilly Country" (east-central Washington)- wheat
    via dry farming

24
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THE NORTH PACIFIC COAST (CHAPTER 16 PART 1)
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