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Understanding blood lipids and glucose

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Understanding blood lipids and glucose. How a ... Cost of Heart Disease and Diabetes ... Sirloin Steak. 12. 28. Prime Rib. Saturated Fat (g) Total Fat (g) Food ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Understanding blood lipids and glucose


1
Understanding blood lipids and glucose
  • How a Healthy Lifestyle can improve your numbers

Susan Fullmer, PhD RD Associate Teaching
Professor Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science
2
Cost of Heart Disease and Diabetes
  • 7 of population has diabetes
  • Leading cause of blindness, lower limb
    amputation, and kidney failure in U.S.
  • Major risk factor for stroke and heart attack
  • Heart disease is the leading cause of death in
    the U.S. and world
  • 1 in 3 women worldwide will die of heart disease
  • More women then men diet every year from heart
    disease in the U.S.
  • 403 Billion was spent in 2006 on CVD

3
Factors that are considered a High Risk for CVD
  • Established heart disease
  • Chronic kidney disease/failure
  • Diabetes
  • 10-year risk Framingham global risk gt20

4
Factors that place someone at risk for heart
disease
  • One or more of the following risk factors
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Poor diet
  • Physical inactivity
  • Obesity, especially central obesity
  • Family history of premature heart disease (lt55
    years of male relative, lt65 years in female)

5
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6
Factors that place someone at risk for heart
disease continued
  • High blood pressure
  • Dyslipidemia
  • Evidence of coronary calcification
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Poor exercise capacity on a treadmill test

7
Factors called optimal Risk for heart disease
  • Framingham risk score of lt10
  • Healthy lifestyle
  • No risk factors

8
2006 AHA Diet and Lifestyle Goals for CVD Risk
Reduction
  • Consume an overall healthy diet
  • Aim for a healthy body weight
  • Aim for recommended levels for LDL, HDL, and
    triglycerides
  • Aim for a normal blood pressure
  • Aim for a normal blood glucose level
  • Be physically active
  • Avoid use of and exposure to tobacco products

9
Lipids
  • Triglycerides
  • Chylomicrons
  • VLDL
  • Total Cholesterol
  • LDL
  • HDL
  • Chol/HDL ratio
  • lt51 is goal
  • lt3.51 is optimal

10
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11
Factors associated with elevated TGs
  • Overweight, obesity
  • Physical inactivity
  • High carbohydrate intake (gt60 of calories)
  • Type II Diabetes, kidney failure
  • Certain medications
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Alcohol intake
  • Genetics

12
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14
2007 Lifestyle guidelines for prevention of CVD
in Women
  • Do not smoke
  • Physical activity
  • A minimum of 30 minutes of moderate intensity
    activity (brisk walking) on most, preferably all
    days of the week
  • For weight loss or maintenance 60-90 minutes of
    moderate intensity activity on most, preferably
    all days of the week

15
2007 Lifestyle guidelines for prevention of CVD
in Women
  • Consume a diet rich in
  • Fruits and vegetables
  • Whole grains
  • High fiber foods
  • Consume fish, especially fatty fish at least
    twice/week (source of omega-3 fatty acids)
  • Women with heart disease, MAY want to consider
    omega-3 supplementation of 850-1000 mg/day
  • Consider screening women with CHD for depression
    and treat when appropriate

16
2007 Guidelines for prevention of CVD in Women
  • Limit saturated fat to lt7 of calories (15-20
    grams/day)
  • Limit cholesterol intake to lt 200 mg/day
  • Reduce sodium intake to lt 2,300 mg/day
  • Achieve and maintain an appropriate weight
    through healthy behavior changes (physical
    activity, calorie intake, and formal behavior
    programs if indicated)
  • Manage diabetes, blood lipids and high blood
    pressure aggressively

17
Saturated Fat
18
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19
Plant sources of omega-3 fatty acids
  • Canola oil
  • Flaxseed and flaxseed oil
  • Walnuts
  • Soybean oil, tofu

20
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22
Ineffective or potentially harmful interventions
  • Hormone therapy to prevent or treat CVD
  • Use of anti-oxidant supplements (Vit E, C, beta
    carotene) to prevent or treat CVD
  • Folic acid
  • Routine use of Aspirin (in healthy women under 65
    years of age)

23
Clinical identification of Metabolic Syndrome
(any 3 of the following)
24
Diagnostic Criteria for Diabetes
25
Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes
  • Family History
  • Older age (though incidence is growing in
    adolescent population)
  • Obesity (esp. intra-abdominal obesity)
  • Prior history of gestational diabetes
  • Physical inactivity
  • Prediabetes, race, ethnicity

26
American Diabetes Recommendations for
Prevention/delay of Type 2 Diabetes
  • Modest weight loss (5-10)
  • Participate in regular physical activity
  • Close attention should be given to, and
    appropriate treatment given for, other CVD risk
    factors (tobacco use, hypertension, dyslipidemia)

27
American Diabetes Association Nutrition related
Goals for Diabetes
  • Attain and maintain optimal metabolic outcomes
    including
  • Blood glucose levels in the normal range or as
    close to normal as is safely possible to prevent
    or reduce the risk for complications of DM
  • A1C lt7.0
  • Fasting blood glucose 90-130 mg/dL
  • A lipid and lipoprotein profile that reduces the
    risk for CVD disease
  • LDL lt100 mg/dL
  • Triglycerides lt180 mg/dL
  • HDL gt40 mgldL
  • Blood pressure levels that reduce the risk for
    vascular disease
  • lt130/80 mmHg

28
American Diabetes Association Goals for Diabetes
  • Prevent and treat the chronic complications of
    diabetes. Modify nutrient intake and lifestyle
    as appropriate for the prevention and treatment
    of obesity, dyslipidemia (abnormal blood lipids),
    CVD, hypertension, and kidney disease
  • Improve health through healthy food choices and
    physical activity
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