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Title: PointofUse and PointofEntry Drinking Water Treatment CDC Household Water Filtration Study October 2,


1
Point-of-Use and Point-of-Entry Drinking Water
Treatment CDC Household Water Filtration Study
October 2, 2003
  • Joseph F. Harrison, P.E., CWS-VI
  • Technical Director
  • Water Quality Association

2
What are POU and POE Products?
  • POU POE technologies mostly miniaturized
    versions of central treatment
  • Several different technologies usually available
    for the treatment of any contaminant
  • Conservative ANSI accredited protocols used in
    testing these products
  • Many small large companies involved in POU and
    POE water treatment
  • Standards certification programs provide high
    level of confidence and credibility

3
ANSI/NSF American National Standards
  • Std. 42 Aesthetic effects
  • Std. 44 POE softeners water hardness, barium,
    radium
  • Std. 53 Health effects lead, cysts, TTHMs,
    VOCs, MTBE, arsenic, etc,
  • Std. 55 Ultraviolet light (UV) POE POU Class
    A B
  • Std. 58 Reverse osmosis systems
  • Std. 62 Distillers
  • All include structural integrity, material
    safety, treatment performance, and approval of
    labeling and literature

4
History of POU and POE Products
  • Aesthetic enhancement historically
  • Slow evolution to health related claims
  • ANSI/NSF Standards in 1980s
  • ANSI accredited testing and certification
    provided by NSF, UL, WQA
  • State certifications IA, WI, CA, MA
  • Automatic water quality and end of life monitors
    and customer warnings 1990s

5
Todays Manufacturers and Product Variations
  • 100 manufacturers, large and small
  • Product types pitchers, faucet attached, under
    sink, counter top, whole-house
  • State-of-the-art technologies carbon block,
    fine filters, specialty media, RO, UV, ozone,
    deionization, distillation
  • Capacities 25 to over one million gallons
  • 0.5 to 25 gallons per minute

6
Types of Products
  • Personal water bottle
  • Pour through pitcher
  • Countertop connected to sink faucet
  • Faucet attached filters
  • Plumbed-in units
  • Plumbed-in units with separate faucet
  • Whole-house water treatment

7
Examples of POU and POE filters and systems
8
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9
POU/POE Technologies for Inorganics
  • Water Softener barium radium in addition to
    water hardness
  • Specialty media filters arsenic, asbestos,
    lead, mercury
  • Reverse osmosis all inorganics
  • Distillers all inorganics
  • Deionization all dissolved ionic substances

Plumbed in Separate Tap
10
Other Technologies
  • Aeration for radon and other volatiles
  • Anion exchange for nitrate, sulfate, chromium,
    selenium, arsenic reductions
  • MTBE reduction at POU POE
  • UV and ozonaztion for microbials
  • Fine and absolute filtration for particulates and
    microbials
  • Halogenated resin for microbials

11
PRIVATE WELLS
12
AESTHETIC WATER TREATMENT
  • Water Hardness Reduction
  • Iron, Manganese, Hydrogen Sulfide Removal
  • Turbidity or Sediment (Particulate) Reduction
  • Taste, Odor, Color Removal

13
CONTAMINANTS OF HEALTH CONCERN
  • Arsenic
  • Nitrate
  • Organics - Pesticides Herbicides
  • Organics - Industry Activity
  • Organics - Gasoline related
  • Radon
  • Radium Barium
  • Microbiological

14
AESTHETIC PROCESSES
  • Cation Exchange Softening Water Hardness, Low
    levels of Dissolved Iron
  • Oxidation Filtration Iron, Manganese,
    Hydrogen Sulfide
  • Carbon filtration Organic Tastes Odors,
    Particulates
  • Special Ion Exchange Process Color (Tannins,
    etc.)

15
Health Concern - Processes
  • Arsenic (POE)
  • Oxidation with Chlorine followed by Anion
    Exchange
  • Oxidation with chlorine followed by activated
    alumina (AA) or other media filtration
  • Special Media Filtration without oxidation
  • Arsenic (POU)
  • RO (with oxidation at POE), Specialty Media
    Filters

16
Health Concern Processes contd
  • Radon Aeration and/or POE Activated Carbon
    (GAC) Filtration
  • Radium - Cation Exchange Softening with Water
    Hardness Reduction Based Service
  • Barium Cation Exchange Softening with Water
    Hardness Reduction Based Service

17
Health Concern Processes contd
  • Microbiological Contamination
  • Super Chlorination with liquid bleach feeders,
    Contact Tank, and Dechlorination with Activated
    Carbon
  • Ozonation along with Contact Tank
  • Prefiltration followed by Ultraviolet Units
    equipped with UV Sensors

18
Health Concern Processes contd
  • Nitrate Anion exchange resin process ( Need to
    be aware of sulfates levels, or use special
    nitrate selective resin)
  • Organics of Agricultural or Industrial Origin
    POE Granular Carbon or Carbon Block Units (May
    need other pretreatment if levels are high)
  • Organics of Gasoline Origin Aeration and or
    Activated Carbon Filtration

19
POU and POE Water Treatment Products
20
Examples of POU and POE sediment filters- cord
wound, pleated, spun-bonded, wrapped/rolled
  • Sediment filter cartridges

21
Examples of typical POU and POE filter housings
  • Injection molded filter housings

22
Examples of other POU cartridges utilizing
activated carbon
  • Activated Carbon cartridges
  • Granular and impregnated paper

23
What are carbon blocks?
  • Carbon blocks utilized for drinking water
    treatment are porous, solid tubular shaped
    structures made from powdered or fine granular
    activated carbon.

24
How are they made?
  • Carbon block filters are typically formed from a
    mix of powdered or fine granular activated carbon
    and a polyolefin binder. The mix is heated and
    compressed in a mold or extruded in the desired
    tubular shape, size and length. The raw block
    is then usually trimmed, covered with an outer
    wrap and netting and end-capped to form the
    finished filter cartridge.

25
How do they work?
  • Carbon block filters function both as fine
    particulate filters and fixed-bed adsorbers. They
    take advantage of the greater surface area of the
    fine mesh or powdered carbon to provide superior
    adsorptivity without the high pressure drop
    usually encountered from the fine carbon in a bed
    by itself. Fine filtration can be achieved
    nominally down to about 0.5-1 micron. Other
    adsorptive media can be added to provide
    additional contaminant removal, e.g., lead,
    mercury, arsenic, etc. Certain biocidal agents
    can be added to provide anti-microbial properties.

26
Some contaminant reduction claims for activated
carbon block filters
  • Organic chemicals (VOCs, pesticides, SOCs)
  • Metals (lead, mercury, arsenic)
  • Taste and odor from chlorine, chloramine or other
    organic odor-producing compounds
  • Microorganisms primarily cysts (Cryptosporidium
    and Giardia), some manufacturers claim bacteria
    reduction (E. coli)
  • Only certain claims listed can be ANSI-certified
    through testing at an ANSI certified testing
    laboratory or agency.

27
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28
Examples of some typical activated carbon block
filter products
  • Activated Carbon block cartridges

29
UV Process
  • Becoming ever more Popular
  • Better Appreciation of the Process
  • Revised ANSI/NSF Standard 55
  • Within the last year more than 23 UV units made
    by 7 different companies have been tested and
    certified. All these have built in UV sensors as
    required

30
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31
Examples of filter systems UV, faucet attached,
whole house, under sink, refrigerator/icemaker,
reverse osmosis filters
32
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33
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34
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35
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36
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37
POU Reverse Osmosis Systems and Filters
38
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39
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40
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41
POE Water Softeners
42
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43
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44
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45
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47
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48
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49
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50
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51
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53
POE Water Filters
54
Automatic Feed Single Effect Distillers
55
Tested and Certified Products POU Products
Certified for Health-Contaminant Reductions
56
Actual Life Test Chloroform surrogate VOC
reduction for 500 gallons allowed claim
57
Arsenic-2001
  • USEPA MCL 10 ppb
  • 5 (3400) of ground water public water systems
    affected
  • 67 less than 500 people, less than 200
    households
  • Costs for central treatment up to 200 per
    family per month

58
2002-04 Demonstration Projects
  • AwwaRF 2730 Point-of-Use/Point-of-Entry
    Implementation Feasibility Study for Arsenic
    Treatment
  • AwwaRF 2671 Comparison of Conventional and
    Unconventional Approaches for the Provision of
    Water
  • USEPA Feasibility of an Economically
    Sustainable Point-of-Use/Point-of-Entry
    Decentralized Public Water System
  • Royal Melbourne, Illinois Compliance Strategy for
    Radium Removal

59
POU Units in AwwaRF Study
  • Activated Carbon Units certified for the
    reduction of MTBE, lead, cysts, and fifty organic
    chemicals all units incorporate an approaching
    end-of-life warning and shutoff mechanism
  • RO Units certified for all of the above and 12
    inorganics including arsenic V, radium, and
    nitrates
  • UV-Activated Carbon Units certified for all
    that the carbon units above are and also for more
    than 2 log reduction of bacterial organisms. Also
    tested for purifier status by the University of
    Arizona.
  • Specialty iron based media in POU cartridges for
    arsenic III and V.

60
AwwaRF 2730 Point-of-Use/Point-of-Entry
Implementation Feasibility Study for Arsenic
Treatment
  • One year in-home testing, 20 homes per site at
    Unity, Maine Stagecoach, NV Tucson, AZ and
    Phoenix, AZ
  • POU reverse osmosis systems
  • POU adsorbent cartridges
  • Granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), Activated
    Alumina (AA), Fe-AA, Mn-AA, Sorb 33, AD33
  • Narasimhan Consulting Services, Inc.

61
Comparison of Arsenic Treatment Costs
Source Narasimhan Consulting Services, Inc.
62
USEPA - Feasibility of an Economically
Sustainable Point-of-Use/Point-of-Entry
Decentralized Public Water System
  • Grimes, California 125 connections, 400 people,
    arsenic at 18ppb
  • POU activated alumina-iron based adsorbent units
  • Installed at the kitchen sink in every home and
    the drinking water outlets in the school and all
    commercial establishments (July and August, 2002)
  • Develop an operational cookbook for POU
    compliance by a small community
  • NSF International

63
AwwaRF 2671 Comparison of Conventional and
Unconventional Approaches for the Provision of
Water
  • Unconventional approaches public water
    suppliers may need to consider in the 21st
    century for compliance or supplementary treatment
  • Los Angeles and Contra Costa Water Districts in
    California
  • POU RO, POU activated carbon, POU UV-activated
    carbon, POU arsenic media, and faucet attached
    activated carbon filters
  • Installed in homes for 12 months
  • Bottled water, neighborhood systems, dual
    distribution, and water reuse also being
    evaluated
  • Stratus Consulting Inc.

64
Royal Melbourne, Illinois Home Water Softeners
for Radium MCL Compliance
  • 124 homes and a golf course
  • Identical ANSI/NSF standard 44 certified water
    softener in every home for 42 per month vs.
    726,000 plus 30,000 per year for central
    treatment
  • Enforceable subdivision Declaration of Covenants,
    Conditions and Restrictions provides servitude to
    the home owners association over all residential
    properties for the purpose of water delivery
    responsibilities
  • The association or its authorized contractor will
    own all residential water softeners
  • Installation to take 16 weeks (compared to 13
    months for central treatment)
  • Approved by Illinois EPA and USEPA in November
    2002

65
Point-of-Use (POU) Cartridge Configuration with
Granular Ferric Hydroxide (GFH) Adsorption Media
  • Bed Dimensions
  • - Length
  • - Diameter
  • Bed Volume
  • Flow Rate
  • EBCT (empty bed contact time)
  • 7 inches (18 cm)
  • 2.1 inches (5.3 cm)
  • 24 cubic inches (400 ml)
  • 0.6 gallons per minute (2.3 L/min)
  • 10.6 seconds

66
POU Cartridge Arsenic V Reduction at pH 8.5
Courtesy of Gary L. Hatch, Ph.D., Plymouth
Products and U.S. Filter Corporation
67
POU Cartridge Arsenic V Reduction at pH 6.5
Courtesy of Gary L. Hatch, Ph.D., Plymouth
Products and U. S. Filter Corporation
68
POU Cartridge Arsenic III Reduction at pH 8.5
Total Arsenic Concentration vs. Gallons of
Water GFH, EBCT 10.6 sec., 6-8 mg/L DO,
50/50 cycle _at_ 0.6 gpm
Courtesy of Gary L. Hatch, Ph.D., Plymouth
Products and U. S. Filter Corporation
69
POU Cartridge Arsenic III Reduction _at_ pH 6.5
Total Arsenic Concentration vs. Gallons of
Water GFH, EBCT 10.6 sec., no Fe2 or Mn2,
6-8 mg/L DO, 50/50 cycle _at_ 0.6 gpm
Courtesy of Gary l. Hatch, Ph.D., Plymouth
Products and U. S. Filter Corporation
70
Questions?
  • Joseph F. Harrison, P.E., CWS-VI
  • Technical Director
  • Water Quality Association
  • 4141 Naperville Road
  • Lisle, Illinois 60532
  • 630-505-0160
  • jharrison_at_mail.wqa.org

71
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73
Safe Drinking Water Act-1996 Section
1412(b)(4)(E)(ii)
  • Feasible technologies for small systems
  • Point-of-use and point-of-entry treatment units
  • All units must be owned, controlled, and
    maintained by the public water system or by a
    person under contract with the system
  • POU cannot be used for microbial contaminants and
    should not be used for radon or VOCs
  • Devices must be equipped with mechanical warnings
    to automatically notify customers of operational
    problems
  • Devices must be certified according to ANSI/NSF
    standards if such certification is available

74
USEPA Guidances
  • Centrally Managed Point-of-Use Compliance
    Strategy Analysis of Implementation Issues
  • (March 2002)
  • Guidance for Implementing a Point-of-Use or
    Point-of-Entry Treatment Strategy for Compliance
    with the Safe Drinking Water Act
  • (March 2002)

75
USEPA Compliance Strategy Guidance
  • Provide public health benefits required by SDWA
  • Certified units
  • Chronic contaminants only
  • All units must be controlled by the public water
    system

76
USEPA Compliance Strategy Contd
  • Provide public health benefits required by SDWA
  • Maintenance program
  • 6 months to one year
  • Rapid field test
  • WQA Certified Water Specialist

77
USEPA Compliance Strategy Contd
  • Provide public health benefits required by SDWA
  • Maintenance program
  • Monitoring
  • Percentage of homes annually
  • Statistically representative of the full
    community
  • One-ninth of units each year

78
USEPA Compliance Strategy Contd
  • Provide public health benefits required by SDWA
  • Maintenance program
  • Monitoring
  • Public outreach and participation
  • 100 participation
  • Cooperation for access
  • Consumers must all use the treated water

79
USEPA Implementation Strategy Guidance
  • Monitoring Practices
  • Continue to conduct all previously required
    sampling at wellhead or central point of
    distribution
  • Sample each POU or POE device at least one time
    in first year
  • Sample finished water from one-quarter of all
    households in each subsequent year
  • Performance data may be augmented through the use
    of commercially available field testing kits

80
USEPA Implementation Strategy Guidance Contd
  • Monitoring practices
  • Pilot testing
  • Run pilot tests prior to the selection and
    installation of POU or POE treatment devices

81
USEPA Implementation Strategy Guidance Contd
  • Monitoring Practices
  • Pilot testing
  • Case Studies
  • 42 different community experiences with centrally
    managed POU and POE treatment listed, e.g.
  • San Yisidro, NM arsenic and fluoride
  • Fallon Naval Air Station, NV arsenic
  • Kings Point, VA fluoride
  • Hudson, WI TCE, TCA, PCE, DCE
  • Suffolk County, NY - aldicarb

82
USEPA Implementation Strategy Guidance Contd
  • Monitoring Practices
  • Pilot testing
  • Case Studies
  • Tools for public education
  • Direct personal interaction
  • Print media
  • Notices
  • Brochures
  • Posters
  • Public service announcement
  • Radio and television

83
USEPA Implementation Strategy Guidance Contd
  • Monitoring Practices
  • Pilot testing
  • Case Studies
  • Tools for public education
  • Model ordinance language
  • Legal servitude over all private properties for
    the purpose of regulating, controlling, and
    maintaining the water delivery and treatment
    infrastructure
  • Access for installation, maintenance, and repairs
    or replacement
  • Suspension of utility service

84
Advantages of POU for Compliance
  • Lower Cost in Small Systems
  • Independently Tested Certified Products
  • Shifting of Capital Cost Burden to the Mfr/Dealer
  • Speed of Implementation
  • Availability of Trained and Certified Personnel
    for Installation and OM

85
Lower Cost
  • Less than 1 of household water is used for
    ingestion
  • POU can treat drinking and cooking water to a
    premium quality and does not need to treat
    washing, flushing, irrigation, fire fighting and
    industrial water supplies
  • POU treated water is often as close to the MCLG
    as can be analytically measured
  • POU is generally 15 to 30 per month, central
    treatment for less than 300 people can be 50 to
    230 per month per household
  • Heartland Mobile Park, Utah would have to
    raise water rates 230.37 per month per family
    for central treatment for arsenic.

86
No Up-Front Capital Costs
  • Equipment rental and service agreements from POU
    and POE companies.
  • Typically (for turn-key operation)
  • 15 to 30 per month for POU
  • 20 to 45 per month for POE

87
Speed of Implementation
  • Months to install POU or POE
  • Years to finance, design and construct central
    treatment

88
Trained Personnel
  • 2000 POU and POE certified personnel
  • WQA Certified Water Specialists
  • WQA Certified Contractual Operators for Small
    Water Systems

89
Aqueous Chemistry of Arsenic
  • Found primarily in the inorganic form
  • Two different oxidation states
  • arsenate (As5 or AS V)
  • arsenite (As3 or As III)
  • As V exists as negatively charged ions (HAsO42-
    H2AsO41-) in the normal pH range of drinking
    water
  • As III is a neutral species (H3AsO3) below pH
    9.2
  • )

90
Arsenic Chemistry
  • As III H3AsO30, H2AsO3-1, HAsO3-2
  • As V H3AsO40, HAsO4-1, AsO4-2

91
ANSI/NSF Standard Arsenic Test Water - background
parameters
  • Magnesium (Mg)
  • Sulfate (SO42-)
  • Nitrate (NO3-) as nitrogen (N)
  • Fluoride (F-)
  • Silicates(SiO2)
  • Phosphates (PO4) as phosphorous (P)
  • Calcium (Ca2)
  • pH
  • 12 milligrams per liter (mg/L)
  • 50 mg/L
  • 2 mg/L
  • 1 mg/L
  • 20 mg/L
  • 0.04 mg/L
  • 40 mg/L
  • 6.5 and 8.5

92
ANSI/NSF Standard Arsenic Test - feed conditions
  • Claim for arsenic V
  • AsO43-
  • Claim for arsenic III AsO33-
  • 50 or 300 parts per billion (ppb) As V
  • 0.5 mg/L free chlorine
  • pH 6.5 and 8.5
  • 50 or 300 ppb As III
  • _at_pH 6.5
  • 0.3 mg/L Fe2
  • 0.05 mg/L Mn2
  • _at_pH 8.5
  • no Fe2 and no Mn2

93
Adsorptive Media for removal of arsenic from
drinking water
  • Base Material
  • Activated Alumina AA, Modified AA
  • Iron Oxide, Hydroxide, Iron Coated
  • Other Lanthanum Oxide, Zeolites, and others

94
Arsenic Removal Adsorptive Media Listed in
NSF/ANSI 61
95
Arsenic Adsorption Processes
  • Process Removal
  • Activated Alumina 90
  • Iron Media 90

96
Adsorption Media Kinetics for Arsenic
97
Arsenic Adsorptive Media water quality factors
that impact arsenic removal capacity
  • pH of source water
  • Competitive ligands such as SiO2, PO4, etc.
  • Concentration of As and other ligands

98
Activated Alumina Selectivity pH 5.5 8.5 From
Clifford. AWWA, WQT 5th ed
  • OH-1 H2AsO4-1 Si(OH)3O-1 F-1 HSeO3-1
    HCO3-1 Cl-1 NO3-1
  • Iron based media and other materials (?)
  • (silica and phosphate)

99
Arsenic Adsorption Capacity
100
Adsorption Media Cost
101
POU/POE Technologies Available For Compliance
Requirements
102
Contaminants
  • Inorganics
  • Synthetic Organic Chemicals
  • Radium Other Radionuclides
  • Microbials (POE Only)
  • Volatile Organic Chemicals (POE Only)

103
INORGANICS INCULDED IN ANSI/NSF STANDARDS
  • Arsenic, Asbestos, Barium, Cadmium, Copper,
    Fluoride, Chromium (Hexavalent Trivalent),
    Lead, Mercury, Nitrite Nitrate, Radium 226/228,
    and Selenium

104
POU/POE Technologies for Inorganics
  • Water Softener Barium Radium in addition to
    Water Hardness
  • Media Filters Arsenic, Asbestos, Lead,
    Mercury
  • RO All Inorganics
  • Distillers All Inorganics Except for Asbestos,
    Radium, Nitrites and Nitrates (Not covered
    presently in Std 62)

Plumbed in Separate Tap
105
SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS
106
Synthetic Organics Reductions Included in
Standard 53
  • Chloroform reduction has been substantiated as a
    surrogate for these synthetic organics
  • Alachlor, Atrazine, Carbofuron, 2,4-D,
    Dibromochloropropane, Dinoseb, Endrin, Ethylene
    Dibromide, Heptachlor, Heptachlor Epoxide,
    Hexachlorocyclopentadiene, Lindane, Methoxychlor,
    Pentachlorophenol, Simazine, 2,4,5-TP (Silvex)
    plus 34 other volatile organic chemicals (VOCs)
  • The following can be tested by themselves
    separately Chlordane, PCBs, Toxaphene

107
Surrogate Testing With Chloroform
  • 300 ppb chloroform in the influent water to be
    reduced to below 15 ppb in the effluent water
    during the entire test.
  • A unit with an end of life indicator is tested to
    remove contaminants for 120 of its claimed life.
  • A unit without an end of life indicator is tested
    to remove contaminants for 200 of its claimed
    life.
  • An example of an actual test of a unit with a
    claimed life of 500 gal with a shut off device is
    shown here next

108
Actual Life Test Chloroform surrogate VOC
reduction for 500 gallons allowed claim
109
Tested and Certified Products Products Certified
by NSF Intl and WQA for Organics
  • For VOC Reduction Claim
  • 25 companies and 115 products
  • For Chlordane, PCBs, Toxaphene Reduction
    Claims
  • 7 companies and 45 products

110
RADIONUCLIDES
111
Radium Reduction By Ion Exchange
  • Relative affinity of ions for cation
    exchange resins
  • Radium 13.0
  • Barium 5.8
  • Calcium 1.9
  • Magnesium 1.67
  • Sodium 1.0

112
Radium Barium Reduction
  • 282 products made by 15 companies have been
    certified for radium and barium reductions by the
    Water Quality Association or by NSF Intl
  • A steady state of operation is achieved for
    radium sorption when a softener is operated in
    normal fashion
  • Radium never breaks through before hardness in
    all of the experiments conducted by Dennis
    Clifford and his coworkers. This has also been
    substantiated by Vern Snoeyinks work at the
    University of Illinois

113
POU Products For Radionuclides Reduction
  • POU RO POU ion exchange (IE) recognized by EPA
    as Available Compliance Technologies for small
    systems for the reduction of radium and all the
    other radionuclides
  • Many POU RO systems have been certified for
    radium reduction -147 products by 33 companies
  • No known POU IE products currently in the market.
    No POU protocol in Std 53 or Std 44
  • No protocol for other radionuclides in any of the
    standards at this time

114
MICROBIALOGICAL CONTAMINANTS
115
Microbiological Purification
  • New comprehensive ANSI/NSF standard for
    microbiology in development
  • Cyst reduction covered in Standard 53
  • Std 55 Std 62 cover specific aspects of
    microbial issues
  • Std 55 recently updated using MS2 as a surrogate
    for validation of UV Units
  • Std 62 uses Bacillus subtilis as a surrogate to
    validate the capability of a distiller

116
USEPA Guide Standard Protocol
  • Drafted in 1987. Covers halogenated resin, UV,
    and ceramic filters. Has become the reference
    guide in this area
  • Uses Klebsiella terigena, a mixture of polio
    rota-viruses, and giardia and Cryptosporidium
    cysts as test organisms
  • Requires reduction of 6 logs of bacteria, 4 logs
    of viruses, and 3 logs of cysts under a set of
    water quality conditions and operating sequence
    of cycles and sampling

117
Standard 55 UV Units
  • Uses MS2 Bacteriophage and verifies the UV dose
    at the set point to be no less than 40 mJ/sqcm
    for Class A performance. Requires the use of UV
    sensors for sounding an alarm when not effective
  • This dose level has been universally accepted as
    capable of yielding more than 4 log inactivation
    of viruses, 6 log reduction of bacteria, and 3
    log reduction of cryptosporidium giardia
  • Units certified for Class B (16 mJ/sq cm) are to
    be offered only for aesthetic improvement

118
Certified Ultraviolet Light (UV) Units
  • Only 5 POE products made by 3 companies have been
    listed as of now.
  • No POU products carry such certification
  • Certified POE products have been verified to be
    operable at flow rates ranging from 8 to 18 gpm,
    appropriate for single home point of entry
    applications

119
Purifier Protocol Testing
  • Outside the standard related activity, NSF and
    many Universities such as U of AZ and U of S FL
    offer performance tests using the EPA Guide
    Protocol as the general basis
  • Following are shown the actual data from tests
    done by U of AZ on a Distiller product a UV
    product

120
Purifier Test Data- UV UNIT University of Arizona
to the USEPA Guide Standard and Protocol
  • BACTERIA
  • E.coli, S.typhimurium, S.dysentariae,
    V.cholerae, K.teregena
  • VIRUSES
  • Polio simian rota-
  • CRYPTO GIARDIA
  • 99.9999
  • 99.999
  • 99.9

121
Purifier Test Data- Distiller University of
Arizona to the USEPA Guide Standard and Protocol
  • Bacteria
  • E.coli, S.typhimurium, S.dysentariae,
    C.jejuni, Y.enterocolitica, V.cholera,
    M.fortutium, K.teregena
  • Viruses
  • HAV, Adeno type2, Polio, Simian rota
  • Cryptosporidium
  • 99.9999
  • 99.9999
  • 99.99
  • 99.9

122
POU/POE REGULATORY ISSUES
123
POU Related Issues Faced by State Regulators
  • Requiring 100 household participation
  • Ownership, access, and control issues
  • Implementation requirements (canister
    replacement, monitoring, etc.)
  • Public education acceptance issues

124
Regulatory Implementation Issues
  • 100 enrollment if recalcitrant households
  • Can 1or few hold entire community hostage?
  • What if some already have good or better POU
    systems in place?
  • What if a household drops out after program in
    place?
  • Denying water service Raises other concerns?
  • Monitoring requirements and interpretation
  • Not same as central treatment system regime
  • Use of Surrogates?
  • If above MCL, replace canister and recheck

125
Regulatory Implementation Issues (cont.)
  • Maintenance Canister replacement frequency
  • Designed, tested, certified for 1500 gallons
  • Auto shut-off at 500 gallons (1 to 2 years of
    use)
  • US EPA Guidance calls for replacing every 6
    months to one year (1 L/day ? 3 people ? 183
    days 148 gallons)
  • Single faucet versus whole house treatment
  • Waste disposal issues (canisters and reject
    water)

126
Regulators Need to Find a Suitable Balance
  • If safety margins too precautionary, POU loses
    cost effectiveness (e.g., canister replacement)
  • Chronic versus acute risk needs to be considered
    (e.g., for monitoring regime)
  • If POU discouraged, the alternative may be
  • Very high compliance costs for households, or
  • Prolonged noncompliance for some small systems
    (i.e., no additional public health protection)

127
Responses from Regulators at ASDWA
  • Guidance vs. regulation
  • Full coverage mandated
  • Compliance monitoring vs. surrogate analysis
  • Treated water from only one faucet
  • HPC issues
  • General hesitation and concern
  • Proposal by Georgia to ban the use of POU for
    compliance

128
Advantages of POU for Compliance
  • Lower Cost in Small Systems
  • Independently Tested Certified Products
  • Speed of Implementation
  • Shifting of Capital Cost Burden to Mfr/Dealer
  • Availability of Trained and Certified Personnel
    for Installation and OM

129
Conclusions
  • Growing interest in and role for POU other
    unconventional approaches
  • USEPA and state regulators are determining what
    is acceptable for compliance
  • Cost advantages can enable greater compliance and
    better public health protection (especially at
    small CWS)
  • Administrative feasibility, burdens, and costs
  • Implications for states beyond MCL compliance

130
Tested and Certified Products by WQA and NSF Intl
131
ANSI/NSF Standards
  • Std 44 Water Softeners
  • Std 53 Filters - Health Effects
  • Std 55 UV Systems
  • Std 58 RO Systems
  • Std 62 Distillers

132
Volatile Organics
  • EPAs limitation is to use only POE for VOC
    Reduction due to concerns about dermal and
    inhalation related concerns
  • There are no POE unit tested and certified for
    VOC Reduction by any of the testing and
    certification organizations at this time

133
POU Distillers
134
ANSI/NSF Standard 62
  • Chemical Reductions certified by TDS Surrogate
  • Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Lead,
    Nitrite and Selenium covered by TDS
  • Fluoride and mercury not included and must be
    tested separately to make the reduction claim

135
Automatic Feed Single Effect
  • Most POU distillers fall into the category of
    automatic feed single effect
  • Can vary greatly in size, design and controls
  • Produce about one gallon of distilled water per 3
    kilowatt-hours of electricity
  • Can be water or air cooled

136
Automatic Feed Single Effect Distillers
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